IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations

An IBM Redbook Publication
IBM Redbook Form Number: SG24-7547-01
ISBN: 073843812X
ISBN: 9780738438122
Publication Date: 07-Jun-2013
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Fay Chuck - Author [+1] [-1]
Wei-Dong Zhu - Author

Abstract

IBM® FileNet® Content Manager Version 5.2 provides full content lifecycle and extensive document management capabilities for digital content. IBM FileNet Content Manager is tightly integrated with the family of IBM FileNet products based on the IBM FileNet P8 technical platform. IBM FileNet Content Manager serves as the core content management, security management, and storage management engine for the products.

This IBM Redbooks® publication covers the implementation best practices and recommendations for solutions that use IBM FileNet Content Manager. It introduces the functions and features of IBM FileNet Content Manager, common use cases of the product, and a design methodology that provides implementation guidance from requirements analysis through production use of the solution. We address administrative topics of an IBM FileNet Content Manager solution, including deployment, system administration and maintenance, and troubleshooting.

Implementation topics include system architecture design with various options for scaling an IBM FileNet Content Manager system, capacity planning, and design of repository design logical structure, security practices, and application design. An important implementation topic is business continuity. We define business continuity, high availability, and disaster recovery concepts and describe options for those when implementing IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions.

Many solutions are essentially a combination of information input (ingestion), storage, information processing, and presentation and delivery. We discuss some solution building blocks that designers can combine to build an IBM FileNet Content Manager solution.

This book is intended to be used in conjunction with product manuals and online help to provide guidance to architects and designers about implementing IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions.

Many of the features and practices described in the book also apply to previous versions of IBM FileNet Content Manager.

Language

English

Table of Content

Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM FileNet Content Manager
Chapter 2. Solution examples and design methodology
Chapter 3. System architecture
Chapter 4. Repository design
Chapter 5. Security
Chapter 6. Application design
Chapter 7. Business continuity
Chapter 8. Capacity planning with IBM Content Capacity Planner
Chapter 9. Deployment
Chapter 10. System administration and maintenance
Chapter 11. Upgrade and migration
Chapter 12. Troubleshooting
Chapter 13. IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions
ibm.com/redbooks
IBM FileNet Content Manager
Implementation Best Practices
and Recommendations
Wei-Dong Zhu
Bert Bukvarevic
Bill Carpenter
Axel Dreher
Chuck Fay
Ruth Hildebrand-Lund
Elizabeth Koumpan
Sridhar Satuloori
Michael Seaman
Dimitris Tzouvelis
System architecture, business
continuity, and capacity planning
Repository, security, application
design, and solution building
Deployment, system
administration, and
maintenance
Front cover


IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best
Practices and Recommendations
June 2013
International Technical Support Organization
SG24-7547-01

© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP
Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
Second Edition (June 2013)
This edition applies to Version 5, Release 2 IBM FileNet Content Manager (product number
5724-R81).
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in
“Notices” on page xiii.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
iii
Contents
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Authors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi
Now you can become a published author, too! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xix
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xix
Stay connected to IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xix
Summary of changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxi
June 2013, Second Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxi
Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM FileNet Content Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Industry challenges and IBM solutions benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 Industry challenges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.2 Information lifecycle governance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.3 Benefits of IBM ECM solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2 IBM FileNet P8 Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.1 Platform components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.2 Enterprise capabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3 IBM FileNet Content Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.1 Basic capabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3.2 Enterprise foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4 IBM FileNet P8 and related products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.4.1 Content products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.4.2 Ingestion products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4.3 Process products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4.4 Compliance products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4.5 Collaboration products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.5 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Chapter 2. Solution examples and design methodology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1 P8 Content Manager sample solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.1.1 Policy document creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.1.2 Processing insurance claims. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1.3 Archiving SAP invoices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.1.4 Email capture for compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.1.5 Knowledge management through collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

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2.2 Design methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.2.1 Defining ECM strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.2.2 Requirements analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2.3 Functional design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.2.4 System architecture design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.2.5 Repository design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.2.6 Security model design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.2.7 Application design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.2.8 Test planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.2.9 Deployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.2.10 Maintenance planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.3 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Chapter 3. System architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.1 Basic components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.1.1 Additional components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.1.2 Data organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.1.3 Object stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.1.4 Storage considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.1.5 Workflow systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.1.6 Management tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.1.7 Bulk Import Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.1.8 Hardware layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.1.9 Setting up a sandbox or demo environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.1.10 Using Information Center and other product documentation . . . . . 50
3.2 Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.2.1 Horizontal scalability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.2.2 Vertical scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.2.3 Clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.2.4 P8 domain and object store scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.2.5 Scaling Content Search Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.3 Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.3.1 A virtualized IBM FileNet Content Manager system . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.4 Shared infrastructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
3.4.1 Communication between the engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
3.4.2 Data segregation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.4.3 Levels of data segregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.4.4 Degree of sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.4.5 Cloud deployments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.5 Geographically distributed systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.5.1 Site, virtual server, and server configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.5.2 Distributed content caching model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.5.3 Request forwarding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Contents
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3.5.4 Distributed workflow systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.5.5 Use cases for distributed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.6 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Chapter 4. Repository design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.1 Repository design goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.2 Object-oriented design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.2.1 Design approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.2.2 Design processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4.3 Repository naming standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.3.1 Display name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.3.2 Symbolic name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.3.3 Uniqueness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
4.3.4 Taxonomy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
4.3.5 Consistency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.3.6 Object stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.3.7 Storage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.3.8 Document, custom object, and folder classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.3.9 Property templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.3.10 Choice lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
4.4 Populating a repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
4.4.1 Generic object system properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
4.4.2 Creating design elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.5 Repository organizational objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.6 Global configuration database (GCD). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.7 Repository design objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
4.7.1 Object stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
4.7.2 Storage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.7.3 Document classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.7.4 Folder classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
4.7.5 Custom object classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
4.7.6 Custom root classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4.7.7 Property templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
4.7.8 Choice lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4.7.9 Annotations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
4.7.10 Document lifecycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
4.7.11 Events and subscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
4.7.12 Marking sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
4.8 Repository content objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.8.1 Folder objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.8.2 Other objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.9 Storage media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.9.1 Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

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4.9.2 Database stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.9.3 File stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.9.4 About storage policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.9.5 Using fixed storage devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.10 Considerations for multiple object stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.11 Retention management and automatic disposal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.11.1 Retention management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.11.2 Automatic disposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.11.3 Retention update. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.12 P8 Content Manager searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.12.1 User-invoked searches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.12.2 Content-based search. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.12.3 Searches for repository maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
4.12.4 CBR query optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
4.13 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Chapter 5. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
5.1 Access control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
5.2 Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
5.2.1 Use of JAAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
5.2.2 Directory service users and groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
5.2.3 Security context. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
5.3 Authorization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
5.3.1 Access rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
5.3.2 Security descriptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.3.3 Default security descriptor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.3.4 Security templates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.3.5 Proxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
5.3.6 Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
5.3.7 The access check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
5.3.8 Auditing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
5.4 Security best practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
5.4.1 Physical security measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
5.4.2 Directory service configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
5.4.3 Defining the security approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
5.4.4 Planning for evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
5.4.5 Role-based access control using inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
5.4.6 Using markings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5.4.7 Effective use of auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
5.4.8 Cache management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

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Chapter 6. Application design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
6.1 IBM FileNet P8 applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
6.1.1 IBM Administration Console for Content Platform Engine . . . . . . . 192
6.1.2 IBM Content Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
6.2 Application technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
6.2.1 Traditional Java thick clients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
6.2.2 Java applets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
6.2.3 Java EE web applications and other components . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
6.2.4 .NET components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
6.3 Principles for application design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
6.3.1 Available P8 Content Manager APIs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
6.3.2 Transports available with the APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.3.3 Minimizing round-trips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.3.4 Parallel processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
6.3.5 Client-side transactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.3.6 Creating a custom AddOn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.3.7 Using the JDBC interface for reporting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
6.3.8 Exploiting the active content event model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.3.9 Logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
6.3.10 Creating a data model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Chapter 7. Business continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
7.1 Defining business continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
7.2 Defining high availability (HA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
7.3 Implementing a high availability solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
7.3.1 Load-balanced server farms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
7.3.2 Active-passive server clusters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
7.3.3 Geographically dispersed server clusters and server farms. . . . . . 230
7.3.4 Server cluster products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
7.3.5 Comparing and contrasting farms to clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
7.3.6 Inconsistent industry terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
7.3.7 Server virtualization and high availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
7.4 Defining disaster recovery (DR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
7.4.1 Disaster recovery concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
7.5 Implementing a disaster recovery solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
7.5.1 Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
7.5.2 Automated site failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
7.5.3 Disaster recovery approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

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7.6 Best practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
7.7 Reference documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Chapter 8. Capacity planning with IBM Content Capacity Planner . . . . 253
8.1 IBM Content Capacity Planner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
8.1.1 Example use cases for IBM Content Capacity Planner . . . . . . . . . 255
8.1.2 Capacity planning for new systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
8.1.3 IBM Content Capacity Planner output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
8.1.4 Predictions from a baseline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
8.1.5 Best practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
8.2 IBM FileNet Disksizing Tool spreadsheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
8.3 Performance-related reference documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
8.3.1 Standard product documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
8.3.2 Benchmark papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
8.4 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Chapter 9. Deployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
9.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
9.2 Deployment environments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
9.2.1 Single stage development environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
9.2.2 Multi-stage deployment environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
9.3 Deployment by using a formal methodology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
9.3.1 Release management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
9.3.2 Change management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
9.3.3 Configuration management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
9.3.4 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
9.4 Deployment approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
9.4.1 Cloning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
9.4.2 Custom-scripted export, transform, and import. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
9.4.3 Scripted generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
9.5 Deployment based on cloning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
9.5.1 Cloning an object store. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
9.5.2 Topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
9.5.3 Access to the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
9.5.4 Post-cloning activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
9.5.5 Backup changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
9.6 Deployment by export, transform, and import. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
9.6.1 Incremental deployment compared to full deployment . . . . . . . . . . 299
9.6.2 Reducing the complexity of inter-object relationships. . . . . . . . . . . 301
9.6.3 Deployment automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
9.7 FileNet Content Manager deployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
9.7.1 FileNet Content Manager export. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
9.7.2 CE-objects transformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

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9.7.3 Content Platform Engine import best practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
9.7.4 IBM FileNet Deployment Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
9.7.5 Exporting and importing other components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
9.8 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Chapter 10. System administration and maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
10.1 IBM FileNet Content Manager administrative roles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
10.2 Online help and existing documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
10.2.1 Tips for working with the information center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
10.2.2 Other useful documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
10.3 Monitoring the environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
10.4 Capacity monitoring and growth prediction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
10.4.1 IBM System Dashboard for ECM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
10.4.2 Dashboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
10.4.3 IBM ECM System Monitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
10.5 Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
10.6 Auditing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
10.7 Managing the logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
10.7.1 Log location. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
10.7.2 Log file size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
10.7.3 Trace logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
10.7.4 Audit logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
10.8 System administration tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
10.8.1 Configuration Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
10.8.2 IBM Administration Console for Content Platform Engine . . . . . . 341
10.8.3 Consistency checker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
10.8.4 Database tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
10.8.5 Application server administration tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
10.8.6 Workflow system tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
10.8.7 IBM Content Navigator tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
10.9 Reducing storage costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
10.9.1 Retention rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
10.9.2 Using the sweep framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
10.9.3 Monitoring storage and cache usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
10.10 Using virus scan software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
10.11 Applying fixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
10.11.1 Tracking fixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
10.11.2 Checking compatibility and build numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
10.11.3 Reporting issues and downloading fixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
10.12 Updating security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
10.13 Backup and restore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
10.13.1 System components requiring backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
10.13.2 Offline backup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

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10.13.3 Online backup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
10.13.4 System restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
10.13.5 Application consistency check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
10.14 Task schedule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
10.15 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Chapter 11. Upgrade and migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
11.1 Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
11.1.1 Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
11.1.2 Package naming conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
11.1.3 Installation rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
11.1.4 Update types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
11.2 Planning for updates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
11.2.1 Getting started. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
11.2.2 Practicing the update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
11.2.3 Documenting the process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
11.3 Upgrading to a new software release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
11.3.1 Staging the upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
11.3.2 Big-bang upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
11.4 Migration best practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
11.5 Special considerations for upgrade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
11.5.1 Reference information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
11.6 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Chapter 12. Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
12.1 A typical P8 Content Manager system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
12.2 Different types of troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
12.3 Creating customized best practice guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
12.4 General troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
12.5 Troubleshooting the installation or upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
12.6 Troubleshooting during application development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
12.7 Troubleshooting functional issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
12.7.1 Review the logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
12.7.2 Review additional sources for information about issues. . . . . . . . 409
12.8 Troubleshooting production issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
12.9 Troubleshooting performance issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
12.9.1 Performance tuning guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
12.9.2 Gathering performance data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
12.9.3 Slow logon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
12.9.4 Slow searches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
12.9.5 Storage performance issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
12.9.6 Tuning sweep jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418

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12.10 Opening PMRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
12.10.1 The IBM software support portal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
12.10.2 Open a PMR by calling IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
12.10.3 Open a PMR via the web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
12.10.4 Necessary items when contacting IBM software support . . . . . . 420
12.10.5 IBM Support Assistant (ISA) Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
12.10.6 Type of fixes that might be provided. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
12.10.7 Rolling up fixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
12.11 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Chapter 13. IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
13.1 Solution building blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
13.1.1 Foundation components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
13.1.2 Content ingestion tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
13.1.3 Process management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
13.1.4 Presentation features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
13.2 Sample use cases using solution building blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
13.2.1 Policy document creation use case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
13.2.2 Insurance claim processing use case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
13.2.3 SAP invoice archiving use case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
13.2.4 Email capture for compliance use case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
13.2.5 Knowledge management through collaboration use case . . . . . . 459
13.3 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468

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xiii
Notices
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xiv
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
xv
Preface
IBM® FileNet® Content Manager Version 5.2 provides full content lifecycle and
extensive document management capabilities for digital content. IBM FileNet
Content Manager is tightly integrated with the family of IBM FileNet products
based on IBM FileNet P8 Platform. IBM FileNet Content Manager serves as the
core content management, security management, and storage management
engine for the products.
This IBM Redbooks® publication covers the implementation best practices and
recommendations for solutions that use IBM FileNet Content Manager. It
introduces the functions and features of IBM FileNet Content Manager, common
use cases of the product, and a design methodology that provides
implementation guidance from requirements analysis through production use of
the solution. We address administrative topics of an IBM FileNet Content
Manager solution, including deployment, system administration and
maintenance, and troubleshooting.
Implementation topics include system architecture design with various options for
scaling an IBM FileNet Content Manager system, capacity planning, and design
of repository design logical structure, security practices, and application design.
An important implementation topic is business continuity. We define business
continuity, high availability, and disaster recovery concepts and describe options
for those when implementing IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions.
Many solutions are essentially a combination of information input (ingestion),
storage, information processing, and presentation and delivery. We discuss
some solution building blocks that designers can combine to build an IBM FileNet
Content Manager solution.
This book is intended to be used in conjunction with product manuals and online
help to provide guidance to architects and designers about implementing IBM
FileNet Content Manager solutions.
Many of the features and practices described in the book also apply to previous
versions of IBM FileNet Content Manager.
Product name changes: New for Version 5.2, IBM FileNet Business Process
Manager has been renamed to IBM Case Foundation.

xvi
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Authors
This book was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working
at the IBM Software Development Lab in Costa Mesa, California.
Wei-Dong Zhu (Jackie) is an Enterprise Content Management (ECM) Project
Leader with IBM in Los Angeles, California. She has more than 10 years of
software development experience in accounting, image workflow processing, and
digital media distribution. Jackie holds a Masters of Science degree in Computer
Science from the University of the Southern California. Jackie joined IBM in
1996. She is a Certified Solution Designer for IBM Content Manager and has
managed and led the production of many Enterprise Content Management IBM
Redbooks publications.
Bert Bukvarevic is an IT Specialist for ECM with IBM in Germany. He has 10
years of experience in the ECM Platform. He has worked at IBM for six years. His
area of expertise is a T-shape skill, which means that the IBM FileNet P8 Content
Platform is required to collaborate across different technologies. He has written
extensively about deployment, upgrades, and migration.
Bill Carpenter is an ECM Architect with IBM in the Seattle area. Bill has had
experience in ECM since 1998 as a developer, development manager, and as an
architect. He is the author of the book Getting Started with IBM FileNet P8
Content Manager. He is also co-author of the first edition of this book and
Developing Applications with IBM FileNet P8 APIs, a contributing author for IBM
developerWorks®, and a frequent conference presenter. He has experience in
building large software systems at Fortune 50 companies and has also served as
the CTO of an Internet start-up. He has been a frequent mailing list and patch
contributor to several open source projects. Bill holds degrees in Mathematics
and Computer Science from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York.
Axel Dreher is a Managing Consultant working as an ECM Architect and Project
Leader with IBM in Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany. He has more than nine
years of experience in designing and implementing high-performance,
high-volume, and high-availability solutions around the IBM FileNet product suite
and has worked at IBM for five years. Axel studied media and computer science
and graduated in Computer Science with a Diplom-Informatiker degree from the
Fachhochschule Furtwangen, University of Applied Sciences in Germany. He is
an IBM Certified Specialist for IBM FileNet Content Manager and IBM Case
Foundation. Axel specializes in infrastructure implementation and
troubleshooting for IBM FileNet P8 solutions.

Preface
xvii
Chuck Fay is a Software Architect for Enterprise Content Management systems
with IBM in Costa Mesa, California. He has over thirty years of experience in the
software industry, as a developer, development manager, and software architect
at Xerox, FileNet, and now IBM since its acquisition of FileNet in 2006. He is a
co-inventor on four patents and developer of software standards issued by AIIM,
IETF, and OMG. Since 2000, he has advised FileNet and IBM clients, as well as
engineering, support, and sales representatives, about system deployment
architectures to ensure high availability and enable disaster recovery, for IBM
FileNet products. He holds an A.B. in Philosophy and an M.S. in Computer
Science, both from Stanford University.
Ruth Hildebrand-Lund is a Customer Engagement Specialist with IBM in the
US. She has 15 years of experience in the ECM field. She has worked at IBM for
six years. Her areas of expertise include planning for, deploying, testing, and
managing the FileNet P8 suite of products.
Elizabeth Koumpan is a Senior IT Application Architect with the Business
Analytics and Optimization practice of IBM Global Business Services® in
Canada. She specializes in business process and enterprise content
management systems and has a broad spectrum of functional and technical
skills. Elizabeth has led numerous technology assessment projects at insurance
companies and global banks as well as implemented and architected business
process management (BPM) solutions for their core business processes.
Elizabeth has over twenty years of experience in system design and architecture
and has been with IBM more than six years. She has being involved in the
development of the IBM ECM Methodology framework.
Sridhar Satuloori is a Content Platform Engine Developer with the IBM Software
Development Group in Costa Mesa, California. He has worked with the Content
Platform Engine development for the past eight years. He has worked on various
components of the Content Platform Engine, including content-based retrieval
(CBR) with the CSS server, security, and content federation services. Sridhar
also worked on the Authentication and Single Sign-On (SSO) feature for the IBM
Content Navigator. He leads the maintenance and support activities for the
Content Platform Engine, and is experienced in working with the Building
Enterprise Edition of Java EE application servers. Sridhar wrote several articles
about the CBR with the CSS server and Authentication and SSO features of the
IBM Content Navigator. Sridhar holds a Masters degree in Computer Science
from IIT Roorkee, India.

xviii
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Michael Seaman is a Software Architect with IBM in Cambridge, UK. He has
worked on ECM products for FileNet and IBM for seventeen years and, in that
period, has designed and implemented many of the core features of the P8
product. Prior to that, he had fifteen years of industry experience in the areas of
networking and distributed systems. Mike is a co-inventor of a dozen or so
software patents and holds a Masters degree in Mathematics from Cambridge
University.
Dimitris Tzouvelis is a Project Manager and also ECM Consultant with IBM
Global Services in Greece. He has 14 years of experience in the ECM field. He
has worked at IBM for six years. His areas of expertise include designing,
analyzing, implementing, and managing projects based on the IBM FileNet ECM
platform. He holds a degree in Physics from Athens University in Greece and a
Master in Business Administration from University of Piraeus in Greece.
We also thank the following people for their contribution during the Redbooks
publication production period:
Kenytt Avery
Roger Bacalzo
Kevin Bates
Quynh Dang
Patrick Doonan
Anita Jayaraman
David Keen
Bob Kreuch
Tim Lai
Vincent Le
Shari Perryman
Yvonne Santiago
John Spanoudakis
Shawn Waters
Mike Winter
IBM Software Group, US
Thorsten Poggensee
Marcus Mueller-Westerholt
IBM Global Business Service, Germany
Bruce Taylor
Tony Laino
IBM Software Group, Canada
Thanks to the authors of the first edition of this book:
Wei-Dong Zhu, Dan Adams, Dominik Baer, Bill Carpenter, Chuck Fay, Dan
McCoy, Thomas Schrenk, and Bruce Weaver

Preface
xix
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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
xxi
Summary of changes
This section describes the technical changes made in this edition of the book and
in previous editions. This edition might also include minor corrections and
editorial changes that are not identified.
Summary of Changes
for SG24-7547-01
for IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and
Recommendations
as created or updated on June 7, 2013.
June 2013, Second Edition
This is the second edition of the book. The first edition was published in 2008,
covering IBM FileNet Content Manager, Version 4.0.0. It was the first IBM
Redbooks publication specifically dealing with the IBM FileNet product family.
Since that time, there have been several IBM FileNet Content Manager product
releases introducing new features and capabilities, and entirely new products in
the IBM FileNet family. Also since that time, several additional IBM Redbooks
titles have been published on related topics. Thus, this Redbooks publication now
maintains the basic structure of the first edition, but it is both expanded in scope
(where there are new recommendations to be described) and reduced in size
(where other IBM Redbooks publications or product reference material already
covers the information in detail).
All chapters have been revised for this update.

xxii
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
1
Chapter 1.
Introduction to IBM FileNet
Content Manager
IBM FileNet Content Manager (P8 Content Manager) provides full content
lifecycle and extensive document management capabilities for digital content.
This chapter introduces P8 Content Manager and describes its features and
functionality to demonstrate how P8 Content Manager makes an excellent
foundation for enterprise content management solutions.
We discuss the following topics:
Industry challenges and IBM solutions benefits
IBM FileNet P8 Platform
IBM FileNet Content Manager
IBM FileNet P8 and related products
1

2
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
1.1 Industry challenges and IBM solutions benefits
Enterprise Content Management (ECM) uses technology to simplify and bring
consistency to entering, creating, storing, managing, retaining, and deleting
information.
ECM technology alone does not ensure that a company follows good document
management practices. To be successful, companies must develop good working
practices and embed them into the implementation of the ECM technology.
To facilitate this approach, the ECM technology must have the right flexibility and
toolset to implement and maintain these practices, and prevent turning your ECM
implementation for managing documents and content into a never-ending
development and support project. A successful ECM implementation follows
step-by-step processes or a building block approach for designing and
implementing the desired solution. Building a solid base allows the solution to be
expanded to meet additional business needs as they arise.
Figure 1-1 illustrates the types of building blocks that can be included in a fully
featured ECM solution. The IBM portfolio of ECM products and solutions
provides the building blocks to help organizations implement ECM successfully.
Figure 1-1 ECM implementation
1.1.1 Industry challenges
In the quest for increased efficiency and profitability, organizations strive to
incorporate more and more relevant information into their business processes in
order to make the right decision at the right time. Corporations want to enable
their employees to search, retrieve, and review information in context, to limit
• Capturing digitized content
• Electronic content search
and retrieval
• Simple Content lifecycle and
records management
Core Content Services
• Content-centric workflow
management
• Business process
management
• Enterprise process
automation
Business Process
• Content classification and
discovery
• Enterprise business
taxonomy
• Master Content
Management
• Content federation and
consolidation
• Single view for client
• Case management
• Content governance
framework
Integration and
Federation
• Synthesized business
information data marts
with unstructured content
• BI content analytics
• Unstructured content
semantic correlations
• Predictive analysis
• Enterprise process
optimization
Analytics and
Optimization
Basic Content
Capture
Sophisticated
Value of Content

Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM FileNet Content Manager
3
exception handling and manual processing, to reduce costs, and to improve
service. It is important to have all the information needed and make the right
decision that satisfies clients, partners, suppliers, and shareholders:
Oil and Gas
According to industry experts, the top business challenge facing the Energy
Industry today is regulatory compliance. To be compliant in this highly
regulated industry, an organization must ensure that all relevant documents
are available whenever and wherever required, vital information is archived,
and unstructured content, process workflows, and collaborative workflow
systems are managed, all within a central repository.
Refining organizations continue to investigate tools that allow for the revision
and markup of CAD drawings while integrating with their ECM repository. The
ability to search for drawings based on information contained in title blocks
and markups is instrumental to engineering operations.
Insurance
Saddled with IT infrastructures built years ago, health insurers also lack
centralized control capabilities and automated processes. Most processes are
inefficient, manual, and paper based, which drains profits at an alarming rate.
Health insurers must explore new technologies that empower customers with
immediate, real-time access to their policies and claim status via the web.
They need customer-centric business models that match their customer
needs. This is essential for acquiring new customers and for retaining existing
customers.
Finance
Many financial institutions handle their client requests by using paper-driven
processes. Replacing the paper with electronic forms and documents and
routing the tasks automatically to the user desktop provide more efficient
responses to customer needs.
The progression from immature, chaotic document management practices to a
mature, well-managed enterprise content management process starts with the
understanding of where you are and where you need to be. You need to decide
how far and how fast to move, because transitioning an established culture is
much harder than delivering technology.
One of the other challenges facing global companies is that there are no
common legal requirements and regulations. So, a company that is operating in
different countries has to fulfill different obligations. Therefore, gathering all legal
requirements is a fundamental step in implementing an ECM solution.

4
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
1.1.2 Information lifecycle governance
It used to be that when IT infrastructures were being put in place, the cost of
storage was considered inexpensive, so putting in place policies and tools for
removing content was a low priority. But with the volume of data being generated
today, the cost of storage is no longer trivial, and neither is the task of managing
all this content.
In addition to managing how much data is kept, it is also important to categorize
the content appropriately so that it can be retrieved easily and quickly.
Information governance is the discipline of managing information according to its
legal obligations and its business value to enable the defensible disposal of data,
as well as to meet the needs of clients who are using the client to perform their
daily tasks.
A formal Information Governance framework establishes chains of responsibility,
authority, and communication. It describes the roles of people involved in the
production cycle of content, their responsibilities, the ways in which they interact,
and the general rules and policies about the production of content.
Electronic information systems are generally more complex than paper
information systems. The requirement to manage the system to ensure the
integrity, reliability, and authenticity of the information for the long term is not
readily apparent.
Good information governance requires specificity and transparency on the legal
and regulatory obligations and the business value of information. This relates to
the people tasked with actually managing information, and establishes
measurement, policy, and control mechanisms to enable people to carry out their
roles and responsibilities. Information Governance is an essential part of any
ECM strategy and is necessary to realize the full extent of business benefits
derivable from a corporation’s information management activities.
1.1.3 Benefits of IBM ECM solutions
The ability to make decisions better and faster is a real competitive advantage
that
IBM Enterprise Content Management
(ECM) solutions can help provide. The
IBM ECM portfolio of products improves workforce effectiveness by enabling
organizations to transform their business processes, access and manage all
forms of content, secure and control information related to compliance needs,
and optimize the infrastructure required to deliver content anywhere at anytime.
IBM ECM helps organizations make quick, smart, and cost-effective decisions,
right at the moment that it matters the most.

Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM FileNet Content Manager
5
IBM ECM solutions provide the following benefits:
Active content
Delivering information that is unified, accurate, and in context with critical
business processes and policy management
Business agility
Providing the right information to the right people at the right time in the right
context to enable better decisions faster
Enterprise compliance
Managing risk and automating compliance with records management, legal
discovery, and intelligent content archiving
Content anywhere
Managing content on any system without requiring content migration
Pervasive and persuasive
Accessing, collaborating, and influencing business decisions in new ways by
making content a first-class source of decision-making insight
1.2 IBM FileNet P8 Platform
The IBM FileNet P8 Platform family of products is part of the IBM ECM product
suite. The IBM FileNet P8 Platform includes back-end services, development
tools, and applications that address enterprise content and process management
requirements.
The IBM FileNet P8 Platform is a unified content, process, and compliance
platform that offers maximum flexibility, accelerates application deployment, and
lowers the total cost of ownership. It is an integrated platform that provides
interoperability to a wide selection of database, operating system, storage,
security, and web server environments. It serves as the core content
management, security management, and storage management engine for the
IBM ECM family of products. It is an integration platform that can be extended by
adding additional components as needed and integrating it with other line of
business (LOB) applications.
1.2.1 Platform components
The IBM FileNet P8 Platform includes the baseline components for enterprise
content management solutions:
Content Platform Engine

6
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
IBM Content Navigator
ECM Collaboration Services
FileNet Content Search Services
FileNet Content Federation Services
FileNet Rendition Engine
FileNet Content Manager Information Center
These components address enterprise content management and are (except for
ECM Collaboration Services and FileNet Content Federation Services)
described in Chapter 3, “System architecture” on page 37. Some components
are included in the base platform offering and some require additional licensing.
All IBM P8 Platform capabilities are inherited and make a foundation for IBM
ECM solutions. Additional components can be added to a system to enable
additional capabilities.
The IBM P8 Platform capabilities can be leveraged for a wide range of enterprise
scalable solutions, including case management, automated content collection
using the IBM Content Collectors and Datacap, Image Manager, IBM Enterprise
Records, and Information Lifecycle Governance (ILG) portfolio of products and
more. Figure 1-2 illustrates the interaction of some of the ECM portfolio of
products with P8 Content Manager.
Figure 1-2 Major platform components
Content
Classification
Module
Content
Connector
for Email
Enterprise
Records
Image
Manager
DataCap
Content
Connector for
File Shares
Content
Manager
Content
Federated
Services
Case Manager

Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM FileNet Content Manager
7
1.2.2 Enterprise capabilities
The IBM FileNet P8 Platform family of products provides a variety of enterprise
capabilities for organizations, including open and extensible environment, high
ingestion and large storage capacity capabilities, and scalable architecture.
Open and extensible
To promote an open and extensible environment, IBM P8 Platform provides APIs
for developing custom applications.
The IBM P8 Platform offers Java and .NET APIs that offer objects and methods
to handle creating, retrieving, updating, and deleting objects, folders, and
documents. Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS) and Web
Services are also supported.
Content Platform Engine provides an extensible Object Model that includes a set
of predefined classes and the ability to create new custom classes.
High ingestion and large storage capacity
Content Platform Engine is designed to handle high volumes of information.
Performance studies show that P8 Content Manager can handle both high
ingestion rates (millions of documents per hour) and large amounts of stored
information (over a billion objects in a single repository).
Scalable architecture
Content Platform Engine achieves excellent performance rates with a scalable
architecture, offering both vertical and horizontal scalability solutions.
IBM Content Platform can be farmed (scaled horizontally) or can be scaled
vertically by either running multiple instances on a single box or configuring a
single instance to use multiple servers.
Multiple servers can be added in load-balanced configurations to handle
increasing transaction loads. This architecture makes the Content Platform
Engine an ideal candidate for large corporations, government agencies, or any
client with large information management requirements.
1.3 IBM FileNet Content Manager
IBM FileNet Content Manager provides full content lifecycle and extensive
document management capabilities for digital content.

8
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
P8 Content Manager combines document management with readily available
workflow and process capabilities to automate and drive content-related tasks
and activities. It provides a unique
active content
capability to proactively move
content and content-related business tasks through a business process without
requiring human initiation. In addition, P8 Content Manager streamlines
document management tasks by providing mature versioning and parent-child
capabilities, approval workflows, and integrated publishing support and is
designed for large-scale enterprise content management initiatives:
Content Manager is designed for high volume environments.
Content Manager is adept at managing active content.
Content Manager is tightly integrated with the IBM ECM suite of supporting
applications.
Content Manager is a library for electronic content. It can store simple
objects, such as documents and images, as well as more complex objects,
such as workflows, email streams, and corporate records. It is designed as a
central repository for any type of electronic information. Some other types of
electronic content include audio files, web content, XML files, rich media, and
fax. Content Manager provides a rich set of content management services,
tools, built-in features, and programmable functionality that system designers
can use to meet enterprise content management goals.
1.3.1 Basic capabilities
P8 Content Manager provides enterprise content management services, tools,
built-in features, and programmable functionality that system designers can use
to meet enterprise content management goals.
P8 Content Manager by default supports ultimate reusability by creating or
reusing shared components. Such architecture incorporates different design
patterns and eliminates redundancy, allowing a quicker time to delivery, reducing
issues in development and lowering the end maintenance costs.
By using P8 Content Manager, the documents are stored in a repository where
they are available to all users based on the security model.
P8 Content Manager offers flexible tools that coordinate the revision, routing, and
processing of objects stored in the repository. A powerful feature of P8 Content
Manager is the support for active content.
Active content
is electronic information
that changes according to a document lifecycle or business process.
Document
lifecycle
is a feature of P8 Content Manager. It consists of a sequence of steps.
Business processes
, however, are executed by the IBM Case Foundation
(previously known as IBM FileNet Business Process Manager). Business
processes typically contain branching logic. In essence, both are a series of

Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM FileNet Content Manager
9
steps, with each step representing an event or process that acts on the object
content.
P8 Content Manager features event action scripts that can be triggered when
objects are created, modified, or deleted in the repository. Event actions can
launch workflows or execute Java applications. Events, and the actions that they
trigger, are the mechanism that enables active content.
When designing an ECM solution, document retention can be addressed and
implemented by using the retention management features, including the sweep
framework and event-based retention.
IBM Content Navigator is a ready-to-use, standards-based user interface that
delivers intelligence and control of collaborative content across the organization.
1.3.2 Enterprise foundation
P8 Content Manager is a foundational building block for IBM ECM solutions. The
tight integration with the IBM P8 Platform components increases operational
efficiency by reducing the number of products and vendors across the enterprise.
This foundation can be expanded from basic document management support to
enterprise-wide applications by adding additional components and capabilities.
Next, we provide examples of how P8 Content Manager can be used as the
foundation for policy document management, invoice processing, and
compliance support.
Policy document management
Policy lifecycle management represents one of the common business activities
across many organizations. From the creation of policy papers, to their edits,
approvals, retrieval, storage, and archiving, policy touches every employee within
the organization.
A robust ECM solution can address the challenges associated with policy
lifecycle management through the adoption of centralized and standardized
processes.
Policy professionals can develop policies by working in a collaborative
environment to more effectively execute the tasks involved in policy
management. There are a range of common activities that are typically
undertaken in the policy development process, including creating a policy
document as a draft, and moving it through the typical document revision process
for review and approval. The policy document is usually published on the
organizational website at the end of the process.

10
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
In the policy document management solution:
The document becomes active content as it moves from state to state
according to the document lifecycle.
A single trusted policy document source with versioning control, standard
classification, and reliable search results is established across the
organization.
A role-based access model is established to support secure and efficient
policy management publication and access.
IBM Case Foundation is used to automate the review and publishing
processes.
Invoice processing
A major challenge for the account payable process is the ability to process a
large number of paper-based invoices, and place them into the system for
tracking and control invoice processing.
The solution must enable the processing of invoice transactions using a
structured, automated process. This process should secure content associated
with each invoice, providing stakeholders with visibility to the process steps. A
content management platform integrated with an accounts payable process also
enables the continuous improvement of internal business operations over time by
managing each payment case, its associated content, and reporting on the
efficiency of the business process.
The solution includes the ability to extract invoice data from paper invoice
documents during scanning and indexing, applying advanced lookups against
business applications and systems of record, and creating an invoice in the
Accounts Payable application. A robust document capture solution, such as that
provided by Datacap, supports the required high volume ingestion rates. Within
the process, the invoice is used to support day-to-day activities, storing electronic
copies of the documents as records of evidence.
Users (whether internal or external) are able to perform work from within the data
processing application. The content associated with the data systems is stored in
the repository.
The solution provides the following capabilities:
Enables the ingestion of both scanned paper and digital content, whether
submitted by internal or external users, and the automatic classification of the
content.

Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM FileNet Content Manager
11
Provides access to the content as an integrated capability of the Accounts
Payable interface, ensuring that access to the invoices is seamless to the
client.
Allows you to add and relate additional content to a specific invoice
throughout the invoice lifecycle.
Provides notification to clients if an invoice requires special attention.
Compliance support for insurance claim processing
Claims service is a key differentiator for insurance companies. Claims processing
is supported by documents, such as medical assessments, police reports, and
estimates. Information is processed and stored in electronic format and available
for Claims Adjudicators to view, annotate, and redact.
A content ingestion solution provides the scanning, recognition, and indexing
capabilities that support efficiently processing both paper and electronic
documents and uploading them into an ECM repository. Content Management
support for Electronic Claim File provides an enterprise solution for electronically
stored claim information and digital media, which are integrated with the core
claims administration application. The Claim Adjudicator can retrieve and
present, in a single view, claim and policy documents from different sources.
Corporate retention schedules are applied to all claim data and supporting
documents. When the required retention period expires, the electronic claim data
can be automatically deleted.
The solution is intended to support the following key business functions:
A centralized repository for a variety of media types, including email, to
support claims adjudication.
Interactive process for claims processing, including common content services
functions, such as adding, searching, and retrieving data.
User access to claims processing from a single user interface.
Extensibility to support additional capabilities and capacity.
Compliance by ensuring all claim data is automatically disposed of based on
any corporate or legal retention requirements.
1.4 IBM FileNet P8 and related products
The IBM FileNet P8 family of products is based on P8 Content Manager and the
Content Platform Engine. In addition, there are many other IBM ECM offerings

12
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
that integrate with P8 Content Manager. The products can be grouped into the
following categories:
Content products
Enabling companies to activate content with processes to add value and
transform their business.
Ingestion products
Used to add documents into a repository by copying, moving, or linking to
source documents, as well as index and classify the content.
Process products
Automate and optimize complex processes across the enterprise using
effective content and compliance.
Compliance products
Ensure content is kept as required and deleted when no longer needed.
Collaboration products
Provide an environment where people can work together to achieve business
goals and streamline processes.
1.4.1 Content products
The portfolio of content products that integrate with P8 Content Manager:
FileNet Image Manager
IBM Content Federation Services
IBM Content Search Services
IBM Content Navigator
IBM FileNet Integration to Microsoft Office
There are many content products in the IBM ECM portfolio. It is beyond the
scope of this book to introduce all of them. However, to help you better
understand what these products can do for your corporation, we briefly introduce
several of them here.
IBM FileNet Content Federation Services
IBM FileNet Content Federation Services (CFS) enables content stored in
different repositories, such as OpenText and Documentum, to be used in P8
Content Manager applications. This capability can be used to give a single
access point to content in multiple repositories and to utilize the records
management capabilities provided by IBM Enterprise Records. The content can
stay in the external repository and, if appropriate, can also be migrated over time
into a P8 Content Manager repository.

Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM FileNet Content Manager
13
IBM Content Navigator
IBM Content Navigator is a ready-to-use, open web-based standards user
interface that provides a modern user experience for working with all forms of
content. It supports all content management use cases, and is configurable to
the needs of an organization without requiring a development effort for basic
customization.
IBM Content Search Services
IBM Content Search Services (CSS) is a tool for indexing both the content and
string metadata of documents to support the use of content-based retrieval.
1.4.2 Ingestion products
The portfolio of ingestion products that integrate with P8 Content Manager:
IBM Content Collector
IBM Content Federation Services
IBM Datacap
To help you better understand what these products can do for your corporation,
we briefly introduce two of them here.
IBM Content Collector
IBM Content Collector can be used to ingest content from these sources:
Email servers
File shares
Microsoft Sharepoint servers
SAP
Based on the configuration of the connector to the ingestion source, IBM Content
Collector, in addition to adding the content to a P8 Content Manager repository,
also performs other tasks:
Creating stubs to the document in a manner transparent to existing client
applications
Declaring content as records
Deduplicating content, which is especially important for email attachments
IBM Datacap
IBM Datacap is a scanning and indexing solution that is integrated with Content
Platform Engine. This product features a complete suite of document indexing
capabilities, including automated document identification and text recognition.

14
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Datacap automates the input of data from documents to reduce cost and
accelerate document process efficiencies.
1.4.3 Process products
The portfolio of process products that integrate with P8 Content Manager:
IBM Case Analyzer
IBM Case Manager
IBM Forms
IBM Case Foundation
To help you better understand what these products can do for your corporation,
we briefly introduce them here.
IBM Case Analyzer
IBM Case Analyzer can analyze, monitor, and report information at both the
process level and case level. It allows you to identify dynamic trends and monitor
the case processing in real time. The captured data can be used by tools, such
as IBM Cognos® Real Time Monitor.
IBM Case Manager
IBM Case Manager is a platform for case management with advanced
capabilities for rules, events collaboration, social software, and analytics. The
Case Manager functionality and user interfaces allow business analysts to easily
design and build case solutions.
IBM Forms
IBM Forms provides an electronic alternative to paper forms. With an easy to use
visual design environment, the electronic forms support easy data entry, can be
used to perform calculations, and can be integrated into business processes.
IBM Case Foundation
IBM Case Foundation (previously known as IBM FileNet Business Process
Manager) is tightly integrated with P8 Content Manager to provide tools for
defining, optimizing, and processing business processes.
1.4.4 Compliance products
The portfolio of compliance products that integrate with P8 Content Manager:
IBM Content Analytics

Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM FileNet Content Manager
15
IBM Content Classification
IBM eDiscovery Manager and eDiscovery Analyzer
IBM Enterprise Records
IBM FileNet Compliance Framework
IBM Global Retention Policy and Schedule Management
To help you better understand what these products can do for your corporation,
we briefly introduce a few of them here.
IBM Content Analytics
IBM Content Analytics is an advanced analytics platform that enables better
decision making from the enterprise content regardless of the source or format.
Content Analytics solutions can understand the meaning and context of human
language and rapidly process information to improve knowledge-driven search
and surface new insights from your enterprise content.
IBM Content Classification
IBM Content Classification categorizes and organizes content by combining
multiple methods of context-sensitive analysis. Content Classification enables
clients to focus on higher-level activities by consistently and accurately
automating content-centric categorization decisions.
IBM eDiscovery tools
IBM eDiscovery Manager and IBM eDiscovery Analyzer focus on the needs of
collecting and processing unstructured data for legal discovery, automating
applying legal holds and collections processes by holding data in place, and
collecting evidence from data repositories.
The tools automate the identification of unstructured data by searching for
relevant data by keyword or date-range, as well as archive and deduplicate email
and attachments, and dynamically classify and declare records of collected
emails through integration with IBM Enterprise Records.
eDiscovery Analyzer enables legal professionals to analyze, sort, and cull
evidence immediately after it has been collected rather than by performing
manual document reviews.
IBM Enterprise Records
IBM Enterprise Records is a complete application that securely manages the
declaration, classification, security and access, auditing and monitoring,
authenticity, preservation, and destruction of electronic and physical records.

16
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
IBM Enterprise Records utilizes unique “Zero Click” technology to reduce the
burden and costs associated with proper management of an organization’s
records and integrates directly with Content Platform Engine to allow repository
objects to be managed as records.
Use IBM Enterprise Records with the other compliance, process, and ingestion
tools to provide an end-to-end records management solution that covers the
capture, management, and destruction of records.
IBM Global Retention Policy and Schedule Management
IBM Global Retention Policy and Schedule Management is a single, cohesive
retention management system with natively integrated workflows and analytics
for information governance stakeholders.
1.4.5 Collaboration products
The portfolio of collaboration products that integrate with P8 Content Manager
includes ECM Collaboration Services.
IBM Connections (formerly Lotus® Connections) and IBM ECM Collaboration
Services provide collaborative authoring and sharing of business content. In
particular, a social collaboration environment unlocks enterprise content and
makes it accessible across the corporation. Content can be selectively placed
into the ECM repository for safekeeping. There is support for many of the typical
social collaboration features, such as comments, tagging, and download
counters.
1.5 Conclusion
The unified content and process architecture of Content Platform Engine
provides inherent capabilities to integrate content with applications to provide
integrated support for data transactions and to coordinate business processes.
IBM core ECM provides the foundation for delivering robust solutions across the
enterprise.
In the next chapter, we provide detailed examples illustrating the use of P8
Content Manager as part of an ECM solution.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
17
Chapter 2.
Solution examples and
design methodology
IBM FileNet Content Manager (P8 Content Manager) can be used for the
implementation of a large spectrum of applications that vary from small
departmental systems to large enterprise systems running in a complex
environment and integrating with several other systems. In this chapter, we
describe common P8 Content Manager solutions, each illustrating P8 Content
Manager’s features and capabilities. In addition, we introduce the design
methodology that guides you from the Enterprise Content Manager (ECM)
strategy definition through deployment and administration planning. The
methodology is used as the structure for the remaining chapters of the book.
We describe the following topics:
P8 Content Manager sample solutions:
– Policy document management process
– Invoice archiving
– Email archiving
– Insurance claim processing
– Social Enterprise Content Management
Design methodology
2

18
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
2.1 P8 Content Manager sample solutions
In this section, we present five common P8 Content Manager sample solutions:
Policy document creation
Insurance claim processing
SAP invoice archiving
Email archiving
Training material development
Each solution demonstrates how you can implement P8 Content Manager to
solve enterprise content management challenges using a different approach.
The following different approaches are available for the implementation of an
ECM system:
Simple stand-alone content management application
ECM system integrated with the line of business (LOB) application
Archiving solutions
Social ECM solutions
Typically, a mix of the approaches is used in organizations based on the needs to
meet the business requirements and challenges.
The policy document creation sample solution demonstrates a simple document
management solution with check-in check-out capabilities and security. The
insurance claim processing sample solution demonstrates the integration and
record management capabilities of P8 platform. The SAP invoice archiving
solution demonstrates the SAP archiving and high availability capabilities of P8
platform and intelligent document recognition (ICR). The Email archiving solution
demonstrates the archiving and compliance capabilities of the P8 platform. The
social ECM sample solution demonstrates the social features of the P8 platform.
2.1.1 Policy document creation
In the first P8 Content Manager solution, a team of authors, reviewers, and
managers is responsible for updating policy documents. Those documents
define the organization guidelines. Goals must be rigidly reviewed, and all
Note: The solutions we present here are simplified versions. In actual
installations, the solutions are often more sophisticated than what we describe
here. We simplify the scenarios and their solutions for ease of reading and
understanding. The important point from this section is to get an idea of what
P8 Content Manager can do to help solve your business problems.

Chapter 2. Solution examples and design methodology
19
workers must always have access to the current policy information. The following
flow is for the events of this use case:
1.The author creates a new document for revision and assigns a minor version
number on the documents.
2.The reviewers and authors collaborated in this document and adding minor
versions of the document.
3.The approver approves the final revision of the document and checks in the
document as a major version.
4.The major version is available now to all users based on their permissions
and security is applied to the document as the final approved version of the
document.
This P8 Content Manager solution is implemented with the following features:
Content versioning, including major and minor versions
Document access controlled by role-based permissions and dependency on
document lifecycle status
Check-in and check-out capability
Figure 2-1 illustrates the implemented document revision and approval process
using P8 Content Manager.
Figure 2-1 Document revision and approval process
Repository
0.1
0.1
0.2
1.0
1.
Author creates
document for
revision.
2.
Authors and Reviewers
collaborate by checking
document versions in as
minor versions.
3.
After final approval,
document is checked
back in as new major
version.
1.0
4.
New version
supersedes the older;
all versions are retained
in the repository.
0.2

20
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Solution description
This solution uses P8 Content Manager features without additional programming.
In the design, policy documents are stored in the repository where they are
available to all users for reference.
Each policy document goes through a document lifecycle with multiple states. In
this implementation, the states are minor and major versions. A
minor version
is
a draft document; a
major version
is a completed document that has been
approved and released. A security policy is implemented to define the security
that applies to documents in the major version state and those in the minor
version state. Minor versions can only be viewed and modified by authors,
reviewers, and approvers. They are invisible to general users. All users can view
major versions, but only authors, reviewers, and managers can modify them.
For simplification and to reflect the majority of actual solutions, this sample
solution does not include document retention. When implementing a document
revision solution for your environment, you must address your document
retention requirements and include them in your solution implementation as
necessary.
2.1.2 Processing insurance claims
In this sample P8 Content Manager solution from the insurance industry, the
company policy governs how claims are processed. The main system of records
for this solution is the insurance company claim processing system and the P8
Content Manager is used as the content repository together with the IBM
Enterprise Records for compliance.
The following flow of events is for the sample insurance claim processing
solution:
1.A new claim is opened in the Claim Management application and the claim ID
is communicated to the customer.
2.The claim management application will invoke a service in the ECM
repository, populate all claim-related metadata, including claim ID,
propagating the proper retention policy based on the claim type.
3.The claim-related documents arrive from different sources and may include
electronic documents, email, electronic forms, and paper documents.
4.Paper documents will be converted to an electronic format and send for
processing.
5.Using Datacap optical character recognition (OCR)/intelligent document
recognition (ICR) capabilities, the claim number will be extracted from the
electronic document and the documents will be stored in the ECM system. If

Chapter 2. Solution examples and design methodology
21
the claim number cannot be found in the electronic documents, an exception
process will be initiated through the ECM system to the Claim Management
system.
6.After the document is filed into FileNet Content Manager, a corresponding
record object will be created and placed under the IBM Enterprise Records
record folder where retention will be aggregated on the claim records folder.
7.A task will be created within the Claim Management application triggered by
the document release in the repository.
8.The integration between the Claim Processing application and IBM ECM will
allow users to access, view, load, and link the documents to the claim case
throughout the Claim Processing lifecycle, according to their established
permissions. Also, the ECM system using the Content Federation will present
content from other repositories, such as policy documents to the authorized
users.
9.The document metadata is updated from the Claim Management application
as the claim moves through the process.
10.The claim close event from the Claim Management application will trigger a
service request to ECM to start the retention process.
11. After the claim case record and all associated documents will be ready for
disposition, the service request will be sent to the Claim Processing
application to automatically dispose of structured data in the same time as
unstructured content.
This P8 Content Manager solution is implemented with the following features and
components:
Document scanning and character recognition
Integration with LOB application
Active content event actions
Records management
Content Federation Services

22
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 2-2 illustrates the implemented insurance claim processing solution using
P8 Content Manager.
Figure 2-2 Insurance claim processing
Solution description
In this solution, the active content is the insurance claims. The content is moved
through a business process in a series of steps implemented in the LOB
application (claim processing application).
From the claim processing application, a records folder is opened in the ECM
system for each new claim. IBM Datacap converts the paper documents received
from the client to electronic documents and stores them into the ECM repository.
Datacap also extracts the metadata from the documents using ICR and
automatically indexes the documents without user interaction. A record is
declared for the documents that are stored in the ECM repository and the
retention period is set based on the business requirements. The LOB application
utilizes the features of the ECM system through the integration capabilities of the
P8 Content Manager. The documents can be retrieved and viewed from different
sources that are transparent to the business user.
Document Scanning,
Faxing, Email and Uploading
from external sources
Insurance
Claim
Claims Processing Line Of Business Application
Users access claim file
and documents
p
Structured data
Document notification
will trigger a new task
in Claim processing
Gather Supporting
Documentation
Notification to create
a Records Folder
Notification to Close
the Claim Folder
Send notification
that Claim is
ready for disposition
FPOS
ROS
Documents
Records
Enterprise Content Manager
Repository
Policy
Data
CFS

Chapter 2. Solution examples and design methodology
23
2.1.3 Archiving SAP invoices
This is a cross-industry sample P8 Content Manager solution. Large
organizations have to process a large volume of paper-based invoices. They
have to place them in a system to track and control invoice processing.
A major challenge is the large volume of information that must be processed,
indexed, and stored. Another challenge is the requirement for fast response and
high availability necessary for the accounting department. To address these
challenges, the solution includes load-balanced server farms to achieve high
ingestion and response rates.
The flow of events for this sample solution follows:
1.Upon invoice arrival, the paper invoices are scanned using IBM Datacap.
2.Data from the invoice is extracted using IBM Datacap OCR/ICR capabilities.
3.Extracted data is verified against the SAP system. If data cannot be verified,
an exception handling process is launched.
4.The invoice is created in the SAP system.
5.Invoice images are stored in the P8 Content Manager indexed with the invoice
information and linked to the SAP transaction.
6.An invoice’s documents can be retrieved and viewed directly from the SAP
system
7.Authorized users can search for the invoices using IBM Content Navigator
and view the invoice images, as well as directly use SAP to view invoices
associated with the transaction record.
This P8 Content Manager solution is implemented with the following features and
components:
IBM Datacap
IBM Content Collector for SAP
P8 Content Manager security
P8 Content Manager server farm
High performance search operation (load balancer)
Scalability
Figure 2-3 on page 24 illustrates the implemented invoice processing solution
using P8 Content Manager.

24
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 2-3 SAP archiving solution
Solution description
This solution utilizes the following P8 Content Manager components and
capabilities: IBM Datacap Invoice Capture, IBM Content Collector for SAP, and
server farms.
IBM Datacap for Invoice Capture
IBM Datacap for Invoice Capture is a solution for accounts payable automation.
Extract invoice data using OCR to reduce manual data entry. Apply advanced
validation database lookups, calculations, and checksum to verify accurate data
recognition. It stores the data and document to IBM Content Manager.
Invoice Line Of Business
Application
Scanners
Recognition/
verification
OCR/ICR/OMR –
Indexing
Release to FileNet
Repository
Verify workstations
Create Invoice
IBM Content
Navigator
Manage
Documents
Native Format
Viewer
View and
markup the
document
More supporting documents
added later and reconciled using
the same property value (
example invoice number
Fax, File Shares
Document is processed:
Classified
Data extracted
Data looked up
Data verified
Invoice created
Document is released
to repository
Record is created
Search and
retrieve the
documents
Enterprise Content Manager
Repository
Scanner workstations
Image Client

Chapter 2. Solution examples and design methodology
25
IBM Content Collector for SAP
IBM Content Collector for SAP integrates Filenet Content Manager with the SAP
system. It improves the efficiency of SAP business processes by linking content
to SAP transactions. It supports both SAP Archivelink and SAP Netweaver
Information Lifecycle management protocols.
Server farms
For applications with high-volume loads, P8 Content Manager can be configured
as a server farm. A
server farm
employs multiple servers to multiply processing
power. In this solution, three P8 Content Manager servers are deployed to
spread the document processing load across three separate P8 Content
Manager servers. A load balancer spreads the incoming load evenly so that even
a high ingestion rate, the load does not overload a single server. In a similar
fashion, searches and document retrieval requests are managed by a load
balancer on the call center side.
Server farms can also be configured in highly available configurations. Refer to
Chapter 3, “System architecture” on page 37 for more details.
2.1.4 Email capture for compliance
This solution addresses recent industry concerns about legal discovery of email
messages. It uses IBM Content Collector for Email and P8 Content Manager to
capture emails directly from email server journals.
This P8 Content Manager solution is implemented with the following features and
components:
IBM Content Collector for Email with rule-based automation
IBM Enterprise Records
Figure 2-4 on page 26 illustrates the implemented email capture for compliance
solution using P8 Content Manager.

26
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 2-4 Email capture for compliance
Solution description
This solution uses IBM Content Collector to monitor an Exchange Server Journal
(IBM Lotus Notes® and other email systems are also supported). The journal
contains a copy of all incoming and outgoing messages. IBM Content Collector
for Email monitors the journal and searches for messages that meet a set of
conditions or rules. Common conditions include:
Messages that contain particular keywords
Messages to or from a particular set of addresses
Messages that pertain to compliance issues raised by the legal department
Messages that meet the set of conditions or rules are treated this way:
The message is captured and added to P8 Content Manager.
Duplicates of the message (if the message was sent to multiple recipients)
are identified. Only one copy is added to the repository.
Selected messages based on business rules (for example, emails to a
specific address or containing a combination of keywords on the subject or
mail body) are classified and declared as an official record subject to legal
retention rules.
Email Manager Server
e-mail Server
Collection Rules
Records File Plan
Content Manager
with Records
Manager
2.
Email Manager monitors e-mail journals.
e-mails that match a set of collection rules are
captured. Messages (and any duplicates) are
removed from the e -mail server and replaced by a
link in users’ inboxes. Clicking on the link retrieves
the message from the repository.
Inbox
1.
Effective e-mail
management involves
declaring e-mail content as
business records.
3.
e-mails are declared as
records and placed in the
records file plan where they are
managed by record retention
rules.
.

Chapter 2. Solution examples and design methodology
27
In the user’s mailbox, the message is replaced by a stub. When the user clicks
the stub, the message is retrieved from the repository and displayed in
Outlook as expected.
When the records retention period expires, the content is destroyed with no
ability to restore it.
2.1.5 Knowledge management through collaboration
In this sample solution, an organization needs to develop and manage the
internal training material. They need a solution to provide relevant training
information to users according to their job description function and preferences.
Organization employees need to collaborate over the training material by starting
discussions following updates of a training material and rate the training material.
The flow of the events for this use case follows:
Authors create training material that might include documents, videos, and
audio and stores it in Content Manager.
Training material becomes available in a Lotus Connections community for
the subject matter experts’ (SME) review.
SMEs that are participating in that community are collaborating over the
material where they can put comments, add tags, and provide feedback over
the content.
After the training material is finalized, the content becomes available to user
communities that require training.
In that community, users can add comments and view activity streams,
download counts, and recommendation counts.
Figure 2-5 on page 28 illustrates the implemented knowledge management
through a collaboration solution using P8 Content Manager.

28
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 2-5 Knowledge management through collaboration
Solution description
In this solution, the content that is managed is the training material of the
organization. Training material can include documents, presentations, video, and
audio. Content authors and SMEs need to collaborate during material
preparation. Trainees need to follow the training material, put in comments, and
view activity streams, recommendations, and the number of downloads.
In the first step, content is stored in Content Manager along with metadata and is
available through the IBM Connections community for review by the SMEs. Using
IBM Connections, a SME can add comments, put in recommendations, monitor
the activity steam over the content, and upload new versions in the Content
Manager repository. When the review process is completed, the finalized content
is available on the user community.
Using IBM Connections, a trainee can view new content, add tags, comments,
and recommendations, and follow the content. Content Manager provides activity
feeds, recommendation counts, download counts, and tag searching, enabling
users to locate training content and find relevant content in their social network.
2.2 Design methodology
In the previous section, we present four common P8 Content Manager solutions
implemented at client sites. In this section, we introduce the methodology for
creating the solution designs to help you with your implementation process.
Repository
0.2
1.0
1. Author creates
content and
publish it to
repository
2. Document is published
on IBM Connections
Community for SME review.
3. Comments are and
suggestions on IBM
Connections Community
and final version of
content is created.
4. New version(s) of the
content is publish to
repository.
5. Document is published
on IBM Connections
Community for trainees.
6. Community members
are collaborating over
the training material.
Communities
Files
IBM Connections
Communities
Files
IBM Connections

Chapter 2. Solution examples and design methodology
29
From our experience, successful design and implementation follow a
well-thought-out, repeatable process. Enterprise content management projects
are complex, involving the installation, configuration, and customization of a
mixture of hardware, software, network resources, content analysis, and process
policy. The projects often cross organizational boundaries and involve teams
from the IT department, legal department, Quality Assurance department, and
others. An organized approach is necessary for a successful implementation.
We outline the recommended design methodology that has been used by many
IBM Enterprise Content Management architects in the field and has been applied
successfully in many client situations.
The process starts with a top-down approach:
1.Define the ECM strategy.
2.Define the requirements.
3.Create a functional design document from the requirements.
4.Design the systems architecture.
5.Design the P8 Content Manager repository.
6.Design the document security model.
7.Build applications and user interfaces.
8.Create the system and application testing plan.
9.Create a deployment plan.
10.Plan for administration and maintenance.
The remaining chapters of this book address the concepts and recommendations
for each step in the methodology. When you design a P8 Content Manager
solution, we recommend following the chapters in the book and using our
suggestions and recommendations to meet your design challenges.
2.2.1 Defining ECM strategy
The main purpose of an ECM strategy is to establish the decision making
principles and standards for the use of content as a business resource. To
develop an ECM strategy, a thorough understanding of the business and the
underlying information needs, how to structure the information resources to
support those needs, and how to manage and maintain the architecture is
required.
ECM strategy definition is a critical step in the process of the development of an
ECM system. Typically, in the ECM strategy definition phase, you need to define
the high-level requirements of the organization for the ECM system and lay out a
plan for the successful adoption of the ECM system by the organization. The
ECM strategy defines the organization’s vision for the ECM system and
consolidates the different departments’ requirements and directions.

30
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
The ECM strategy will establish a common picture of the ECM future that clarifies
the business units’ directions, aligns actions to the correct directions, and
coordinates various initiatives. The organization needs to have a clear
understanding and establish an ECM vision to pursue core ECM elements and
any adding advanced capabilities.
In our experience, the following elements of the ECM strategy are key:
ECM standards
Security standards
Content taxonomy and classification
Content inventory
Change management plan for the adoption of the ECM system
ECM requires a change and people management approach that will support
every business group and requires a managed business process change and
large-scale adoption of the technical solutions. The fundamental challenge of
rolling out an ECM system is that it requires the active involvement and
participation of all users.
Effective ECM strategy eliminates information silos, enables the foundational
ECM elements, such as the enforcement of the information governance and
support for business requirements, and enables the integration and automation
of business processes.
2.2.2 Requirements analysis
The first setp is to gather and analyze the requirements for the development of an
ECM system. From our experience, ECM systems evolve and grow according to
the organizational needs and business challenges. So, the requirements
gathering is an iterative process. It is important to start the requirements
gathering as early as possible and aligning those requirements with the ECM
strategy. If you miss a critical requirement, the entire system might be flawed. It is
important to gather input from all groups that will be involved in using, building,
testing, training, or operating the system.
For each iteration of requirements gathering, create a requirements document.
As a milestone goal, create and review this document and obtain the appropriate
sign-offs on the document.
A requirements document needs to include the following information:
Functional requirements - What must the system accomplish?
Non-functional requirements - To what must the system adhere?
Hardware - What standards or limitations apply to hardware specifications?
Software - What standards apply to software specifications?

Chapter 2. Solution examples and design methodology
31
Security - What are the security requirements for the system?
Retention - What are the retention requirements for the system?
Usability - What ease of use standards apply?
Performance - What levels of response times are required?
Continuity - What service levels are expected?
Documentation - What training and documentation are required?
Typically, requirements gathering is an iterative process. You will start with the
functional design, revisit the requirements, complete the requirements analysis,
and then revisit the functional design. This process continues until you feel
confident that all known requirements have been identified and addressed.
The enterprise content management illustration in Figure 2-6 helps in structuring
the discussion among the various people involved in understanding what
functionality the solution requires to solve specific business problems.
Figure 2-6 A simple input and output diagram to assess functional requirements
Foundation Components
ECM
Process Management
Presentation Features
Publishing
Printing
Display
Browsing
Content Ingestion
Tools
Paper scanning
Fax
Email
FTP
Monitored
filesystem
Workflows / EAI
Applications
Repositories
Versioning
Business Objects
Clasification
Search
Storage
Management
Auditing
APIs Social ECM
Subscriptions
Workflow
definitions
Document
Lifecycle management

32
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
For example, based on Figure 2-6 on page 31, you can discuss the following
points to help you gather functional requirements:
How will content be ingested? Options might be paper scanning, fax, email,
other applications, FTP, monitored file system, or workflows.
What are the content and workflow management requirements?
Considerations can be indexing, validation, the addition of document
management, security, binding of documents, usage of entry templates, and
check-in and check-out features.
What are your presentation and delivery management requirements?
Consider content-based search, publishing, and browsing requirements;
printing needs; display needs; Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) sends;
and the requirement for the usage of search templates.
What indexing terms will be used to identify and retrieve information?
What interfaces are required with existing systems to move information
between systems?
What is the lifecycle of the document and how does it fit as part of the
business process?
How will auditing requirements be satisfied?
How will security or information confidentiality requirements be met?
How will the information be searched across the enterprise?
What is the minimum required to describe the metadata?
How long will the documents need to be stored in the system?
Who will be responsible for the destruction of the documents?
What type of storage will be required?
Working from the requirements analysis to a functional design is probably one of
the biggest challenges in your project. This activity requires extensive experience
and solid knowledge of the P8 Content Manager product. We address this topic
in more detail in Chapter 13, “IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions” on
page 427.
As you read through each chapter of this book, remember that each chapter
provides many of the best practices for a number of scenarios but in a
generalized way. Use these best practices and recommendations within the
context of the actual functional requirements for your solution; do not apply them
as is.

Chapter 2. Solution examples and design methodology
33
2.2.3 Functional design
A functional design shows the components of the systems and describes how
each component handles information objects. The functional design needs to
match the user requirements and be presented to the project team for review.
Functional design will define the overall solution architecture, such as taxonomy,
and the folder and data structure design. A solution model is created to support
sample use cases. Analysis and design are crucial in the whole development
cycle. Any mistake in the design phase can be expensive to solve in a later stage.
As mentioned in 2.2.2, “Requirements analysis” on page 30, the functional
design step is often part of an iterative solution design process. Chapter 13, “IBM
FileNet Content Manager solutions” on page 427 covers this topic in more detail.
2.2.4 System architecture design
The system architecture design (sometimes called a
logical design
) lays out the
setup of the hardware and software components. The system architecture is a
blueprint for system infrastructure construction. A logical design shows servers
(both hardware and software), network connections, storage units, and database
instances. When creating your system architecture design, consider the following
elements:
Server topology
Network (LAN and WAN) topology
Scalability and continuity
Virtualization
Shared infrastructure
Capacity planning
Performance
Although system architecture can be derived from nonfunctional requirements, it
can be influenced by the functional requirements. Often, system architecture is
dependent on certain decisions made in the functional design.
During this phase, the major architectural decisions must be documented.
Architectural decisions are significant because they might directly or indirectly
determine whether a system meets its nonfunctional requirements, such as
software quality attributes. Harmonizing the architectural decision-capturing
process simplifies reusing and learning from architectural decisions made on
previous projects. Architectural decisions need to be identified, made, and
enforced systematically.

34
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
For more information regarding system architecture, business continuity, and
capacity planning, refer to the following chapters:
Chapter 3, “System architecture” on page 37
Chapter 7, “Business continuity” on page 217
Chapter 8, “Capacity planning with IBM Content Capacity Planner” on
page 253.
2.2.5 Repository design
The repository design is the key design step in a P8 Content Manager project. It
specifies the number, type, and structure of the solution repositories. It defines
the object classes that will be stored in the repositories, including the metadata,
folder storage, security descriptors, and retention requirements for each type of
content object.
The repository design typically is tightly linked to the functional design. It affects
and is affected by the security design. The repository design must be carefully
synchronized with the application and security design.
For more details, refer to Chapter 4, “Repository design” on page 81.
2.2.6 Security model design
You can enforce security through repository design and application design. A
dependency exists between application security constraints and the security
mechanisms applied on the repository. P8 Content Manager offers a rich set of
options for developing a security model. Our suggestion is to utilize the repository
security features as much as possible.
ECM Security Framework controls access to the information from the initial
classification through to disposition, covering all aspects of information lifecycle
management, and simplifies and speeds up ECM planning and execution.
Determine which users and groups will have access and the levels of access that
these users and groups will have. Create these users and groups in the
authentication provider if they do not exist there.
The security model for ECM needs to be clearly defined and it needs to be
understood that security access for documents that are transitory records might
differ from the documents that will become business records.
The Security Framework needs to address the principles for security and user
roles mapping between different ECM modules. For more details, refer to
Chapter 5, “Security” on page 151.

Chapter 2. Solution examples and design methodology
35
2.2.7 Application design
Application design is mainly derived from the functional design and must be
synchronized with the repository and security design. The application design
includes user interfaces and custom software components. The design presents
the details of application features and functionality and specifies the application
programming interface (API) that developers will use to construct the application.
ECM solution design needs to support reusability by creating or using existing
shared components. For more details, refer to Chapter 6, “Application design” on
page 191.
2.2.8 Test planning
Testing is a required step before the deployment of an ECM solution to the
production environment. There are many types of tests that a solution has to
pass in order to be a successful one.
The most common types of tests are:
User Acceptance Tests (UAT)
Regression tests
Performance tests and load tests
Backup and recovery tests
User acceptance tests verify that the system meets the functional requirements
described in the functional design document.
Regression tests verify that the functionality of the solution is not affected after
the implementation of new features or the resolution of a defect. It is important to
have a full set of regression tests for the ECM solutions and we suggest that
those tests are automated.
Performance and load tests verify the system responsiveness and stability under
a defined workload. It is a best practice to develop performance tests and
execute them before any major release is put on the production environment.
Backup and recovery tests verify that the system can be successfully recovered
in case of disaster. You need to perform at least one recovery test a year to verify
that your backup and recovery plan is still valid.
2.2.9 Deployment
Deployment
is defined as the methodology to move a designed solution from
development to production. When planning for deployment, issues related to

36
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
release management, change management, testing, and the steps for the actual
move need to be considered. It is important to plan for deployment as early as
possible, especially at development time, to address many of the challenges that
might arise in this area.
For more details, refer to Chapter 9, “Deployment” on page 271. Also, refer to
Chapter 11, “Upgrade and migration” on page 371 for upgrade and migration
information.
2.2.10 Maintenance planning
Maintenance is related to operational aspects, such as system monitoring,
backup and restore, and other tasks. Capacity planning might also be considered
as part of your maintenance planning activity.
It is a best practice to have four environments where one of the environments,
User Acceptance Testing (UAT), is a replica of the production environment. The
replica includes version, configuration, topology, and data to ensure that the
applications and any upgrades are sufficiently tested before being deployed to
production.
For more details, refer to Chapter 10, “System administration and maintenance”
on page 315. Also, refer to Chapter 12, “Troubleshooting” on page 387 for
troubleshooting information.
2.3 Conclusion
In this chapter, we introduced five typical use cases where Content Manager can
be used. Those use cases are simplified and the actual use cases are much
more complicated. The purpose of those examples is to make a quick
introduction of Content Manager features and capabilities. The detailed solution
building blocks and how they are used for the implementation of those use cases
are described in Chapter 13, “IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions” on
page 427.
We also described the proposed methodology for the implementation of an ECM
system using Content Manager. That methodology is used as a structure for the
rest of the book.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
37
Chapter 3.
System architecture
IBM FileNet Content Manager is a collection of tightly integrated components that
are bundled together as a common platform. The broad functionality provided by
these integrated components constitutes an enterprise content and process
management platform. Some of the key elements of this platform are a metadata
repository, a workflow system, an application that can be used by all clients to
access content and participate in processes, and a storage framework that
supports a wide range of storage devices and platforms.
In this chapter, we introduce the components of an IBM FileNet Content Manager
system, discuss the logical and physical layout options, and discuss how to scale
the system to meet both local and global business needs.
We discuss the following topics:
Basic components
Scalability
Virtualization
Shared infrastructure
Geographically distributed systems
For information about the internal system architecture of IBM FileNet Content
Manager and the P8 Platform, see IBM FileNet P8 Platform and Architecture,
SG24-7667.
3

38
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
3.1 Basic components
An IBM FileNet Content Manager system typically includes the following
components:
Content Platform Engine
A collection of services and components for managing different types of
business-related content and automating business processes.
FileNet Workplace XT (optional)
A presentation-tier application for working with both content and processes. It
also provides administrative tools for designing and managing processes.
FileNet Workplace XT is a useful tool for performing a quick validation of an
IBM FileNet Content Manager installation, and for reproducing issues seen
with custom applications.
IBM Content Navigator (optional)
An extensible presentation tier for working with both content and processes.
Like FileNet Workplace XT, IBM Content Navigator can also be used to
validate an IBM FileNet Content Manager installation and to replicate issues
seen with custom applications. For more information about IBM Content
Navigator, see Customizing and Extending IBM Content Navigator,
SG24-8055.
Directory service
A Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directory server, frequently
the corporate LDAP server, used by IBM FileNet Content Manager to
authenticate users and to access authorization information for artifacts
managed by the Content Platform Engine.
Database server
Hosts the databases used to store the metadata associated with the business
content and processes, and configuration information for an IBM FileNet
Content Manager implementation.
Application server
Hosts the Content Platform Engine and other Java EE applications, including
FileNet Workplace XT and IBM Content Navigator, that are used as part of an
IBM FileNet Content Manager implementation.
Storage
Database, file, or fixed storage areas for storing the business content.
Figure 3-1 on page 39 illustrates a basic layout of an IBM FileNet Content
Manager environment.

Chapter 3. System architecture
39
Figure 3-1 Basic components of P8 Content Manager configuration
Although FileNet Workplace XT and Content Navigator are popular application
components, they are not absolutely required for a functioning IBM FileNet
Content Manager system.
3.1.1 Additional components
In addition to the basic components, an IBM FileNet Content Manager
environment can be configured to include the following components:
Content Search Services (CSS)
Allows you to index and search for text within documents and in the metadata
that is used to describe a document
Rendition Engine
Is used to generate PDF or HTML versions of documents
IBM Content Navigator
Workplace XT
LDAPCustom Applicati ons
Storage
Content
Platform Engine
Database
JDBC
HTTP
/HTTPS/
IIOP/T3
LDAP
NFS/GPFS/CIFS/API
JDBC
IIOP/T3
IIOP/T3

40
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
3.1.2 Data organization
The business content and processes associated with an IBM FileNet Content
Manager implementation are organized into a logical grouping called a
P8
domain
. The definition of the P8 domain is stored in a database known as the
global configuration database
(GCD).
The GCD stores information about the following items:
Object stores and any workflow systems that have been defined for the P8
domain
A P8 domain can have one or more content stores, known as
object stores
,
and one or more
workflow systems
. The role of an object store is to store
business-related content. A workflow system is a repository for storing and
managing process-related information.
Configuration information that is common to all object stores and workflow
systems, such as the LDAP configuration used with the environment
Components that are available for reuse within the environment, such as fixed
content storage devices and marking sets
Fixed content storage devices are a specific class of storage device, for
example, IBM Tivoli® Storage Manager that is defined once within a P8
domain, but that can be used by any or all of the object stores to store
content.
A
marking set
is a special construct used to enhance the security model that
can be applied to an object store.
Logical grouping of components to support distributed configurations

Chapter 3. System architecture
41
Figure 3-2 illustrates the logical relationship between a P8 domain, and its
associated configuration information, object stores, and workflow systems.
Figure 3-2 P8 domain
LDAP
Fixed
storage
devices
GCD
Object store
Object store
Object store
Workflow system
Workflow system
Workflow system
P8 Domain

42
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 3-3 illustrates the relationship between the components that are used by
IBM FileNet Content Manager to instantiate a P8 domain and the software
components that comprise the P8 domain.
Figure 3-3 Relationship between P8 domain and supporting components
3.1.3 Object stores
An object store manages business content. Each object store manages:
A database

for metadata
The metadata describes the artifacts that are stored in the object store.
One or many storage areas that represent the physical storage area location
of the business content
The storage area can be in a database, a file system, a fixed content device,
such as IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, Network Appliance SnapLock, or EMC
Centera, or a combination of these options.
A P8 domain can have many object stores. The number of object stores in a
domain, and the physical location of the database and storage areas associated
with an object store are dependent on your business needs and will be discussed
in more detail later in this chapter.
LDAP
Storage
devi ces
Content
Platform
Engine
Servers
ICN & custom
appli cations
Connection points
Marking Sets
Fil e stores
Workflow
system
P8 Domain
Database
servers
Object stores
Object stores

Chapter 3. System architecture
43
3.1.4 Storage considerations
When creating an object store, you can choose to utilize database storage or
storage areas external to the database.
If you choose:
Database storage, all metadata and document content is stored in the object
store database
Use this option when creating object stores that will have little document
content. Object stores that fit into this category include ones that are used to
store only configuration information, or file plans for IBM Enterprise Records
implementations.
External storage, metadata is stored in the object store database, but the
document content is stored externally to the database in a shared file system
or on a fixed content device, such as IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
For a full list of supported storage types, see the IBM FileNet P8 Hardware
and Software Requirements guide:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=3278&uid=swg27013654
Although the type of storage you use is likely to depend on corporate
standards, various storage features also drive your decision-making process.
Where and how content is stored are defined using storage policies. Storage
policies can be set up at the object store level, the document class level, and on
individual documents. For information about defining storage policies, see the
following link in the P8 Information Center:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.
ibm.p8.ce.admin.tasks.doc%2Fcontentstores%2Fcs_stp_about_storage_polici
es.htm
Minimizing storage requirements
IBM FileNet Content Manager provides the following features to help reduce
storage requirements:
Retention management
Deduplication
Compression

44
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Retention management
Retention management defines how long content must be kept before it can be
deleted. With retention management, a date is set that defines the earliest that
content can be deleted. Retention management differs from records
management in that it is usually driven by corporate rather than legal
requirements.
In IBM FileNet Content Manager v5.1 and earlier releases, support was provided
for static retention periods. That is, when a document was added to an object
store, you were able to define the minimum period that the document must be
kept. Now, IBM FileNet Content Manager also supports dynamic retention.
With dynamic retention, the length of time a document must be kept can be
updated at any time by users with the appropriate level of permissions.
Defining retention periods helps with storage management only if you also
regularly delete content that has passed its retention requirement. Set up regular
jobs to delete content that is no longer needed as described in 4.11.2, “Automatic
disposition” on page 139.
Deduplication
Preventing duplicate copies of the same content from being stored in an object
store can save a significant amount of space.
A common scenario where this feature is beneficial is when email is archived into
an object store via IBM Content Collector. Often, several clients will receive the
same email with the same attachments. If the content is stored in a storage area,
enabling deduplication will ensure that only one copy of the content is stored.
The IBM FileNet Content Manager software tracks the documents associated
with the content, and will not delete the content until all the associated
documents have been deleted.
Deduplication occurs at the content rather than block level. So, additional space
savings can be achieved by also using compression.

Chapter 3. System architecture
45
Compression
Two types of compression are available:
If you are using IBM DB2®, consider enabling row compression on large
object store database tables to improve application response times.
You can also choose to compress storage areas. The compression is
block-based and, depending on the type of files being stored, might not
provide a significant savings. The overhead introduced with this capability can
affect both upload and download performance, so test this feature in your
environment to ensure that any performance impact is offset by the space
savings.
Reducing storage costs
You can reduce storage costs by moving less frequently accessed content to less
expensive forms of media. You need to define what is “less expensive” for your
organization. For example, some organizations have different tiers of storage so
that content that is accessed frequently is stored on “tier 1” storage, while less
frequently accessed content is stored on “tier 2” storage. The requirement for a
document to be on “tier 1” versus “tier 2” content can change over the life of the
document.
IBM FileNet Content Manager provides APIs for moving content from one form of
storage to another. To take advantage of this capability, make sure the object
store design enables you to identify easily the types of documents that can be
moved and when they need to be moved.
Securing content
When content is stored, you can encrypt the data prior to it being stored on the
underlying storage (file store, fixed content device, or database).
The requirement for data encryption is set at the storage container level and can
be enabled or disabled at any time. When the encryption is enabled, any data
added to the storage device will be encrypted, but existing content is not affected
by enabling or disabling the encryption capability.
The overhead introduced with this capability can affect both upload and
download performance.
Data encryption can be used with the other storage features, including data
compression and deduplication.

46
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
3.1.5 Workflow systems
A
workflow system
manages the process-related data. Like object stores, there
can be multiple workflow systems in a single P8 domain, but the database tables
used to instantiate a workflow system must be collocated with a specific object
store database.
Within the workflow system, the processes run inside of an isolated region that
acts as an individual processing space. Workflow systems can contain multiple
isolated regions, and each isolated region can contain multiple workflow
definitions and related data. And although workflows can use content from any
object store in the P8 domain, the workflow processing cannot span multiple
isolated regions.
For ease of maintenance, a best practice is to segregate isolated regions into
separate workflow systems and to associate each workflow system with a
separate object store.
Applications connect to an isolated region using a
connection point.
Connection
points are defined at the P8 domain level using the IBM Administration Console
for Content Platform Engine (ACCE).
For more information about using business processes with IBM FileNet Content
Manager, see Introducing IBM FileNet Business Process Manager, SG24-7509.
3.1.6 Management tools
Various tools are needed to build and manage an IBM FileNet Content Manager
environment. Some of the tools are supplied as part of the IBM FileNet Content
Manager software, and other tools are provided by the vendors of the
infrastructure components (database, application server, and LDAP) that are
used with IBM FileNet Content Manager.
Notes:
The concept of a workflow system is no different than the workflow
database of earlier IBM FileNet Content Manager releases.
Prior to IBM FileNet Content Manager v5.2, the process-related data can
be collocated with an object store, or it can be stored in a separate
database.
Clients upgrading from IBM FileNet Content Manager v5.1 and earlier
releases are not required to merge process databases with object store
databases.

Chapter 3. System architecture
47
For example, prior to configuring the Content Platform Engine, use the tools
supplied by the database vendor to create the databases and tables required for
the GCD, at least one object store, and at least one workflow system. IBM
Content Navigator also requires a database in which to store configuration
information.
After the basic IBM FileNet Content Manager installation and configuration are
complete, the database tools will also be needed for tasks, such as backing up
the environment, and creating complex indexes to improve performance.
See the FileNet P8 Information Center for a full list of the tasks that need to be
completed before starting an IBM FileNet Content Manager installation:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=
%2Fcom.ibm.p8toc.doc%2Fplanning.htm
The following administrative tools are supplied with IBM FileNet Content
Manager:
Configuration Manager
Running the Content Platform Engine installation program lays down the
software but does not perform any configuration tasks. So, after you run the
installation program, use the Configuration Manager to identify the following
information:
– The application server to host the Content Platform Engine application and
services.
– The LDAP server that will provide the authentication and authorization
services required by IBM FileNet Content Manager.
Authentication
defines who can access the system.
Authorization

identifies what clients are allowed to do after they have been
authenticated.
– Data sources that identify the databases to be used for the GCD, object
stores, and workflow systems.
The Configuration Manager is also used to deploy the Content Platform
Engine application ear or war file.
Recommendations: Although creating a workflow system is not required
when setting up an IBM FileNet Content Manager environment, consider
creating an initial workflow system and validating basic workflow functionality
when configuring the Combined Platform Engine.

48
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
ACCE
A web-based tool for defining P8 domain and object store configuration data.
ACCE replaces the FileNet Enterprise Manager tool that was provided with
previous IBM FileNet Content Manager releases.
Deployment Manager
A thick client tool used to move object store configuration data and content
between object stores in the same or different P8 domains. This tool is also
used to reassign object stores to different P8 domains.
Chapter 9, “Deployment” on page 271 in this Redbooks publication provides
detailed information about using the Deployment Manager.
Consistency Checker
Used to validate that pointers in the object store database that reference
content in a storage area are correct.
FileNet Enterprise Manager
A thick client tool used to administer P8 domains and object stores. This tool
is being replaced by ACCE.
Process Configuration Console, Process Administrator, Process Designer,
and Tracker
These are Java applets that are started from FileNet Workplace XT and that
are used to instantiate a process region, and to design and manage business
processes.
3.1.7 Bulk Import Tool
The Bulk Import Tool is installed by the Content Platform Engine installer and is
used to add large volumes of documents to an object store. This tool is used only
if you have purchased the IBM Production Imaging Edition license.
For more information about using the Bulk Import Tool, see the P8 Information
Center:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=
%2Fcom.ibm.p8.ce.blkimpt.doc%2Fp8pit000.htm

Chapter 3. System architecture
49
3.1.8 Hardware layout
IBM FileNet Content Manager can be configured for use with both small and
large deployments. Each component can be installed on a single or on multiple
servers; you can also collocate all the components on a single server. This
flexibility allows the environment to be scaled for both performance needs and to
support security requirements.
For example, the application tier, provided by products such as IBM Content
Navigator, can be installed within a DMZ. However, the Content Platform Engine
is located behind firewalls inside the corporate network. Figure 3-4 illustrates
separating elements of the system in different infrastructure security layers.
Figure 3-4 IBM FileNet Content Manager configuration based on security requirements
For more details about configuring the hardware layout based on security
requirements, see IBM FileNet P8 Platform and Architecture, SG24-7667.
3.1.9 Setting up a sandbox or demo environment
Setting up enterprise applications and associated hardware can be both costly
and time-consuming. For a quick start and to gain familiarity with a specific
release, consider setting up a single-server configuration of IBM FileNet Content
External
Cli ents
External
Firewall
HTTP
Servers/Load
Balancer
ICN Instances
in DMZ
Internal
Firewall
Internal Content
Platform Engi ne
Instances
Internal
Clients

50
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Manager. Use the Composite Platform Installation Tool (CPIT) supplied with IBM
FileNet Content Manager to install and configure this environment. CPIT
completes the following tasks:
Installs and configures:
– Tivoli Directory Server as the LDAP
– DB2 as the database server
– IBM WebSphere® Application Server as the application server
– Content Platform Engine
– FileNet Workplace XT
– IBM Content Navigator
Creates:
– The databases required for the GCD, one content store, one workflow
system, and the IBM Content Navigator configuration information
– Administrative user accounts and groups in the LDAP
– The GCD
– One content store
– One workflow system
After the CPIT installation completes, use the single-server installation to perform
these tasks:
Gain familiarity with IBM FileNet Content Manager in general, or the latest
new features.
Define requirements and specifications for new applications or updates to
existing applications.
Start building a new solution or refining an existing solution.
3.1.10 Using Information Center and other product documentation
IBM FileNet Content Manager ships with documentation that can be deployed on
a Java EE server, but to ensure you are using the latest documentation, use the
information center published on the IBM website:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=
/com.ibm.p8toc.doc/ic-homepage.html
The Information Center has a number of useful features:
Setting the search scope to match the components used in your environment

Chapter 3. System architecture
51
The ability to print selected topics
For example, use these two features together to generate a custom installation or
upgrade guide.
One of the most important guides for anyone setting up or maintaining an IBM
FileNet Content Manager environment is the IBM FileNet P8 Hardware and
Software Requirements guide. This guide documents the supported types and
levels of the infrastructure that can be used with IBM FileNet Content Manager.
See the following link to download the guide:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=3278&uid=swg27013654
Figure 3-5 illustrates the Home page of the IBM FileNet P8 Information Center.
The information center contains information about the IBM FileNet Content
Manager and other components in the P8 Product Family that integrate with IBM
FileNet Content Manager.
Figure 3-5 IBM FileNet P8 Information Center

52
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
3.2 Scalability
When planning for an enterprise-wide system, there are a number of
environments to configure, and the workload and scaling requirements for each
are likely to be different. Consider configuring the following IBM FileNet Content
Manager environments:
Sandbox
Typically, a single-server installation that can be used by system architects
and project leads to learn about new software releases and for demonstration
purposes.
Development
The environment used by the development team to build custom applications
for an IBM FileNet Content Manager deployment. The size and configuration
of this environment is typically driven by the number of developers on the
project.
System test
The environment used by the test organization and representatives of the
client teams to verify that the application being built meets their needs in
terms of functionality, usability, and response times.
This environment is also used for integration testing to ensure that elements
of a single solution or that multiple enterprise-wide solutions complement
each other, can coexist, and interact as expected.
The size and configuration of this environment is usually a scaled-down
version of the expected production configuration.
Load and performance test
The environment used to ensure that the production system can cope with the
expected load and provide clients with response times that enable them to
complete their work. The system needs to be configured similarly to the
production system in terms of hardware and data (both the type of data and
the volume need to emulate what is available in the production environment).
Production fix
When introducing new functionality into a production environment, a best
practice is to introduce the changes into development, then promote the
changes first to system test, then to load and performance test, and ultimately
to the production environment. This path is recommended to help ensure that
the new functionality meets both the functional and performance needs of a
production application.

Chapter 3. System architecture
53
However, when following this methodology, occasionally an issue occurs in
production that cannot be replicated in the lower environments because they
are not running the same software as the production environment.
A production fix environment is a scaled-down version of the production
environment that is always running the same level of software as that in
production. When a production issue occurs, the fix is first introduced into the
production fix environment to ensure that the fix resolves the reported issue
and does not introduce any new issues. (If appropriate, the fix, although it
might be in a slightly different form, needs to also be introduced to the lower
environments.)
Production
The environment hosting IBM FileNet Content Manager and other
applications that provide the required business functionality.
This environment must be built to meet current business needs and be easy
to both expand and contract as capacity needs and response time
requirements change.
When designing the layout of each environment, consider many elements:
Expected volume of activity from both automated applications and clients
Types of activities that will be performed
Volume of content that will be stored
Required response times
Geographic locations that must be supported
When planning for a geographically dispersed environment, the amount of
hardware needed at each site can be different.
The IBM Capacity Planner is a tool that provides guidelines on “how much” is
needed given your business requirements. For more information about this tool
and capacity planning in general, refer to Chapter 8, “Capacity planning with IBM
Content Capacity Planner” on page 253.
When scaling an IBM FileNet Content Manager environment, you can choose to
scale:
Hardware using both horizontal and vertical techniques.
Java virtual machines (JVMs) using application cluster technology, such as
WebSphere Network Deployment, or by adding independent JVMs and load
balancers.

54
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
3.2.1 Horizontal scalability
Horizontal scaling
, also known as
scale-out
, means to add additional computer
systems to the existing environment. This approach is common in Microsoft
Windows environments. Clients who prefer horizontal scaling distribute
applications through a large number of inexpensive machines. Blade servers
generally group multiple compact servers in a rack and allow a large number of
servers in a small physical space.
3.2.2 Vertical scalability
Vertical scaling
, also known as
scale-up
, means to use more powerful servers or
extend the existing ones to be more powerful. This approach is frequently used in
the mainframe world and is also available in UNIX and Windows environments.
An example is adding more CPUs and RAM to the existing system. Vertical
scalability is often used with virtualization (see 3.3, “Virtualization” on page 57).
Servers are consolidated and multiple previously stand-alone servers are
merged and run virtualized on a large machine.
The core IBM FileNet P8 components can be scaled vertically and horizontally.
As an extension to vertical scalability, clients can scale up a server that is running
an application server instance with multiple deployed applications. The benefit is
better application segregation and more effective use of memory resources.
Instead of just scaling up the server with additional hardware, you can use
multiple Java EE instances on a single physical server, with each application
running independently in its own Java EE instance. By separating the
applications, you achieve more efficient use of system resources.
3.2.3 Clustering
Since Content Platform Engine is a Java EE application deployed on an
application server, the system can be scaled out further using the clustering
technology provided by the application server. For example, using WebSphere
Network Deployment, additional application servers can be configured. The
Content Platform Engine, FileNet Workplace XT, IBM Content Navigator, and
custom applications can be automatically deployed from the WebSphere
Network Deployment management node to these additional servers. The
advantage of this type of configuration is easier maintenance because software
is updated manually in only one location and the deployment to the managed
nodes is automatic.
Figure 3-6 on page 55 illustrates this type of clustering.

Chapter 3. System architecture
55
Figure 3-6 Scaling using application server clustering technology
Alternatively, the applications can be deployed independently and load balancers
can be used to spread the load between the servers. When using this model, a
best practice is to collocate each Content Platform Engine instance with the
appropriate client application instance as shown in Figure 3-7 on page 56 to
minimize the loss of sessions and resources when a server becomes
unavailable. The disadvantage of scaling using this approach is that if either a
client application or a Content Platform Engine instance goes down, the client’s
session is lost and work might need to be resubmitted. However, the stand-alone
application server software used in this configuration is usually less expensive
than cluster-aware versions of the application server software.
P8 Domain
Content Platform
Engine JVMs
Directory server
Database server
Cl ient appli cation JVMs
Cli ents workstations
Clients workstations
Load bal ancer

56
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 3-7 Scaling application servers using a stack approach
To distribute the load to the client applications, use an external HTTP server with
a load balancer, even when the client applications are installed using an
application server clustering technology.
3.2.4 P8 domain and object store scaling
Each P8 domain can contain many object stores, but a practical limit needs to be
set based on considerations, such as how long it takes to upgrade to a new IBM
FileNet Content Manager release or apply software updates, and the need to roll
out applications in different time frames.
There are no specific limits on the number of artifacts in an object store, but from
a practical perspective, a limit needs to be identified for each object store. The
limit needs to be based on these factors:
The time required to perform backups and restores.
The efficiency with which indexes can be created and maintained.
The performance as perceived by your clients; for example, the larger the
data set, the longer it might take to run searches and to add documents.
P8 Domain
Directory server
Database
server
Cli ent applicati on JVMs
Cli ents workstations
Cli ents workstations
cli ent
appl ication
cli ent
applicati on
cli ent
applicati on
Content Platform
Engine
Load balancer
Content Platf orm
Engine
Content Platf orm
Engine

Chapter 3. System architecture
57
Other reasons for segregating object stores:
In global deployments, legal requirements regarding the physical location of
any content and the location of the clients accessing the data
Security requirements
In addition, requirements for workflow processing can influence the need for
multiple isolated regions, workflow systems, and object stores.
The IBM FileNet Content Manager makes it easy to add new object stores to an
existing P8 domain, and the FileNet Deployment Manager tool also makes it
simple to move object stores to new P8 domains. However, to take advantage of
these capabilities, custom applications must be designed to accommodate these
features:
When ingesting content, the destination object store must be configurable.
When searching for content, the search needs to be capable of looking in
multiple object stores.
3.2.5 Scaling Content Search Services
When scaling Content Search Services (CSS), you must address both the
required indexing throughput and the client search requirements. Like the other
components of IBM FileNet Content Manager, the CSS scaling is achieved using
both horizontal and vertical scaling of the CSS servers.
Indexing is a CPU-intensive and memory-intensive process, so configurations
that allow these items to be scaled are important. In addition, since the text
extraction process for the indexing process occurs on the Content Platform
Engine, using CSS places an increased load on the Content Platform Engine and
therefore requires additional scaling of the Content Platform Engine.
For optimal performance, use separate, dedicated index and search servers.
3.3 Virtualization
Virtualization has become a major trend in the IT industry. The drivers for
virtualization are cost reduction and providing better management of hardware
resources. Virtualization can be applied over servers, storage, and applications.
In this section, we focus on server virtualization.

58
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
In general, multiple servers are consolidated into fewer servers and operate
inside of their own environment. An abstraction layer between the physical
resources and the running application is created. Physical resources are
encapsulated as logical resources, and the environment for the application is
moved into a virtual machine (VM). The shared resources usually are CPUs,
memory, network bandwidth, and hard disk storage.
The benefit of virtualization is better use of the current hardware, because the
number of physical boxes decreases, and a physical box becomes a virtual
machine. Instead of managing multiple systems, the resource optimization can
be concentrated at one point. It also opens new pathways for high availability and
disaster recovery, because you can copy entire systems to another location.
Depending on the virtualization technology that you use, the system
administrator can assign each virtual machine an individual amount of resources,
such as memory or a fraction of CPU resources at run time. This increases
system agility and ensures scaling on demand. An administrator can react
dynamically to changes in system utilization.
For example, if at the end of the month, usage of a certain virtualized application
increases sharply, it can be scaled on demand and assigned more system
resources. In that way, the system hardware is used more efficiently.
Another example is systems that are usually idle and have predictable peak
times. Given the fact that the peak times occur at different points in time, you can
benefit by moving applications from these systems onto one virtualized server.
A third example is systems that are used for training and support. Because
virtualization technology provides the option to clone an existing system, you can
clone a training system with preloaded data from another system. In the area of
client support environments with different operating systems, application version
and patch levels can be stored and started on demand. That increases flexibility
and speeds up problem deduction, because no time-consuming installation tasks
are necessary.
Virtualization approaches differ in the degree of abstraction. In this book, we only
provide an overview. For more information about virtualization, see the
information provided by the virtualization solution providers.
Virtual machines using virtual machine monitors
Virtual machines (VMs) run on top of a guest operating system. The virtual
machine is not aware that it is not running on real hardware. Physical resources,
such as a network card, are emulated.

Chapter 3. System architecture
59
When the VM wants to access resources that are managed in a system context,
the access is performed by a virtual machine monitor (VMM). The VMM analyzes
the code and provides a replacement function that safely accesses the
resources. Figure 3-8 illustrates virtual machines using VMM.
Figure 3-8 Virtual machines using VMM
In certain implementations, the host operating system and VMM are combined
into a single layer. Examples of this approach are VMware products or Microsoft
Virtual Server.
Virtualization on the operating system level
In this architecture, virtualization is done on the host operating system level. The
solution uses a single kernel. Figure 3-9 on page 60 shows the architecture.
Environment for Virtual Machines
Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)
Operating System (Host)
VM 1
VM 2
VM 3
Application
Operating
System (VM)
Operating
System (VM)
Operating
System (VM)
Application Application

60
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 3-9 Virtualization on operating system level
In this scenario, the coupling between the host operating system and the VM is
much tighter. Because only one kernel is used, the overhead incurred with this
approach is small. However, the disadvantage of virtualization at the operating
system level is that it does not allow you to run different operating systems.
The isolation of the single partition is key, because the system operates in one
kernel. This is done in the partition management part of the operating system.
The resource management, which is where the physical resources such as
CPUs and memory are assigned, is also done in the partition management part
of the operating system.
This level of virtualization is popular for service providers who offer Internet
services or host special services. For this scenario, the low overhead and the
automation for replicating and horizontal scaling of virtual servers are key.
3.3.1 A virtualized IBM FileNet Content Manager system
IBM FileNet Content Manager installations can be implemented using a variety of
virtual technologies, including IBM logical partitions (LPARs), IBM workload
partitions (WPARs), and VMware ESX. For more information about the
supported virtual technologies, see the IBM FileNet P8 Hardware and Software
Requirements guide.
VM 1
Application
Partition
Partition Management
Operating System (Host)
VM 2 VM 3
Application Application
Partition Partition
Tip: When performing capacity planning, it is important to identify whether you
will be using virtual technologies as this affects the required system resources.

Chapter 3. System architecture
61
Figure 3-10 provides one possibility for deploying an IBM FileNet Content
Manager system in a virtualized environment. Multiple virtual machines are
involved. Each component is deployed in its own virtual machine, in a separate
partition. The figure includes the database server and the directory server,
although typically these components are virtualized only in demo or sandbox
environments.
Figure 3-10 Deploying each engine in its own virtual machine
This architecture offers the highest flexibility and scalability because of the
number of virtual machines that you can have in the configuration.
Collocating engines in a single virtual machine
The opposite approach to multiple single virtual machines is to collocate
everything in one virtual machine. See Figure 3-11.
Figure 3-11 Collocating engines in one virtual machine
VM 1 VM 2 VM 3 VM 4
VM 5
Workplace
XT
C ontent
Pl atfor m
Engi ne
IBM Content
Nav igator
D atabase
Server
Di rec tor y
Ser ver
Par titi on Partiti on Parti tion
Partiti on
Par titi on
Par titi on Management
Operati ng System (Host)
VM 1
Workplace
XT
Content
Platform
Engine
IBM
Content
Navigator
Database
Server
Directory
Server
Partition
Partition Management
Operating System (Host)

62
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
This approach reduces the complexity; however, scalability is limited. Collocating
multiple components in a single virtual machine is suitable for sandbox
environments, demo systems, and small development systems.
System duplication
Using virtual technologies can make it easier to duplicate systems, but consider
uniqueness requirements when reusing images:
Host names must be unique and some applications, including WebSphere,
are sensitive to host name changes.
If using a multitiered application solution in a WebSphere Application Server
Network Deployment environment, ensure that the cell names are unique at
each layer in the tier. See the following article for more details on this issue:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fco
m.ibm.websphere.nd.multiplatform.doc%2Finfo%2Fae%2Fae%2Fuagt_rcell.h
tml
When using static IP addresses, ensure that duplicate images are updated
with new values and that any load balancers are updated to include the new
addresses.
3.4 Shared infrastructure
At times, you might want to set up a shared infrastructure. For example, clients
roll out IBM FileNet Content Manager as an enterprise-wide solution and want to
manage multiple projects on the same system by sharing the resources and
infrastructure of the IBM FileNet Content Manager system among the projects.
Another use case is an internal or external application service provider. The
application service providers can share the infrastructure with several
independent customers or tenants.
In this section, we discuss options for clients using a shared infrastructure model
and provide best practices with regard to the requirements.
3.4.1 Communication between the engines
To simplify the description, we use IBM Content Navigator, an out-of-the-box
application that comes with IBM FileNet Content Manager, to explain how an
application interacts with the Content Platform Engine, object stores, and isolated
regions.

Chapter 3. System architecture
63
How IBM Content Navigator locates an object store
IBM Content Navigator is deployed to an application server. Connections to
repositories are defined using the IBM Content Navigator user interface. In
addition to being used with IBM FileNet Content Manager, IBM Content
Navigator can access Content Manager OnDemand and Content Manager
repositories. IBM Content Navigator can also be extended to access other types
of repositories if they have a Content Management Interoperability Service
(CMIS) interface.
Figure 3-12 on page 64 illustrates configuring IBM Content Navigator access to a
specific object store using a specific Content Platform Engine server. In this
instance, the supplied URL uses the Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) port on a
stand-alone WebSphere server. To use a Content Platform Engine deployed on a
WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment cluster, the URL has the
following form:
corbaloc::node1_hostname:BOOTSTRAP_ADDRESS,:node2_hostname:BOOTSTRAP_AD
DRESS/cell/clusters/your_websphere_cluster_name/FileNet/Engine
After you provide the server URL, and the object store symbolic and display
names, click Connect to establish a connection to the Content Platform Engine
server. After a connection is established, the other tabs (Configuration
Parameters, System Properties, and Browse) are enabled.
Note: Content Platform Engine can also be accessed via the Web Services
transport or Content Engine Web Services (CEWS). Load balancing in this
type of configuration is provided by a load balancer and the URL is in the
following form:
http://virtual server name:virtual port number/wsi/FNCEWS40MTOM/
Currently, IBM Content Navigator does not support accessing Content
Platform Engine using the CEWS transport.

64
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 3-12 Configuring access to an object store using IBM Content Navigator
How IBM Content Navigator locates an isolated region
Each workflow system contains one or more isolated regions. An isolated region
is a logical subdivision of the workflow system’s database that contains queue,
process, and status information. A
connection point
is used to identify a specific
isolated region in a workflow system. Connection points are defined using the
Content Platform Engine administration tools.
To identify the isolated region to be used with a particular repository, click the
Configuration Parameters tab in the Repository configuration UI as shown in
Figure 3-13 on page 65. Then, select a connection point from the Workflow
connection point drop-down list box.

Chapter 3. System architecture
65
Figure 3-13 Defining the connection point in IBM Content Navigator
3.4.2 Data segregation
In the following section, we discuss the options for data segregation.
The level of data segregation does not affect the ability to scale the system;
instead, choose the level of segregation based on these factors:
Application needs
– Who needs access to the application and the associated content?
– How often do application updates need to be rolled out?
Note: There are multiple approaches to setting up a system, and you must
select the methodology that best fits your business requirements.

66
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
– Are there conflicting performance requirements? For example, indexes
needed to make one application perform well might have a negative
impact on a different application.
Client locations
You can improve performance by locating the databases used by specific
object stores and workflow systems local to the clients.
Legal requirements
When servicing the needs of global customers, be aware of legal
requirements for business content to be kept in the country of origin.
Volume of content
Even when building a single application, there might still be a need to plan for
multiple object stores because of the volume of content being generated.
Although there are no specific limits on the number of objects that can be kept
in an object store, practical limits are driven by these issues:
– Time required to back up and restore the object store database
– Indexes required to optimize search performance
– Required response times for ingestion and by clients performing
day-to-day tasks
Security requirements
The IBM FileNet Content Manager security model is flexible, but if, for
example, there is a need for different administrators based on the content or
application requirements, these needs might be best addressed by using
separate object stores, workflow systems, and isolated regions.
For more information about the IBM FileNet Content Manager security model,
refer to Chapter 5, “Security” on page 151.
3.4.3 Levels of data segregation
Data can be segregated in multiple levels.
Shared object store and isolated region
The form of data segregation with the least physical segregation is for all
applications to use the same object store and isolated region. In this type of
configuration, the way in which security is applied to the object store and isolated
region maintains the required segregation between users and projects.

Chapter 3. System architecture
67
Separate object stores but shared workflow system
In this configuration, the business content is separated into different object
stores, but all business processes are managed in the same workflow system.
This configuration is useful in the following situations:
The workflow load is comparatively light compared to the volume of content
being used.
There is a need to physically locate content in different geographic regions for
legal reasons or for better performance.
For example, if you are building solutions for departments that are located in
different geographies, storing the content so that it is local to the departments
can improve response times.
In this configuration, the workflow system is collocated with the object store that
has the content that is used most frequently with a business process.
Separate object stores each with a workflow system
In this configuration, business processes are tightly integrated with the business
content. Each object store is secured in a way that ensures that only the project
users are allowed to access it.
Each project looks only at its own content and project data, but since the same
hardware is used for all projects, the number of maintenance updates that need
to be made to the infrastructure is still limited.
Separate P8 domains
To maintain complete independence between applications, use separate P8
domains. Each P8 domain has its own set of hardware (that can be virtualized),
object stores, and workflow systems.
In deployments with a large amount of content, it is often necessary to “roll” to
new object stores regularly, and eventually, it might also be necessary to “roll” to
a new P8 domain. For instance, after 50 object stores have been created in a P8
domain, a new P8 domain can be created to house the next set of 50 object
stores. When the new P8 domain is configured, consider moving the most
“current” of the old object stores to the new P8 domain using the FileNet
Deployment Manager. If the object stores are connected with active workflows,
the associated workflow systems must also be moved.
A separate P8 domain can also be used to give a global view of corporate data
for reporting purposes. In this type of scenario, Content Federation Services for
IBM Content Integrator is used to federate content from various source P8
domains to a parent P8 domain.

68
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
LDAP servers, database servers, and storage devices
The use of common or disparate LDAP servers, database servers, and storage
devices is also driven by environmental requirements. Typically, the corporate
LDAP server is used for all applications. The number and location of database
servers and storage devices are driven by capacity, performance, legal, and
maintenance requirements.
3.4.4 Degree of sharing
When deciding on a suitable architecture, review the detailed requirements. A
good starting point is to examine the security requirements. Does the system
need to manage multiple projects using a common security base? If so, we
suggest one domain. If the requirements mandate completely separated security,
we suggest multiple domains.
Can the different projects share content with each other? If so, we suggest one
domain. If not, consider using multiple domains.
If two projects that use different security structures must share data, use
federation to make content visible to both projects. Alternatively, use one of these
approaches:
Put all users in a common directory service and secure the content via an
access control list (ACL).
Use federated repositories to create a single realm. For more information
about using federated repositories in WebSphere, see the following link:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fco
m.ibm.websphere.zseries.doc%2Finfo%2Fzseries%2Fae%2Fcwim_fedrepos.ht
ml
Another factor that can affect the degree of sharing is maximizing system
availability. This aspect of the data sharing design is influenced by the following
factors:
Location of application users
Maintenance windows for applying infrastructure and custom application
updates
Service-level agreements (SLAs)
We advise that you use the Data Source sharing feature. For more information,
see the “Sharing Data Sources” and “Creating a Database Connection” topics in
Administering Content Platform Engine:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.
ibm.p8.ce.admin.tasks.doc%2Fp8pcb027.htm

Chapter 3. System architecture
69
3.4.5 Cloud deployments
IBM FileNet Content Manager can be deployed into a cloud environment as long
as the cloud can meet your requirements for data segregation, location, and
security.
The obvious advantage of a cloud deployment is the ability to access data
without the cost of maintaining the servers or software. IBM provides a hosted
archive cloud in Italy that uses IBM FileNet Content Manager. The Information
Archive enables clients to archive content in a private cloud hosted in an IBM
data center.
3.5 Geographically distributed systems
In previous sections, we discussed scalability, virtualization, and data
segregation. IBM FileNet Content Manager contains a number of capabilities to
extend the system geographically and use it as a distributed system with different
locations.
Although centralized data centers can be simpler to administer and maintain,
they do not necessarily perform these functions:
Provide the responsiveness needed by the application users
Meet the legal requirements for locating data in the country of origin
So, it is important to take these considerations, along with the required level of
data segregation, into account when designing an IBM FileNet Content Manager
system.
3.5.1 Site, virtual server, and server configuration
To address the needs for a distributed system, each P8 domain can be structured
to have the hardware hosting the domain in multiple physical locations and
configure the logical components to use hardware in specific locations.
A
P8 domain
is the environment in which all Content Platform Engine servers
operate. Domain information is stored in the global configuration database
(GCD). The GCD holds all topological information of the domain, such as servers
Tip: Geographically distributed environments are also built to support
business continuity requirements for high availability and disaster recovery.
Configuring IBM FileNet Content Manager to meet these types of
requirements is covered in Chapter 7, “Business continuity” on page 217.

70
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
and assigned resources. It contains the descriptive and location information of
the subcomponents.
When a Content Platform Engine server is brought online, its first task is to
interrogate the GCD to get information about the P8 domain and to store a copy
of the GCD information in the working directory of the application server.
If the GCD cannot be contacted, the Content Platform Engine server retrieves
the domain information from the cached version of the GCD.
When the GCD cannot be contacted, IBM FileNet Content Manager applications
still function. Clients can view, update, and add content to object stores, as well
as participate in workflows, but tasks that cause an update to the GCD, such as
creating new object stores or marking sets, fail.
Figure 3-14 on page 71 shows an IBM FileNet Content Manager system
distributed over two locations at a domain level. The system is distributed over
two locations: the main location and a satellite location.
Historical note: In earlier IBM FileNet Content Manager releases, the
Content Engine servers cached a local copy of the GCD in memory so that
issues with GCD connectivity did not cause the system to fail. However, if the
GCD was offline, the Content Engine servers were unable to start.

Chapter 3. System architecture
71
Figure 3-14 Domain level view of a geographically distributed system
A
site
represents a geographical location. All site resources are well-connected
via fast, reliable LAN. There is no functional limit to the number of sites that a
single IBM FileNet P8 domain can contain.
A
virtual server
is the logical service point with which Content Platform Engine
clients interact. A virtual server can map to a single independent server instance
or to a set of server instances. When a virtual server contains multiple server
instances, client requests are load-balanced across the set of server instances
through the Java EE application server’s clustering capabilities or through the
use of a load balancer that provides scalability and high availability. In either
case, applications accessing the virtual server are unaware of the number or
type of server instances that reside behind it. There is no functional limit to the
number of virtual servers that a single P8 domain can contain. A virtual server
can also be configured as an active/passive cluster, although we do not
recommend this approach.
A
server

instance
is an individual Java EE application server instance. Multiple
server instances (each running in their own JVM) can be hosted on a single
physical server. Content Platform Engine clients do not interact directly with a
server instance. Logically, clients always go through a virtual server. There is no
functional limit to the number of server instances that a single P8 domain can
contain.
g g g p y y
Storage
areas
Database server
Appli cation servers
Content Platf orm
Engine servers
Cont ent Platf orm
Engine servers
Applicat ion servers
St orage
areas
Database server
Load balancer
Load balancer
GCD
Object st ores
Object stores
Wor kflow systems
Workf lo w system
Directory server (existing)
Direct ory server (existing)
WAN
Main Location
Satellite

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Figure 3-15 illustrates a hierarchical view of the domain, sites, virtual server, and
servers as displayed in ACCE.
Figure 3-15 Hierarchical view of domain, sites, virtual servers, and servers
This hierarchy simplifies administration, because attributes are inherited from a
parent component to its children. It minimizes duplicate configuration. One
example is trace logging. If you want to analyze the entire system, you can
activate trace logging at the domain level. If you want to activate trace logging
only at a special site, virtual server, or server, you can configure it at the
appropriate level.
To summarize, dividing a system into hierarchical components is useful for
creating a distributed system and simplifies the administration due to the
inheritance feature. For more information about domain, sites, virtual server, and
server instances, refer to 4.5, “Repository organizational objects” on page 95.

Chapter 3. System architecture
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3.5.2 Distributed content caching model
In this section, we discuss the caching mechanism and show the architecture of
a geographically distributed system.
Caching
is a building block for distributed systems. IBM FileNet Content Manager
includes caching at the Content Platform Engine level. It is deeply integrated into
the system. The benefits of caching are that it speeds up retrieval and it can be
used by any client regardless of who authored the software. Caching addresses
content objects and can be used for all types of storage. A document can reside
in multiple caches. You can place each cache on the Content Platform Engine
server or a network share. Cache servers can be installed at sites where you do
not need to perform a full Content Platform Engine installation.
The Content Cache configuration can be customized in the following ways:
Threshold size
Defines how much space the cache can use before content is removed from
the cache.
Threshold elements
Defines the number of elements that can be added to the cache before
content is removed from the cache.
Amount to prune
Defines the percentage of content that needs to be removed when a threshold
is reached.
Preload content when created
Loads content into the local cache as the content is added to an object store.
This feature is especially useful when content is typically used at the same
site that the ingestion occurs but the database associated with the object
store is at a different location.
If the content is going to be frequently accessed from a site that is different
than the one at which the content was ingested, consider developing a
custom application to access the content during off-peak hours to load the
content into the cache at the remote site.
Content lifespan
Identifies how long content stays in the cache without being accessed.

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When configuring the content cache, you need to be aware of the following
information:
The document content access patterns at each site. For example, will
documents need to be viewed within 24 hours of being ingested? Or, are the
documents being ingested primarily for archive purposes and are only
accessed by clients sporadically?
Who will be downloading or viewing the document content and where are they
located?
If the content is being accessed by clients who are geographically close to the
database and storage areas used to store the document information,
configuring a specific content cache for those users might not be necessary.
Any legal requirements regarding the location of content
For more information about using content cache areas, see the following topic in
the P8 Information Center:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=
%2Fcom.ibm.p8.ce.admin.tasks.doc%2Fp8pcc101.htm
3.5.3 Request forwarding
When talking about distributed systems, the efficient use of the network
bandwidth between the locations is essential.
Request forwarding
is used to send requests from a “remote” Content Platform
Engine server to a “local” server. In this case, “remote” implies a server that is not
local to the object store database that must be accessed to complete the
request.
A content cache improves the speed at which clients can view and download
documents. However, the request forwarding improves the speed at which
processing, for example, a search or an event action, executes because the
processing is “pushed” to the Content Platform Engine server that is local to the
needed resources. In addition, request forwarding reduces WAN traffic, which
also helps overall system performance.
See the P8 Information Center for additional information about request
forwarding:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=
%2Fcom.ibm.p8.ce.admin.tasks.doc%2Faboutem%2Frf_concepts.htm

Chapter 3. System architecture
75
Figure 3-16 on page 75 shows a system distributed over two locations, a main
location and a satellite location. Request forwarding is disabled, which is the
default setting.
Figure 3-16 Retrieval without request forwarding
If a client on the main location (
main
) initiates a search request on content
residing at the satellite location (
sat
), the communication goes from IBM Content
Navigator (main) to Content Platform Engine (main). Content Platform Engine
(main) then contacts the database (sat), and the database data is transferred
over the network. Finally, Content Platform Engine (main) communicates the
result list back to IBM Content Navigator (main) that presents it to the client.
When Content Platform Engine (main) talks to the database (sat) and searches
for metadata, this can require a number of queries, and therefore network
round-trips occur to complete the request. If the WAN link between the sites has
high latency, delayed response times are the consequence.
Figure 3-17 on page 76 shows the mechanism for IBM FileNet Content Manager
with request forwarding enabled.
Storage
areas
Database server
Appl ication servers
Content Platform
Engine servers
Content Platform
Engine servers
Applicati on servers
Storage
areas
Database server
Load balancer
Load balancer
GCD
Object stores
Obj ect stores
Wo rkf low syste ms
Wo rkf low s yste ms
Di rectory server (existing)
Directory server (existing)
WAN
Main Location
Satellite
M
u
l
t
i
p
l
e

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o
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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 3-17 Retrieval with request forwarding
When enabling request forwarding, you declare that each defined object store
has affinity with a specific site. There are two settings associated with request
forwarding: the ability to forward requests and the ability to receive forwarded
requests.
Again, the client (main) addresses IBM Content Navigator (main), which contacts
Content Platform Engine (main). Instead of directly contacting the database (sat),
Content Platform Engine (main) forwards the request to Content Platform Engine
(sat), which contacts the database (sat). Content Platform Engine (sat) gathers
all data and returns it to Content Platform Engine (main). Again, Content Platform
Engine (main) passes the result back to IBM Content Navigator (main) where it is
presented to the client.
In general, when request forwarding is configured, client requests to other sites
are forwarded to one or more virtual servers at the site associated with the object
store. This has the advantage of minimizing the impact of high network latency
because the cost-intensive database access is performed locally via the LAN
instead of through the WAN.
Storage
areas
Database server
Application servers
Content Pl atform
Engine servers
Content Platform
Engine servers
Appl ication servers
Storage
areas
Database server
Load balancer
Load balancer
GCD
Object stores
Object stores
Wor kflo w sys tems
Wor kflo w sys tems
Directory server (existing)
Di rectory server (exi sting)
WAN
Main Location
Satellite
M
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t
i
p
l
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r
o
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L
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Chapter 3. System architecture
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At the time that a Content Platform Engine server receives a request, it evaluates
the request to decide whether to forward it or not. For metadata requests, if all
actions in the client request are based on an object store at a different site,
Content Platform Engine will attempt to forward it. At the destination site, the
administrator enables one or more virtual servers to be able to receive the
incoming requests.
Request forwarding is across the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) transport layer
only and is only supported across homogeneous application servers.
3.5.4 Distributed workflow systems
In IBM FileNet Content Manager 5.1 and earlier releases, workflow processing
was handled by a separate engine called the Process Engine and the best
practice was to use a centrally located Process Engine. Now that workflow
systems are collocated with an object store, as you design your environment,
consider the following questions when deciding how to pair up workflow systems
with object stores:
Who will be participating in workflow processing and where are they located?
Is there document activity as a result of the workflow process and are the
documents primarily in a single object store?
Document activity includes using documents as attachments to the workflow
or utilizing capabilities, such as the Content Extended operations, as part of
the workflow.
3.5.5 Use cases for distributed systems
Let us discuss several use cases and the corresponding architecture. Assume
that we have two locations: main location and satellite location.
The main location contains a full IBM FileNet Content Manager system (FileNet
Workplace XT, IBM Content Navigator, Content Platform Engine, an object store
with a workflow system, file store, database, and Directory Service). You can set
up the following options at the satellite location:
No IBM FileNet Content Manager components are deployed at the satellite
location. Only third-party solutions are deployed.
The easiest way to enable the users at the satellite location to use the system
is to provide them with the URL of the IBM Content Navigator application (or a
custom application) at the main location. You can choose this approach if the
satellite location has a similar infrastructure as the main location with high
bandwidth and low latency.

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An alternate approach is the use of third-party software, such as Microsoft
Terminal Server or Citrix, in which the application runs at the main location
and only the content displayed in the window is transferred to the remote
location. This is a solution for clients who have already deployed this type of
technology or for clients who have legal requirements regarding the location
of the document content.
Install IBM Content Navigator only.
Establishing an additional IBM Content Navigator installation at the satellite is
a solution for WAN networks, where it is better to have the WAN cloud
between IBM Content Navigator and the Content Platform Engine instead of
between IBM Content Navigator and the clients. Although the footprint of this
solution is small in relation to performance, much better results can be
achieved when using caching.
Install IBM Content Navigator and Content Platform Engine (not
recommended).
We do not recommend this setup, because the Content Platform Engine
needs to be local to the database for optimal performance.
Install IBM Content Navigator and Content Platform Engine with a content
cache area.
This is the classical scenario for a centralized system, where the satellite
users are primarily downloading and viewing content, but they do not perform
other types of work on the system. Preloading of content completes the
solution, if appropriate.
Install IBM Content Navigator and Content Platform Engine with a content
cache area and request forwarding enabled.
This is the classical scenario for a centralized system, where the satellite uses
caching for content retrieval and additional work needs to be done at the
satellite in addition to downloading and viewing content.
Install IBM Content Navigator, Content Platform Engine, and file store (not
recommended).
We do not recommend this scenario, because the file store and object store
databases need to both be local to the Content Platform Engine for optimal
performance.

Chapter 3. System architecture
79
Install IBM Content Navigator, Content Platform Engine, the object store
database, and the file store.
In this scenario, the P8 domain has more than one object store. Each satellite
location has a local object store but can still access data stored in other object
stores.
This architecture is useful:
– If users at the satellite location primarily access content only in the local
object store.
– An independent satellite must store its own data.
If retrieval from the satellite location to the main location is required, add a
content cache area to the main location.
In all the listed configurations, since FileNet Workplace XT is being used
primarily as an administrative tool, deploy it at one site only.
3.6 Conclusion
In this chapter, we described IBM FileNet P8 Content Manager architecture. In
the next chapter, we provide best practices and recommendations when
designing object stores.

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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
81
Chapter 4.
Repository design
In this chapter, we introduce the basic concepts and elements that comprise a
repository. Repositories encapsulate not only the content being managed but
also the various metadata elements and infrastructure that support the IBM
FileNet Content Manager functionality. In addition, we describe the repository
design elements and guidelines for using these elements.
We discuss the following topics:
Repository design goals
Object-oriented design
Repository naming standards
Populating a repository
Repository organizational objects
Global configuration database (GCD)
Repository design objects
Repository content objects
Storage media
Considerations for multiple object stores
Retention management and automatic disposal
P8 Content Manager searches
4

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4.1 Repository design goals
Repositories
are the central components of IBM FileNet Content Manager
solutions. In this chapter, when we talk about repositories, we do not mean just
the low-level databases, file systems, and other technical components where
pieces of data reside. We mean a more encompassing definition that includes
not only those things, but higher level constructs, such as access control,
relationships among objects, different types of business objects, and various
ways that users and applications interact with them. Some solutions might have
repositories composed of a single object store. Other solutions are composed of
dozens of object stores, file systems, storage devices, and other resources.
Repositories store content, such as office documents, images, records, and
other types of electronic content along with associated metadata. FileNet
Content Manager repositories are capable of storing billions of documents and
records, providing a centrally accessible, enterprise-wide library of information
that can be centrally managed and used in many different ways.
The decomposition of FileNet Content Manager solutions into the various
repository elements is designed to facilitate not only the separation of logical and
functional purposes, but it also is designed to meet a number of additional goals.
The architectural framework offers features that facilitate the specific goals of
scalability, maintainability, securability, well-behaved enterprise citizenship, and
flexibility for future function and growth. Each section in this chapter explains
specific features of these elements.
Security features are present at almost every level and manifestation of the
repository elements and, in many instances, in multiple ways. These features
provide various security granularities from broad to specific and individualized
levels. See Chapter 5, “Security” on page 151 for additional details of security
features.
4.2 Object-oriented design
IBM FileNet Content Manager follows an object-oriented design (OOD)
paradigm. Every element represented in the system exists as an object. For
example, an element can be a content object that contains the metadata and
reference for a specific document, or it can be the definition of a document class
that defines what the metadata objects look like.

Chapter 4. Repository design
83
The following design aspects are complementary high-level approaches to
repository design:

Content decomposition
. Examine the types of content across the
organization, the purpose of the content, and then group the content based
on shared properties and metadata. For example, policy documents can be
grouped together, separate from checks, statements, and claims. The
perspective of this approach focuses on the content and types of content
contained in specific documents.

Grouping content by relationship
. Examine specific relationships between
documents, such as checks related to a specific claim, which in turn is related
to a specific policy. The perspective of this approach focuses on formalized
relationships between documents.

How content is used and accessed
. This analysis can reveal content
relationships that are not formally captured in metadata. For example, a
spreadsheet listing appraisers in a specific geography is usually accessed
along with claims. Customer service representatives typically look at all
documents relating to a specific user or geography. The perspective of this
approach focuses on how people access and use content to complete their
tasks.

Business processes associated with the content
. The business processes that
use the content, the document lifecycles, and the workflows all give a
perspective that is based on the functionality of the documents. The
perspective of this approach allows the grouping of content based on what it
does. Content can also be combined with other content to create new
content. For example, a report combines data from various sources and is
generated by a report generation process.
4.2.1 Design approaches
Two basic directions from which to approach repository design are bottom-up
and top-down. Both approaches offer specific benefits and advantages, and each
approach carries with it certain limitations that can make it unusable in a specific
situation. Because solution design is an iterative process, and because it can
include a reasonably large scope, it is not uncommon for both approaches to be
integrated and applied to different areas of the design as appropriate. It is better
to employ both design approaches to the solution, focusing on both of their
strengths, and reconciling the approach perspectives as they meet in the middle.
Regardless of which design approach is used, in what combinations, or with
other design approaches, the ultimate design goals remain the same. There
must always exist a specific set of clear business requirements that is driving the
solution.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Bottom-up design approach
Approaching the design from the bottom up has the advantage of enabling the
use of existing content, organization, business knowledge, and expertise that are
either explicitly or implicitly present within the organization. Involving business
users and subject matter experts (SMEs) greatly enhances the utility and
usability of the resultant design.
Designing the repository from the bottom up means analyzing the existing
content and processes in use by the organization and synthesizing the abstract
entities from this information. Repeated applications of grouping the resultant
entities based on a specific set of characteristics and then synthesizing the next
layer up by abstracting these groupings yields the resultant design. Each level of
organization of entities allows a different facet of design detail characteristics to
be focused on and separated out from the others. During the requirements
gathering period, collect the inputs from all groups that will be involved in using,
building, testing, training, or operating the system.
The bottom-up approach has the advantage of allowing you to work with existing,
well-understood content and with workers who have expert knowledge about that
content. Often, as the design grows from the bottom up, it becomes more
difficult, especially for the knowledge workers, to abstract further away from the
concrete details with which they are used to working.
The bottom-up approach has the disadvantage of taking all of the implicit
knowledge about how the existing problem space is approached, including any
artificial constructs that were used for historic or other reasons. Some of those
might be contrary to a good design. It is frequently difficult to get past those
legacy design decisions in order to understand the true underlying requirements.
Top-down design approach
Approaching the design from the top down has the advantage of allowing the
design to be formalized from a clean start. Any existing faults in the system,
historical processes, procedures that no longer add business value, and any
preconceived notions of what is expected can be avoided. This allows the
enterprise viewpoint to be fully exercised and elevates the considerations for
areas, such as future flexibility, growth, and overall integration structure, to be
fully considered.
Recommendations: Interview the business users and SMEs and record their
comments as a set of initial requirements for the system. Use a
proof-of-concept (POC) to validate the requirements and design in the early
phases of the project.

Chapter 4. Repository design
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This process typically starts by utilizing not SMEs, but solution domain experts.
They understand the technology and architecture of enterprise content
management systems. The top-down approach works its way down to the level
where SMEs must be consulted for the final and essential details.
Designing from the top down involves understanding the global picture and
decomposing the various levels of the design through clear design goals or
specific design choices. It is also an iterative process, driving from the most
abstract toward the most concrete levels. By designing from the top down, the
specific order of design characteristics can be approached in the manner that
makes the most strategic sense for the organization.
The top-down approach has the advantage of developing a design that does not
include any artificial non-technical barriers, for example, historical organizational
structures. It produces a design that emphasizes the strategic requirements of
the solution. This often results in the most flexible and adaptable design for the
future.
The disadvantage of the top-down approach is the difficulty in mapping existing
content and processes into the new design that is developed. As the design
iterations approach the more concrete aspects and need to be mapped directly
to concrete business entities, the process can become conceptually and
politically difficult for knowledge workers, depending on historic organizations.
4.2.2 Design processes
Producing the best possible design requires coordination and cooperation from
all of the major areas that the solution touches. In addition, all of the major areas
that will be directly affected by the solution need to be involved and committed to
the goals. However, that is not always possible to achieve, so designing as close
to a perfect solution as possible is the next best goal. There are a number of
design processes and concepts that have been shown to be extremely useful in
producing an effective repository design.
The two key elements necessary are the team that undertakes the design and
the specialized pieces of information that are needed to make the correct design
decisions.
Recommendations: Even if you start with a top-down approach, keep SMEs
informed and involved at an appropriate level. Let them know that they will be
vitally involved as you get to the more concrete layers. An information vacuum
can create genuine misunderstandings that can make everyone’s job more
difficult.

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The design team itself can consist of one or more architects with the specific
responsibility of producing the design. Regardless of the number of individuals in
the design team, there is a clear set of roles and responsibilities that must be
represented. These roles cover both the technical facets of the design as well as
the business facets. The team is usually led by a technical architect who has the
direct responsibility for the overall solution. The team is either populated with
architects and representatives from the following areas or it includes contacts in
the following areas who can provide feedback and direction as needed to the
team without being full-time team members:
P8 Content Manager architect technical role
This is the architect who has the ultimate responsibility for the overall
repository and solution design. This role must be filled by a full-time member
of the design staff who has expert knowledge of the P8 Content Manager
product.
Enterprise architect technical role
This is the architect who is responsible for overseeing the technical fit of the
solution into the existing solution portfolio. This role must be filled by someone
who has expert understanding of the current technology across the
enterprise.
Application architect technical role
This is the architect who has direct responsibility for the specific application or
applications being addressed at this phase of the design and who is
responsible for tracking the business requirements into the solution space.
Enterprise security technical role
This is someone who has expert understanding of the security environments
and models that are used in the enterprise infrastructure. The purpose of this
role is to assure that all existing security policies are followed and to provide
support as needed for security requirements outside of the P8 Content
Manager solution itself.
Legal business role
This role must be filled by someone who has expert knowledge of the legal
requirements of the business sphere in which the solution exists. They
provide guidance about requirements and restrictions on the system that are
imposed for legal, as opposed to business value, reasons.
Knowledge worker business roles
These roles represent the directly affected business workers whose content
and processes are being integrated into P8 Content Manager and who have
the inherent and implicit knowledge of the business that is not usually
captured in any other manner.

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4.3 Repository naming standards
Prior to designing the repository, initial thought must be given to the conventions
that will be used to standardize naming across all of the types of objects that will
be in the repository. At this stage, concern yourself with the standardization
across the organization and design elements of the repository as opposed to the
content objects themselves that will be placed into the repository by users.
Through a well-thought-out naming scheme, you can avoid many potential
problem areas at the beginning of the project as opposed to discovering them
during the lifetime of the repository. All objects that are created as organization
and design objects need to be named as descriptively as possible. When there
are hierarchal relationships between objects, it makes sense to capture this
relationship in the naming standard as well. For example, Company XYZ has a
site that is called Upper Bay. One of the virtual servers in that site is named Upper
Bay-Accounting.
There are a number of standard references to different labels and points that
must be considered in every case. These are presented followed by the callout of
several naming constructs for specific objects that have been shown to be useful.
4.3.1 Display name
Display name
is used to indicate that this label will be displayed on the user
interface components. These display names will be utilized by the users of the
system. These names are intended for human consumption and must have the
proper white space and punctuation to make them the most meaningful to their
intended audience. Display names are localizable, so consideration needs to be
given to whether you will localize display names for your custom classes and
properties.
4.3.2 Symbolic name
In contrast to display names,
symbolic names
are generally used
programmatically to refer to particular objects. For that reason, symbolic names
of various types must usually be unique within the type. For example, all symbolic
names of classes within an Object Store must be unique. Symbolic names are
not localizable.
Recommendations: Put the naming standards in place prior to the creation
of any design or organizational objects in a repository and ensure that they are
adhered to throughout the lifetime of the repository. Ensure that names are as
descriptive as possible with consideration for the consumer of the label.

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Because of the uniqueness constraints for symbolic names, there is a convention
for naming prefixes used by Content Manager and other ECM products. The
purpose of this convention is to minimize the chances of a collision between
names used in future product releases and your private symbolic names.
Cm: Reserved for Content Platform Engine
Dita: Reserved for Content Platform Engine for the FileNet P8 DITA Add-on
RM: Reserved for IBM Enterprise Records
EDM: Reserved for IBM eDiscovery Manager
EDISC: Reserved for IBM eDiscovery Manager
ICC: Reserved for IBM Content Collector
Clb: Reserved for Social Collaboration
CmAcm: Reserved for IBM Case Manager
CmMcs: Reserved for Master Content Server
Check the product documentation for the latest list of reserved prefixes. You need
to be aware that additional prefixes might be used by third parties who provide
components for use with Content Platform Engine.
4.3.3 Uniqueness
Object names across the entire design generally have a requirement for
uniqueness. Unique naming tracks with appropriate naming, that is, when proper
consideration is given to naming objects, the uniqueness typically follows.
Problems can arise when overly abstract names are given to an object where the
same name more appropriately maps at a higher level in the hierarchy.
An example of naming an object Email implies that it is utilized high in the naming
hierarchy whereas we expect a name, such as AgentCustomerEmail, is a good
choice at a low level.
4.3.4 Taxonomy
Taxonomy
is the establishment of categorization based on naming. Having a
specific pattern that is applied to names with well-understood definitions for each
name part facilitates an organized taxonomy. Giving initial thought to taxonomy
and developing a taxonomy prior to the actual naming simplify the naming task
and accent the self-descriptiveness of the names.
Recommendations: Use a unique prefix for symbolic names that you create.
The choice of prefix is yours. It is typical to use something short but
meaningful.

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The best known example of a taxonomy is the scientific classification of living
organisms, designating a name pattern that contains elements, such as species,
family, phylum, and others.
The collection of metadata must achieve a balance between how it will benefit
the user and the effort required to generate it. You need to consider the following
information while collecting the metadata:
What problems are you trying to solve?
What kind of content and metadata do you need to solve the problem?
How will you collect the data?
The primary purpose for standards and controls for taxonomies and metadata is
to achieve consistency throughout the organization in the description of content
objects to facilitate search and retrieval and overall object control.
4.3.5 Consistency
Consistency is important so that as the base of people who will be using the
names is broadened, it leads to better understanding and less confusion as the
system moves forward in scope and in age. Establishing good consistency
standards is beneficial in the end. Consistency is facilitated by the complete
application of the ideas that are already presented.
4.3.6 Object stores
Object stores
are the highest point of naming for a certain repository. Make sure
that you indicate the part of the solution that an object store represents when you
name it.
For example, Company XYZ with a single object store can name its object store
XYZ Enterprise. Another company ZYX has two object stores and it can name
the two object stores, ZYX Operations and ZYX Support. The object stores
represent repositories for all content pertaining directly to the business of ZYX:
one repository for all of their internal administrative content and one repository
for support organization content.
4.3.7 Storage areas
Storage areas
are where the content is stored. There are various types of storage
areas, including file system, database, and fixed content. Each type can
represent a number of varieties, each with specific characteristics. Naming the
storage areas in a manner that encapsulates the type and characteristics of the

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storage area is useful because the storage areas are accessed and applied
throughout the lifetime of the system.
For example, Company XYZ has three storage areas in use for the Company
XYZ repository. The first storage area is a file store hosted on the network
accessible protected storage segment of a storage area network (SAN) by a
Network File System (NFS) mount. The second storage area is a fixed storage
area that links to the company’s image management system. The third storage
area is a file store on a nearby set of inexpensive disk drives, also through an
NFS mount. These three storage areas are named NFS-RAID, IMAGES, and
NFS-CHEAP.
4.3.8 Document, custom object, and folder classes
When naming these objects, consider the inheritance hierarchy to both clarify the
lineage of a specific object as well as to distinguish two leaf objects that might be
the same type at first glance but have totally different lineages.
For example, memos from Engineering are classified under the
XyzOpsDevCommunicate document class. Memos from Human Resources are
classified under the XyzSupHrCommunicate document class.
4.3.9 Property templates
There are special considerations for property templates because a certain
property template can be widely used across many different objects. The names
chosen for the property templates need to be self-descriptive of both the
characteristics of the property template as well as the intended use of the
template.
An example of three property templates is XyzAgencyName, XyzFirstName, and
XyzLastName. These templates have multiple usages across different objects in a
generic way.
Recommendations: Prefix the document class with the common prefix for the
system, department name, and the purpose so that it is easy to find out the
purpose of the class by looking at the name.

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4.3.10 Choice lists
Choice lists
are ways to restrict the possible values of an integer or string
property. They are used to limit the entries that the user will fill in for a property
template. Choice lists need to be descriptive, informative names.
4.4 Populating a repository
In the solution domain, there are two major containers for data: the global
configuration database (GCD) and the repositories, which are illustrated in
Figure 4-1 on page 92. There is only a single GCD that encapsulates all of the
configuration of the domain and at least one, but possibly many, repositories in
the system.
Recommendations: Use the Category field in the property template for
categorizing the properties.
Property template names need to follow the standard naming scheme and
topology established at the enterprise level.
Property template names need to be generic enough that they can be used in
a number of design classes but not so generic that they cannot be given a
meaningful name.
Recommendations: If you create applications that use IBM Content
Navigator, considering using External Data Services (EDS) to control user
interface elements instead of choice lists. An EDS is more flexible for
application developers.

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Figure 4-1 Storage objects in a domain
A repository contains a single object store and potentially one or more storage
areas as shown in Figure 4-2 on page 93. An
object store
contains definitions,
configuration information, and metadata for the content that is stored in the
repository. The storage areas store the actual content.
Global Configuration Database
Repository
Repository
Repository
Repository
Repository

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Figure 4-2 Repository contents
There are four major stages involved in the population of a repository: three
design stages and one production stage. The three design stages include
organizational design, described in 4.5, “Repository organizational objects” on
page 95, repository design, described in 4.7, “Repository design objects” on
page 98, and repository content design, described in 4.8, “Repository content
objects” on page 117. The final stage in repository population is the actual test or
production usage of the repository. The following sections describe the design
stages and their relationships.
During all of these design phases, there are certain commonalities that are
universally, or nearly universally, utilized in the objects of the design.
4.4.1 Generic object system properties
Generic object system properties
are properties that are found in the lowest level
of the object-oriented hierarchy from which all other objects are extended. All of
the system properties are available to all the objects and do not need to be
replicated in any custom properties. Therefore, you must understand what is
available in order to leverage these properties where applicable.
Object
Store
File Content
File Content
Database Content
Repository

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Here, we list several of the system properties that have potential application in
other places of the design:
Class description
The class description contains the description of the class from which this
object is instantiated.
Display name
This label is intended for display to the user.
Descriptive text
This text describes the purpose and meaning intended for this object.
Is hidden
This is a Boolean value that indicates whether the object is hidden in its
current context. This property can affect the user interface. Hidden objects or
classes are generally of interest to application developers for special
purposes but not of interest to users.
Symbolic name
This label is used for internal, programmatic references to the object.
ID
This immutable global
1
unique identifier (GUID) can be used to reference a
specific object throughout its lifetime.
Is content-based retrieval (CBR)-enabled
This is a Boolean value that indicates if content-based retrieval is enabled in
the current context of the object.
In addition to the set of properties just covered that applies to all objects in the
system, there is a set of properties that appears in many of the objects that is
important to mention at this level. The following properties are present in most
objects:
Auditing enabled
This property indicates whether the object has its auditing enabled. This is a
switch that enables and disables all audit logging for this specific object and
its scope. Many events can be audited and controlled at a more granular level.
1
In the P8 platform, GUIDs are only guaranteed to be unique in certain contexts. In other contexts,
where uniqueness does not matter, GUIDs are created in a way that makes duplicates unlikely. For
example, it is possible and harmless for a folder and a document to have the same ID value.

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Permissions
This property contains the access control list (ACL) for the object. An ACL
consists of a number of access control entries (ACEs). A single ACE contains
either an individual or group from the directory and the authorizations that
entity has in relation to the object (See Chapter 5, “Security” on page 151 for
more details).
4.4.2 Creating design elements
There are many design element types, such as document classes, custom object
classes, folder classes, property templates, and GCD objects, that must be used
in cooperation to achieve the best design. Each of these elements exists for a
specific purpose and encapsulates a specific set of information. Because
solutions are composed together from these elements, complex relationships
can be created between them that must be maintained for system integrity and
consistency. Most of the complexities of the relationships are handled by the
underlying engine and removed from the concerns of administrators and
application designers.
Modifying and removing design elements can be a tricky procedure, given the
complex relationships that are possible. This is especially noticeable when
attempting to remove a design element that might be used or referenced from a
number of other design elements at differing levels of the design. It is always best
to be as thorough as possible in the system design before actually creating the
elements in the Content Manager. This thoroughness avoids most of these
difficult situations.
4.5 Repository organizational objects
The solution space is divided into a number of logical divisions. Each division
serves a specific purpose. The composition of all of these divisions provides a
powerful solution that allows the requirements of any implementation to be
clearly and succinctly decomposed.
Figure 4-3 on page 96 shows the logical relationships among the decomposition
elements, domain, sites, virtual servers, server instances, and object stores.
Recommendations: Complete the design as much as possible prior to
actually creating the design elements in the system.

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Figure 4-3 Repository organizational objects
All of the logical elements comprising a domain can be administered and
managed through Content Platform Engine Administration tools. Naturally, all of
the elements can also be manipulated using the APIs, but it is generally simpler
to use the administration tools for most situations.
All these repository organizational objects were discussed in the Chapter 3,
“System architecture” on page 37.
Site
Site
Site
Virtual Server
Virtual Server
Virtual Server
Server Instance
Server Instance
Server Instance

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4.6 Global configuration database (GCD)
All of the repository organizational objects are contained in the GCD. The GCD is
the single container that encapsulates all of the configuration information for a
domain. The GCD is the logical representation of the domain, and it contains the
subsystem configuration, which consists of the other organizational elements for
sites, virtual servers, and server instances. In addition, it contains the specific
configuration information for each object store’s database space, directory
configuration, text search server information, trace log configuration information,
and other information that is accessible to all the object stores inside that
domain.
Figure 4-4 gives a visual representation of the GCD layout.
.
Figure 4-4 Global configuration database contents
ObjectStore1
DS/DSXA
ObjectStore2
DS/DSXA
Subsystem Configuration
Domain
Site1
VirtualServer1
ServerInstance1
ServerInstance2
VirtualServer2
ServerInstance3
Site2

TraceLogging Configuration
GCD

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4.7 Repository design objects
There are a number of elements that constitute a repository design. Each of
these elements encapsulates a specific view, purpose, and role in the complete
design. The division of responsibility between some of these elements is clear
while others are highly dependent on the specific environment and application.
There are a large number of design decisions that must be made to achieve a
final design that is both efficient and scalable.
4.7.1 Object stores
In a similar manner that a domain encapsulates an entire repository solution, an
object store
is the basic component of a repository that contains not only all of
the content that has been committed to P8 Content Manager, but all of the
additional information and functional objects associated with that content. The
number, type, and location of object stores that are needed for an organization
are important design considerations (see 4.10, “Considerations for multiple
object stores” on page 133 for additional details). Any object store is associated
with a specific site and the storage areas associated with that site. The object
store contains definitions for various classes that structure metadata, as well as
actual metadata objects along with their connections to the content where
applicable. An object store can contain all of the content for the entire enterprise
or can be segmented from the overall enterprise design and assigned to a
specific set of the overall problem. Regardless of the purpose, the object store
contains the entirety of all of the definitions required for use by users and any
applications that will access it. Figure 4-5 on page 99 shows a graphical
representation of the scope of an object store.

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Figure 4-5 Object store contents
An object store is conceptually an object like all entities that make up a repository
and that has specific characteristics. Object stores are created through the use of
administration tools. The best practice is to utilize the wizard for object store
creation, which simplifies the interface and ensures that all settings necessary at
creation time are both set and synchronized where applicable.
Other Definitions
Workflows
Choice Lists
Properties
Events
Security polices
Other
Root Folder Object Store
Class Definitions

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4.7.2 Storage areas
Storage areas
for repositories can be hosted on a wide range of storage devices
and mediums, from SCSI drives, to fiber-attached SAN devices, to secure
immutable storage units, as well as others.
In addition to storage media type, there are a number of logical storage types,
such as database stores, file stores, fixed content stores, and cached content
temporary stores. Each of these logical types has implications for performance
and functionality that must be considered when determining specifically where to
store content.
Storage areas have specific features to optimize the storage for space and other
enterprise requirements.
Content compression
Content that is uploaded to the storage area is compressed if content
compression is enabled for the storage area. Only the content that can be
compressed beyond the compression threshold will be compressed. Content
compression uses blocked-compression technology to divide the uploaded
content into distinct blocks, which are compressed in memory before being
written to disk. If encryption is also enabled, the block is first compressed and
then it is encrypted in memory before being written to disk. Enabling content
compression on a storage area will not encrypt the existing content.
Encryption of content
The content stored in the storage area can be encrypted using the storage area
configuration. Content encryption helps protect the confidentiality of the content if
it is accessed outside of Content Manager. A new key is generated every time
that the encryption is enabled on the storage area. The most recent key is used
to encrypt the new content. These encryption keys are stored in the object store
database in a secured way.
Recommendations: If your design calls for more than a single object store,
create a metastore that can contain all of the design objects that are common
across all of the stores and replicate this as changes are made. If a meta
object store is used, do not roll this store out into production, because it is
strictly a development object store.
When creating an object store,
always
set the object store administrator to a
valid administrator logon and grant the administrator all permissions.

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Enabling content encryption on a storage area will not encrypt the existing
content. In content replication, the external repository receives the
non-encrypted content. Also, the decrypted content will be submitted for indexing
purposes.
By moving content from one storage area to another, you can enforce the content
encryption, re-encrypt with a latest key, or store non-encrypted content.
Suppression of duplicate content elements
The suppression of duplicate content can reduce the storage space that is
required to store content. Content Platform Engine suppresses duplicate content
by checking the existing content before adding new content to the storage area. If
identical content exists, the new content is stored as a reference to the existing
content. If no identical content exists, the new content is added in the normal
manner.
Duplicate suppression is not available for fixed content devices, but those
devices usually offer their own native duplicate suppression features.
Suppressing duplicate content might decrease storage space requirements but it
also slightly increases processing time. To help you determine whether your
space savings make the trade-off worthwhile, Content Platform Engine provides
storage statistics for each storage area.
Database store
There is a single database store per object store, where the database store is
part of the same database as the Object Store itself. The
database store
can be
used to store content, but the content will be stored as a database binary large
object (BLOB). Depending on the size of the content, this is not an effective use
of the database and can have serious impacts on the database performance,
especially with the large content.
File store
There can be multiple file stores per object store with each one a separate
directory structure on the server. The
file store
can be on local storage media or
can be a mount point for remote, or networked, storage media. This is the typical
location that is used for content with different file stores of different media types
used for different content where appropriate.
Recommendations: Using the database store can help with operational
efficiency in some cases, but it almost always represents a performance cost
over file storage.

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Fixed content store
There can be multiple fixed content stores per object store. This content type is
designed to provide access to other content storage systems, such as an image
repository, while leveraging the power of the Content Manager metadata
management system. Fixed content stores can represent a physical storage
appliance or can represent federated content.
Content cache store
A
content cache store
is a special store that allows local caching of content that is
permanently stored in another storage area. A content cache is typically used for
storage areas in a different geographic site. A content cache store allows local
access to content that is frequently accessed, or in an active state of processing,
to be available without degrading the network connection to the remote content
and increasing the performance for these local operations. The cached content
store provides a performance enhancement for remote content access but does
not provide any type of high availability solution for the content. See Chapter 7,
“Business continuity” on page 217 for more details about high availability
solutions.
Although it is typically thought of as part of the configuration of a distributed
environment, a content cache store can also give performance benefits locally if
it is faster than the permanent storage for the content.
4.7.3 Document classes
Document classes
are the design objects that, when instantiated, will contain
most of the business content of the system. Most of the detailed design process
is concerned with developing the correct set and hierarchy of document classes.
Recommendations: The media type and cost must be clearly understood
from the file store name to eliminate content storage area errors.
Recommendations: The Content Platform Engine guarantees that
application access to cached content always follows the normal security
controls, and it also guarantees that applications will not access stale content.
Therefore, you can use a content cache area wherever it provides a benefit.
You do not have to worry about compromising security or data integrity.

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Document classes are inherited from a common top-level document class that
contains all of the basic properties that the system needs. Although it is not
technically necessary, it can be useful to create an immediate child subclass of
document for enterprise-wide use. A top-level subclass for the enterprise can
contain all of the metadata items that are the same across all document objects
in the enterprise, either by requirement or policy.
The first level of document class design is concerned with the common
enterprise objects, as opposed to specific application objects. The result of this
first round of design is a hierarchal document class tree that contains all of the
common enterprise document classes that can be leveraged by specific
applications, because they are included in the Content Manager solution. A
reasonable number of properties need to be defined in each class. It is easier to
administer and expand a design where each document class is concerned with a
specific aspect of the design. The resultant tree is typically neither extremely
narrow, nor extremely wide. A narrow tree usually indicates that the class design
has focused too specifically on an aspect and has been too exclusive. A wide
tree usually indicates that there are too many aspects of the design encapsulated
at a level.
Another test that can be applied to the resultant design is to see how various
changes to the design can be made. If there are properties that have historically
changed somewhat frequently or there are any properties that are projected to
change, see what changes need to be made to the design to accommodate the
changes. The ideal is to address a change with a change in a single class. This is
a good indication that you have the proper level of design encapsulation. The
types of changes to consider are property redefinitions, property additions,
property deletions, class additions, class modifications, class deletions, security
updates, functional changes, and organizational changes.
Adopting an enterprise perspective allows the document class designs to
facilitate greater information sharing and collaboration across the enterprise. In
addition to assisting in breaking down information silos, this makes the overall
design much more usable as well. You must always take usability into
consideration during all the design phases. The use of SMEs at this phase can
greatly assist you in meeting the unspoken requirements and usability goals of
users.
Recommendations: Avoid making many subclasses for a custom document
class. Changes to a higher level custom document class will be propagated to
all its subclasses.

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As a key design object in the system, there are lots of additional components on
which the document classes are dependent. Most of these dependencies are
covered in the specific sections for the dependent elements. Probably the most
important dependency is the usage of the property templates in the class
designs. This dependency underscores the need to be clear and concise in the
property template definitions and consistent with naming and topology across the
entire design.
Finally, try to avoid designing for the current organization without being modular
enough to accommodate change. Avoid carrying over limitations of the current
system that might have been design flaws in the current system or limitations of
the tools that are used to support it. Take into account any current or future
processes in which the content is utilized. That is, always consider business
process automation in the design. Remember that there will always be additional
applications and functional areas that the system will need to support that are not
currently identified or even identifiable.
There are three focus areas that the document class design typically follows:
design based on organization, design based on content, and design based on
function. Although these are the major design approaches that are used,
variations on these themes as well as modifications and combinations of these
approaches are also successfully used. The correct approach to use is highly
dependent on the specific details of your corporation and the application that is
supported by P8 Content Manager:
Design based on organization
Design based on organization starts with the first level of decomposition after
the enterprise root document class, which is groupings around how the
corporation is organized. This can be reflected in line of business (LOB)
objects, support and business value objects, or any other high-level structure
that represents your organization. The subsequent layers of the hierarchy
then follow the organization down into smaller and smaller groupings. Each
level can also have classes that capture content-specific aspects where the
document content that they represent has consistency across the entire
organization from that root down the hierarchy. Eventually, the lowest level
represents document content classes that correspond to specific functional
areas or specific content.
This facilitates future changes that occur at the organizational level by
capturing these aspects as high in the tree as feasible and letting these
properties and attributes be inherited down the hierarchy.

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Design based on content
Design based on content starts with the first level of decomposition after the
enterprise root document class. The first level includes high-level abstractions
of the content types that will be stored in P8 Content Manager. This often
follows record plans where they have been established. Lower levels of the
hierarchy allow the capture of more and more concrete aspects of the content
types until the resultant leaf nodes are declared.
This approach facilitates communication across the enterprise, because all of
the properties of the document classes will be the same regardless of where
in the organization they are used. You do not capture the organizational
aspects of the corporation. This design approach can have significant political
ramifications dependent on the culture of your corporation.
Design based on function
Basing design on function starts with the first level of decomposition after the
enterprise root document class, consisting of abstractions of the functions
that are carried out in the corporation without regard to the organizational
structure. As the document class hierarchy extends down, more and more
concrete functional aspects are captured, as well as content-specific aspects
for the content types that will be used.
This approach captures many of the functional aspects of the corporation,
which typically mirror the organizational structure, but in a more abstract
perspective of focusing solely on the function, business value, and processes
for which the content is used. This approach is sometimes viewed as a
blending of the purely organizational approach and the purely content
approach.
Document classes are created through a wizard interface in Content Platform
Engine Administration tools in the metastore. After the metadata of the metastore
is finalized, all the metadata will be exported and imported to the other
development, test, and production systems using the deployment tool as
described in Chapter 9, “Deployment” on page 271.

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Document class characteristics
Document classes have the following characteristics:
Have metadata
Are containable
Are versionable by both content and metadata
Hold content
4.7.4 Folder classes
Folder class objects
are the design objects that, when instantiated, provide
aggregation or containment for other objects. The characteristics and usage of
folder objects must not be mistaken for, or confused with, the foldering features
and concepts provided by a file system. P8 Content Manager folder classes
provide containment by reference, which allows any specific object to be
contained in multiple folders at the same time. Most of the same considerations
that are given to creating document object classes (4.7.3, “Document classes” on
page 102) also apply to designing folder classes:
Single top-level class that all others are derived from.
Single design aspect captured per class.
Design with changes in mind.
Design in modularity.
Do not repeat any mistakes that the current system or processes have.
Recommendations: There needs to be a single, top-level document class
that extends the base document class and from which all other document
classes will be derived.
All property templates, choice lists, storage policies, and storage areas need
to be created prior to creating any document classes that utilize them.
Each document class encapsulates a single design aspect.
Create all the metadata in the meta object store and export and import the
metadata from the metastore by using IBM FileNet P8 Deployment Manager
as described in Chapter 9, “Deployment” on page 271.
Never skip the step of designing high-level abstract objects that are for aspect
encapsulation and that most likely are never instantiated.

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A key design decision that needs to be made is whether the main access
mechanism for content follows the search paradigm (represented in Figure 4-6)
or follows the browse paradigm (represented in Figure 4-7 on page 108). Both of
these paradigms offer their own strengths and weaknesses, and this decision
directly affects how folder classes will be used and instantiated.
Search paradigm
The model for the search paradigm is represented in Figure 4-6 as a dialog box
requesting some information and returning a set of content that meets the criteria
specified in the dialog. The best analogy is accessing a database. Information is
retrieved from a database by formulating a query, which returns a set of data
elements that matches the criteria in the query.
Figure 4-6 Searching for content
The search paradigm is powerful, because it does not rely on the user needing to
know where the content is in the system or the name of the object that contains
the content. Searching also returns a set of objects as an atomic operation; the
maximum size of this set can be controlled as well. This can include objects that
are in diverse places in the repository. Effective use of the search paradigm
requires the selection of meaningful distinguishing properties for the objects that
have meaning to users. It also requires meaningful document classes that are
understood by users as well.
The search paradigm can be fronted with various methods of compiling the
search criteria and usually is best served by designing searches or through
custom interfaces. It is usually a faster and more reliable method of finding
content than is offered by the browse paradigm.
< B
ack
Finish
Cancel
Search Options
Search Options
Submit
Cancel
Name:
Size:

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Browse paradigm
The model for the browse paradigm is represented in Figure 4-7 as a typical file
system structure. There is some meaningful relationship between the sets of
folders that lead the user to sets of content in an understandable way. The best
analogy is a file system tree structure. Although the analogy presented to help
understand the browse paradigm is a file system structure, a file system folder is
not
the same as a P8 Content Manager folder, which supports multiple filed
locations.
Figure 4-7 Browsing for content
The browse paradigm relies on the users who add the content to be thoughtful
and knowledgeable in the manner in which the content is filed. This potentially
includes filing the same content object in multiple folders. There is also a
requirement that the name of the content object has a meaning in its context that
is understood by users.
Recommendations: Use a search paradigm to search for documents with as
much metadata information as possible to get a small result set. As much as
possible, avoid using wildcard searches, which give you a large result set.

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The browse paradigm can increase the time that it takes for the system to search
for content, but it is well suited to users who all understand the basic concepts of
foldering and are used to using foldering for file system access. The browse
paradigm typically takes longer for users to find content than the search
paradigm, and it requires users to have inherent knowledge to be able to reliably
find content.
Folder class characteristics
Folder classes have the following characteristics:
Have metadata
Are containable
Are not versionable
Are not content
Are containers
4.7.5 Custom object classes
Custom object classes
are design objects that contain metadata without content
and provide no containment. They are designed to be versatile general-purpose
objects that can be subclassed to perform a variety of functions, such as security
proxies, or configuration objects for workflow processing. Custom objects are
database objects that do not have any content.
Most of the same considerations that are given to creating document object
classes (4.7.3, “Document classes” on page 102) also apply to designing custom
object classes:
Single top-level class from which all others are derived.
Single design aspect captured per class.
Recommendations: In most cases, the search paradigm offers a much better
model for performance and maintenance. Avoid too many layers of too many
folders (keep the total number to tens of folders, not hundreds), which can
impact retrieval performance. There needs to be a single, top-level folder class
that extends the base folder class and from which all other folder classes will
be derived.
All property templates and choice lists must be created prior to creating any
folder classes that utilize them. Create all the metadata in the metastore and
export and import the metadata from the metastore using the deployment tool.
When using a browse paradigm, make sure to file the documents in a
meaningful foldering hierarchy. Each folder class encapsulates a single design
aspect.

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Design with changes in mind.
Design in modularity.
Do not repeat any mistakes that the current system or processes might have.
Custom object class characteristics
Custom object classes have the following characteristics:
Have metadata
Are containable
Are not versionable
Hold no content
4.7.6 Custom root classes
Custom object subclasses are essentially a collection of properties. The
disadvantage with instances of custom object class is that these will be stored in
the
Generic
table in the object store database. This might cause a performance
degradation if several instances of disjoint custom object classes exist in the
Generic table. Querying for one instance of the subclass might be slowed
because of the presence of a large number of instances of other custom object
subclasses. Sometimes, it is not always practical to create an index on the
Generic table since many of the columns might have null values because those
columns relate to other classes.
To overcome the issues with custom objects, users can use the custom root
classes. Every immediate subclass of the custom abstract root class has a
separate table in the database. The table name will be generated from the
symbolic name of the custom root class.
Three kinds of custom root classes can be created: abstract persistable, abstract
queue entry, and abstract sequential. All these base custom root classes are
abstract and cannot be instantiated directly. Also, Content Manager does not let
users update the properties of these classes. Users create subclasses from
these abstract classes in order to use them in the application. It is from the
Recommendations: There must be a single, top-level custom object class
that extends the base custom object class and from which all other custom
object classes will be derived.
All property templates and choice lists need to be created prior to creating any
custom object classes that use them. Each custom object class encapsulates
a single design aspect.

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immediate subclasses that the tables are created. Any instances of subclasses
of the custom root classes will be saved in the same table as the custom root
class table:
Abstract persistable
It is similar to a custom object class, which is a collection of properties without
any content associated with it. The instances of this class cannot be filed into
any folder. The immediate subclasses of abstract persistable are each saved
in a different table.
Abstract queue entry
The subclasses of abstract queue entry are intended for the queues managed
by the sweep framework. This class has additional properties that are
required for the sweep-based queue operations. The abstract queue entry
classes will follow the security model for queue item and replication. Access is
defined by the default instance permissions. There is no owner or permission
property on these instances.
Abstract sequential
Abstract sequential is for the external applications’ queue and log processing.
It provides a single increasing sequence number property that can be used to
process the entries in the order in which the transactions were created.
4.7.7 Property templates
Property templates
are used throughout the design as established containers for
properties. A property template contains a name, a property data type, and a set
of attributes. This enables the definition of common properties to occur once and
be utilized throughout the design in a uniform manner. Properties, such as
FirstName, LastName, and PolicyNumber, are typical generic property templates in
a design.
Important: The two subclasses created by any custom root class are disjoint
because they are in separate table. Deleting the class definition for a custom
root class will drop the associated tables.

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There are two types of properties: the system properties that come preinstalled
in P8 Content Manager and custom properties that you create for your specific
installation. All of these properties can be utilized in any definitions as you think
appropriate. Typically, there is a rich set of system properties associated with the
base classes. The system properties that are, by default, associated with a class
must be examined to both prevent duplication of information and to understand
what is available to be leveraged by your class definitions.
Property templates must always have a data type associated with them. The data
type can have a cardinality of either single value or multi-value for all data types.
4.7.8 Choice lists
Choice lists
are defined to limit users from being able to enter free-form text or
integer data into a property. Choice lists protect against typing mistakes and
other human errors. It is not always appropriate to use a choice list, because
there must be a well-understood, mostly static set of data that the property can
take.
Choice lists can consist of levels of groupings of values to make it easier for the
correct value to be selected. In multi-value properties, the user can select
multiple entries from the choice list.
Recommendations: Property templates need to follow a standardized
naming scheme and topology established at the enterprise level. Property
templates need to be generic enough that they can be used in a number of
design classes, but not so generic that they cannot be given a meaningful
name.
Avoid the creation of property templates that are named in such a manner that
it might be confusing to know which template to use. Avoid the creation of
property templates that encapsulate the same informational data but have
distinct names.
Recommendations: Group choice list elements logically with the user
experience in mind. Limit the number of elements in each group to a small
enough set that it can be easily displayed and scanned.
Avoid assigning the same value to more than one item in a choice list. Do not
use choice lists for properties where the values are expected to change
frequently.

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4.7.9 Annotations
Annotations
allow users to link additional information or comments to other
objects, such as documents. These annotations can be in any format, such as
text, audio, video, image, highlight, and sticky note. An annotation’s content does
not necessarily have to be the same format as its parent document and can be
published separately. Document annotations are uniquely associated with a
single document version; they are not versioned or carried forward when their
document version is updated, and a new version is created.
You can modify and delete annotations independently of their annotated object.
However, you cannot create versions of an annotation separately from the object
with which it is associated. By design, the annotation will be deleted whenever its
associated parent object is deleted. Annotations receive their default security
from both the annotation’s class and the parent object. You can apply security to
annotations that is different from the security applied to the parent.
The content of annotations is stored in a storage area, as defined by the default
area for the annotation class. The storage area used by the annotation class
needs to be appropriate for the type of content associated with the annotations.
That is, if a large content is being used for annotations, it must not be stored in
the database storage area.
4.7.10 Document lifecycles
Document lifecycles
allow for the fact that a certain document exists in a number
of states throughout its lifetime. Figure 4-8 on page 114 shows a sample state
diagram for the typical document lifecycle in the XYZ corporation.

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Figure 4-8 Sample document lifecycle model
In this example, documents are in one of three states:
Personal documents not being shared or collaborated on
Workgroup documents that have a limited scope of sharing and are intended
for collaboration
Corporate records that have meaningful business value to the company
In the first two states, a document can be revised and remain in its current state,
reach its end of life and be destroyed, or be promoted to a higher state. In the
workgroup collaboration state, documents can also be processed in some
automated way, such as through IBM Case Foundation (previously known as IBM
FileNet Business Process Manager). In the final corporate document state, a
document can also be demoted back to the workgroup for revisions and updates.
While the figure captures the states and transitions between the states that a
document can take, it also illustrates how IBM FileNet Content Manager
document lifecycles can be extremely useful. A document lifecycle allows for the
definition of the states in which a document can be and then can associate that
document with a set of security templates that depend on the state that the
document is in. This controls the access of the document as it progresses from
being a personal document, to a workgroup document, to a corporate document.

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Document lifecycles are contained in two design classes: the lifecycle policy
class and the lifecycle action class:
Lifecycle policy class
The definition of the document’s states. The policy also identifies the lifecycle
action that executes in response to the state changes.
Lifecycle action class
Action that the system performs when a document moves from one state to
another.
Document types in the Content Platform Engine have default lifecycle policies.
You can also assign a default lifecycle policy to any new document class. When
you create a document using a class with an associated lifecycle policy, the
document uses it as a default lifecycle policy. This can be overridden at creation
time by assigning a different lifecycle policy to the document.
4.7.11 Events and subscriptions
Content Platform Engine Administration tools enable you to define events that
extend the functionality of an object store, which enables you to configure objects
to perform actions in response to specific activities that occur on each object
defined on a Content Platform Engine server.
An
event
consists of an event action and a subscription. An
event action

describes the action to take place on an object. A
subscription
defines the object
or class of objects to which the action applies, as well as which events trigger the
action to occur. Subscriptions can be assigned to individual objects. However, it
is more efficient if they are assigned to classes instead. Assigning subscriptions
to classes ensures that a set of common objects is managed consistently.
Assigning subscriptions to classes can also limit the number of subscriptions that
run simultaneously, which can affect system performance.
Recommendations: Assign lifecycle policies to a document class whenever
possible, instead of assigning them to individual documents. This practice
helps the operator select the correct policy by choosing the document class
associated with the desired lifecycle policy. This practice also prevents
problems that can occur if you need to delete a lifecycle policy.

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4.7.12 Marking sets
Marking sets
are intended for records management applications. They allow
access to objects to be controlled based on the values of specific properties. The
ACL for an object with a marking set is a combination of the settings of its original
ACL and the settings of the markings constraint mask for each marking that is
applied to it. The result of this combination is the effective security mask. It is
important to note that marking sets are only subtractive in nature, that is access
can only be denied or removed through marking sets. Refer to 5.3.6, “Markings”
on page 167 for more information about marking sets.
The general mechanisms of marking sets include:
A marking set is defined that contains several possible values called
markings
.
Each marking value contains an ACL that defines who can assign that
specific value to an object property, who can modify that value, who can
remove that specific value, and who will have access to the object to which it
is assigned.
The marking set is assigned to a property definition that is assigned to a
class. All instances of that class must have this marking property set to one of
the markings defined in the marking set.
The value for the marking properties can only be assigned by users
authorized by the associated marking.
Recommendations: Add properties to subclass event actions and
subscriptions. Keep event actions short to ensure quick completion. This is
especially true for synchronous subscriptions where the subscription
processor waits for an event action to complete before moving on to
subsequent processing.
Do not rely on priority to guarantee the order of execution for subscriptions.
Ensure that you thoroughly test your events and subscriptions before
implementing them.
Set up each event action with code stubs that specify each event trigger
(Create, Update, Delete, CheckIn, CheckOut, File Event, Unfile Event, Mark
for soft delete, and recover to restore from recycle bin), even if you do not
define functions for every trigger. The subscription controls which of the
triggers call an action. You need to prepare the action to handle all triggers
gracefully.

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Markings do not replace conventional access permissions on an object, but
rather are coequal with them in determining access rights. If an object has
one or more markings applied to it in addition to one or more permissions in
its ACL, access to that object is only granted if it is granted by the permissions
and
by the markings.
The number or size of markings in a single marking set is limited by available
system memory. To perform an access check on a marked object, the entire
marking set and all its markings must be loaded into memory. This is not going to
work if there are millions of markings. For this reason, limit the number of
markings in a marking set to no more than 100.
4.8 Repository content objects
Part of the repository design process also involves how the content will be
organized and laid out in the repository. You need to decide how to structure the
objects that are instantiated from the design classes.
This section describes points for you to consider when laying out the content in
the object store.
4.8.1 Folder objects
Folder objects
can be participants in both sides of aggregation by reference.
Because the foldering concept in IBM FileNet Content Manager is done by
reference, and a containable object can be referenced in multiple locations at the
same time, this can be an extremely powerful tool to meet sophisticated
requirements. In general, if the search paradigm is followed, folder objects serve
a purpose for actual reference aggregation and an additional layer of security for
those aggregated objects. For many clients, a primary reason for installing a
central repository is to bring scattered information into an organized structure.
Referential containment relationships
A
folder
is a container that can hold other objects. These objects can be custom
objects, documents, and folders and their subclasses. Child folders are typically
directly contained. That is, their containment model is a one-to-many
relationship.
Recommendations: Marking sets need to contain no more than 100
markings. Marking sets are domain objects. Having more marking sets affects
the performance and the memory footprint of Content Platform Engine server.

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A containing folder can contain multiple child folders, but each child folder is
directly contained within at most one parent folder. Custom objects and
documents are always referentially contained. For referentially contained objects,
their containment models a many-to-many relationship. A referentially contained
object can be contained within multiple folders, and can also be contained
multiple times in the same folder.
There are two types of referential containment relationships: dynamic and static.
A
static referential containment relationship
is a relationship between a folder
and a custom object, a specific document version in a version series, or a folder.
A
dynamic referential containment relationship
is a relationship between a folder
and the current version of a document. In this case, the current document version
is the released version, or else the current version, otherwise, the reservation
version.
Filed as opposed to unfiled
In an IBM FileNet P8 Content Manager (P8 Content Manager) repository, content
objects can be added to a repository in two ways: without reference to a folder
structure or into a particular folder (or set of folders). We refer to these options as
unfiled
and
filed
(see Figure 4-9). Unlike a file system, repository folders do not
represent physical locations in the repository. Content is added, indexed, and is
accessible whether or not it is filed in a folder.
Figure 4-9 Repositories can be filed or unfiled
Filed RepositoryUn-filed Repository

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One of the primary benefits of filing into a folder is browsing.
Browsing
allows
users to traverse a folder structure and locate content inside a folder. Hopefully,
all the content in any specific folder relates to a particular activity or function.
Another advantage is that in a P8 Content Manager repository, content can be
filed in more than one folder at a time. There is one master copy of the content,
and references filed in multiple folders point back to the single master.
Remember that with P8 Content Manager, users can always search for and view
any content that meets search criteria whether or not the content is filed in a
folder. Folders are simply a convenience for users who want to browse for
repository content.
There are use cases where unfiled content makes sense. Table 4-1 is a decision
table for the filed option as compared to the unfiled folder option.
Table 4-1 Folder options and their impact
Organizing unfiled content
The P8 Content Manager repository can act as a receptacle for high-volume
archive systems for image (scanned paper) or email messages. For these
applications, folders and an organization scheme are not a priority. The “add
content” transaction in P8 Content Manager is slightly faster when foldering is not
required. In this type of solution, transaction rates and efficient searching are the
most important criteria.
In solutions of this kind, searching becomes the primary mechanism for content
retrieval. For this reason, the metadata that identifies the content when it is
added to the repository is vital.
Folder option Impact
Unfiled content
(does not use
folders)
Content is only accessible by search.
There is no need to organize repository content using folders.
Transactions that add content are slightly faster.
Appropriate for high-volume image applications where access
will be by search only.
Filed content
(uses folders)
Users can browse or search for content.
There is a need to organize the repository content.
A single version of a content object can be filed in more than one
folder.
Appropriate for lower volume applications, or applications where
users will be manually adding content.

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The metadata set that is collected for each content item must include all
properties necessary to identify and retrieve the content. This set must include
the usual properties, such as content title, content subject, and date collected, in
addition to application-specific properties, such as customer name, customer ID,
and account number.
Organizational metadata elements
You must also consider another set of metadata. You can add metadata
properties that provide organization for the content. Organizational metadata
identifies the type of content, the division or department to which it belongs, and
potentially, the record series that controls its retention. The following list shows
examples of organizational metadata properties:
Division
Department
Function
Activity
Document type
Record type
Adding organizational metadata tags to repository content is a valid method of
providing a central structure to repository content without using folders. You can
add the same elements that create an efficient folder structure to unfiled
repositories as organizational metadata properties.
Repository folder structures
The design of a central repository is an opportunity to place scattered content
into an organization-wide filing system. One of the primary functions of a
repository is to offer ease of access; users must be able to quickly locate
information with a minimum of effort.
Several parameters contribute to a well-designed repository folder structure:
Is the structure self-explanatory? Is it easy to locate information?
Does the structure work for all groups in your organization?
What about groups that want to create their own folder structure?
Does the structure avoid placing too many folders in a single subdirectory?
We will consider these questions as we move forward in this section.
An organization-wide folder structure
A central repository folder structure must make sense for all groups in your
organization. During implementation, it is not necessary to build out the entire
folder structure; the first three levels are sufficient. The goal for the first three
folder hierarchical levels is a structure that is accessible at first glance to any
member of your organization.

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The first three levels of the folder hierarchy form the central organization scheme
for your repository. Three levels are not an absolute rule; four or five levels might
be necessary for large organizations. The idea is to create a structure that
provides an organizational foundation. Depending on your organization, there
are several approaches for organizational schemes. The best way to illustrate
this concept is through examples.
Example: By organizational chart
The first example is a folder structure that follows a company organizational
chart. In this organizational scheme, as shown in Figure 4-10, the folder levels
represent:
(1) Department  (2) Activity  (3) Document type
Figure 4-10 An organizational folder structure
Recommendations: When designing a central repository folder structure, we
suggest that you start with the first three levels of the structure. Build this out
for your entire organization.

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Example: By geographical location
Another example is a repository that stores construction project records. For this
organization, construction projects are organized by location (see Figure 4-11).
In this scheme, the folder levels are:
(1) Region  (2) Construction project  (3) Document type
Figure 4-11 A geographical folder structure
Example: By function
The next folder structure is based on function. This structure is appropriate for
records systems that are typically organized by the function of the document, the
activity with which it belongs, and the record category under which it needs to be
filed. In this scheme, as shown in Figure 4-12 on page 123, the folder levels are:
(1) Function  (2) Activity  (3) Document type

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Figure 4-12 A functional folder structure
Beyond the third level
The goal of the three-level folder hierarchy is to impose an organization-wide
structure for repository content. But many times, individual groups have their own
requirements for folder structures and want to organize their content without
system-enforced rules. For these groups, simply release the organizational rules
for any folders created under the third level.
Folder-inherited security allows repository administrators to restrict the creation
of folders in the first, second, and third folder hierarchical levels and grant folder
creation privileges to group owners below this level. This enforces the integrity of
the organizational scheme, while still allowing individual departments to organize
content to their own satisfaction.
In the example in Figure 4-13 on page 124, folder creation rights to levels 1 - 3
need to be reserved for system administrators only. Folder creation rights under
the accounting folder need to be granted to the accounting group manager, and
folder rights under projects need to be granted to the IT group manager.
Recommendations: Create a folder structure that makes sense for your
entire organization. Develop your folder structure to at least the third folder
hierarchical level. This structure forms the framework for your repository
organizational scheme.

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Figure 4-13 Folder creation rights in an organization-wide folder structure
Avoiding an excessive number of subfolders
It is possible to create too many subfolders under a parent folder. For all
implementations, avoid creating more than 100 - 200 subfolders under any
specific repository folder.
In any foldering application, large numbers of subfolders create performance
problems. The system slows down when users open the parent folder and an
excessive number of subfolder entries must be queried and returned from the
database. The design goal is to create a deeper hierarchy rather than an overly
shallow structure.
Recommendations: Limit the number of subfolders at every folder level.
Create a hierarchy of subfolder levels rather than using many folders at the
same level. Do not create a folder that contains more than 100 - 200
subfolders. Use a search paradigm wherever is appropriate, and limit the
search result size.
Repository
finance HR
marketing
IT
accounting tax audit
legder
expenses
Mary’s Files
projects
CA-File
ECM
Information Store
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
System-wide:
may not be changed
Group controlled:
may be changed to
meet group
requirements
Sub-levels

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4.8.2 Other objects
When you define other objects in the repository, consider how they are intended
to be used and leverage their unique abilities. Another aspect of object repository
layout is in the storage media that the content will use. Try to provide a range of
storage media and use it appropriately.
4.9 Storage media
A P8 Content Manager repository stores data in two areas: the object store and
the storage area. The
object store
is a relational database that stores repository
configuration: object references, properties, choice lists, and object relationships.
The
storage area
holds actual content: electronic media files. Object stores can
be configured to use three distinct types of storage (see Figure 4-14 on
page 126):
Database store
File store
Fixed store
Recommendations: Try to give meaningful name properties to objects to
assist users in navigating through collections of documents returned in a
search or a browsing session.
Try to match content with storage media in a meaningful way. Internal memos
and other short-lived pieces of content without lots of business value can be
stored on a simple network-attached storage (NAS) device. Content that is
critical to the business operation can utilize a high-speed, highly available
storage subsystem that also has a higher cost associated with it.

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Figure 4-14 P8 Content Manager object store storage options
When choosing a storage method for your content, remember that each of these
storage methods can be configured on a per document class basis.
4.9.1 Catalog
The
catalog
is a relational database that is specified at installation time. The
catalog can be created on any supported relational database management
system (RDMS). Refer to the product documentation for information about
supported brands and versions.
The catalog database stores all of the P8 Content Manager configuration
information. If you expand the object store view using Content Platform Engine
Administration tools, the object tree that displays is pulled from the catalog
database. The catalog stores the following information:
Configuration information
Object references
Object properties
Object security lists
Content Manager
Catalog
Database Store
File Store
Fixed
Store
Object Stores

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Choice lists
Property values
Document (content) links
Search definitions
Database indexes for custom properties
P8 Content Manager does not support writing to the catalog database through
direct SQL commands. Interaction with the catalog database must be handled by
using Content Platform Engine Administration tools or through the application
programming interface (API).
The exception to this rule is custom property indexes. You can create a database
index for any class property except system-owned properties. These database
indexes, also known as single indexes, are stored within the object store
database. For properties that users search frequently, single indexes reduce
processing time for queries on this property.
4.9.2 Database stores
P8 Content Manager can be configured to store content inside a relational
database. With this configuration, P8 Content Manager converts document
content into binary large objects (BLOBs) for storage in the database.
Database storage areas are useful when the size of your object store is not large
in terms of the number of documents and the sizes of those documents. Smaller
documents of about 10 MB or less have performance advantages in a database
storage area when compared to other storage area types. Do not store any
document that is over 100 MB in a database storage area.
4.9.3 File stores
With a file store, P8 Content Manager stores content files on a shared network
drive or a NAS device. A file store is the most common object store configuration.
To organize the files on disk, P8 Content Manager sets up a managed hierarchy
of directories on the specified drive.
Important: P8 Content Manager does not support direct writes (updates) to
the P8 Content Manager catalog database.
Note: When selecting a property to index, the object store search must be
case-sensitive, or the index is not created correctly. You must create additional
indexes in Oracle and DB2 to avoid full table scans.

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Figure 4-15 File store directory structure
A file storage area consists of a hierarchy of folders on a local or shared network
location:
Share The shared folder serves as the parent directory to one or
more file storage areas.
Root The root directory of the file storage area is the top-level
directory for content storage. A single parent shared
folder can contain one or many file storage area root
folders.
Content The directory where all committed content element files
are stored in a large hierarchy of subfolders.
During the creation of the storage area, you have the option of creating a small
(23 x 23 = 529 directories) or large (23 x 23 x 23 = 12,167 directories) file storage
area. The choice of one or the other is typically determined by the anticipated
growth and the need for physically grouping the documents for storage
management, backup, or disaster recovery purposes. A large file storage area is
more suited for storing a large number of small content elements that contain
single-page scanned documents or small emails. A small file storage area is
more suited for a smaller number of content elements with a larger average size,
such as content element files with embedded images, spreadsheets, and
graphics.
Documents are stored among the directories at the leaf level using a hashing
algorithm. We suggest that the best practice is to limit the number of content
element files in a leaf directory to fewer than 5,000. For a small directory
Note: The file names of the content written to this directory will be based on
Global Unique Identifiers (GUID) associated with the document.
Share
Content
Root
Shared directory
(File storage area
Parent directory)
Committed content
Element files
File storage area
(Root directory)

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structure, the upper limit is around 2,500,000 content element files. For a large
directory structure, the limit is about 60,000,000 content element files. The
number of documents for the file store depends on several factors, such as the
type of content being stored, the size of the content, and the type of the file store
being used. After that, create multiple storage areas. With larger file stores, the
following issues can arise:
Larger file stores take more time to perform the weekly full backup. After that,
consider differential and synthetic backups to avoid full backups or implement
a SAN/NAS-based snapshot and replication.
Consistency checker takes a long time to run.
P8 Content Manager does not have a hard limit on the number of files in the
file store, but the more documents you have, the larger the constraint placed
on the file system.
P8 Content Platform Engine administration tools offer the capability to set a limit
on the number of content elements and size for a certain file storage area. When
either limit is reached, the file storage area is closed and the new content is
directed to the next open file storage area in the storage policy. To help manage a
large storage space across multiple storage areas, Content Platform Engine
farmed or rolling storage areas can be implemented, as indicated earlier.
SAN versus NAS for file storage
Although NAS and SAN are used somewhat interchangeably in this book, there
are some operational issues with SAN that typically make it inappropriate to use
for a file storage area. Before describing these issues, we provide a better
definition of SAN versus NAS as described by the IBM office of the CTO. From an
operating system perspective SAN is seen the same as local disk or directly
attached storage (DAS).
“Both local SCSI disks and SAN are accessed at the block level, so SAN
typically looks like ordinary locally attached SCSI disk to the operating
system. Disk I/O is done at the block or sector level. A driver translates those
SCSI calls into calls through a host bus adapter over a Fibre Channel
network to the SAN device on the other end of the Fibre Channel. The Fibre
Channel network is a specialized optical network used just for connecting
SAN devices to one or many servers through the host bus adapters in those
servers. A host bus adapter is what you called a Fibre Channel card.”
“Network file shares, on the other hand, are accessed at the file level with
operating system file system calls. So, network shares look like a local file
system, with folders and files, not like local disk, to applications. Underneath
the operating system, a network protocol is used to extend local file system
calls over a standard LAN to the network file server. The act of binding a

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remote network file system into the local file system folder hierarchy is called
a mount. The network protocols most commonly used for extending file system
calls over the network to the remote file server are CIFS for Windows based
clients, and NFS for UNIX based clients. Network shares can be provided by
a network file server, or by specialized storage devices called NAS devices.
NAS devices plug directly to a LAN and are dedicated to providing network
shares to other computers on that LAN.”
- IBM office of the CTO
A SAN Fibre Channel device, a logical unit number (LUN), can be physically
connected to multiple server nodes at a time. However, you need to have a
combined operating system/file system that supports concurrent access to a
shared LUN to be able to share the physical device without using a network file
system, such as NFS.
With standard (non-parallel) file systems (that is, 99% of them, such as UNIX file
systems (UFS) and journaled file systems (JFS)), the Linux or IBM AIX®
operating system is written to control the disk directly, and as efficiently as
possible, assuming sole ownership of the device. It can do whatever it wants.
Think of a SCSI disk or a directly attached device where there is normally only
one SCSI master on a SCSI bus, and that is the computer/disk controller.
Therefore, the OS uses cached copies of data structures that are on disk.
Typically, the file system information (inodes, files, and directories) is not
necessarily constantly in synch with the state of the physical device as the
caching occurs. However, the operating system tracks all the moving parts and
ensures that everything stays consistent within the scope of what it controls. This
assumes that no other system is attempting to access the same blocks from a
different port. This leads to two issues:
The OS might make several updates to a structure that is in memory without
writing it out to disk, for efficiency purposes, for example, an inode. So,
another computer reading the disk is unaware of the latest updates.
Similarly, when the OS writes the updates out to disk, it simply writes out the
whole block. If another computer has updated that block since it was first read
in, the other computer’s updates will be overwritten when this computer finally
does its write. This problem, in particular, rapidly results in a corruption of the
file system that most likely causes both computers to crash.

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So, even though Content Platform Engine can handle and control concurrent
access at the file level, it cannot control all I/Os going to a certain device. And, it
has no access to a level lower than the file system, that is, to the physical disk
block level. Content Platform Engine works by using the API provided by the file
system. The fundamental problem is whether the file system underlying that API
supports concurrent access to the disk. So, this is why Content Platform Engine
needs to rely on a network file system, such as NFS, to go beyond the scope of
any one machine’s operating and file system to handle concurrent access to a
single physical device.
Thus, a SAN or network protocols simulating a SAN, such as iSCSI, cannot be
used for a file storage area if the Content Platform Engine servers run on
different host machines. A SAN cannot control concurrent write access to the
same directory if the requests come from different host machines. A SAN can
only
be used as a file storage area if all the Content Platform Engine servers that
are writing to it are on the same host machine. In this case, the operating system
on the host machine can control the concurrent write access to a common file
store directory structure.
4.9.4 About storage policies
A
storage policy
provides mapping to a specific object storage area and is used
to specify where content is stored for a specific content class. P8 Content
Manager supports the mapping of storage policies to one or more storage
objects; therefore, each storage policy can have one or multiple storage areas as
its assigned content storage target (see Figure 4-16 on page 132). This concept
is known as
farming
.
A storage policy can be used to distribute an I/O load through farming, and it can
be used to provide continuous storage availability by pre-provisioning storage
areas in a standby state. When a storage area referenced in a storage policy
becomes full, a standby storage area, if available, is automatically opened to
maintain the same number of open storage areas for the policy.

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Figure 4-16 Storage policies
Farming
A
storage area farm
is a group of storage areas that acts as a single logical
target for content storage. Storage area farms increase the throughput by
distributing the I/O load across all the open storage areas. With storage area
activation, the Content Platform Engine maintains the same number of open
standby storage areas for the policy, therefore, better distributing the I/O load
across the standby storage areas. With farming, Content Platform Engine
provides load-balancing capabilities for content storage by transparently
spreading the content elements across multiple storage areas. Therefore, the
storage policy functions as both the mechanism for defining the membership of a
storage area farm and also the means for assigning documents to that farm.
Create separate file storage areas to ensure efficient document management.
For example, you can create a file storage area to group documents with the
same deletion or backup requirements. Map storage areas with documents by
modifying the storage policy property on document classes.
Recommendations: Use storage policies with the class definition to save the
content.
Recommendations: Use Content Platform Engine administration tools to
configure storage policies and storage area farms.
Repository
Doc class A
Doc class B
Storage
Policy1
Storage
Policy2
Disk Drive
Storage Farm

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4.9.5 Using fixed storage devices
Fixed storage devices
are large capacity third-party storage devices that feature
hardware-level content protection. Examples of fixed storage devices are EMC
Centera or NetApp Snaplock. Fixed content systems potentially provide
extremely large storage capacity, as well as write-once hard drive technology.
Fixed content stores compared to file stores
Before deciding on a fixed content store, review the following considerations:
Content stored in the fixed storage area is accessed via the Content Platform
Engine using a third-party API rather than the file system API.
Read/write access to the repository can be slower in a fixed content store
than access to Content Platform Engine’s file storage area.
For fixed content store, the repository might be write-once, which does not
allow any changes to the content. This is exactly the same as normal file
storage areas in that the document content can never be changed after it is
added to the repository. The document content can only be revised, and new
versions can be added to the repository.
The repository might not allow the deletion of content except through
third-party device tools. The repository can support a retention period for
content, which means that the deletion of the content is not allowed until the
retention period has expired.
A fixed storage area requires a small file storage area to be used as a staging
area before it is stored into a fixed device.
The fixed content system can limit the number of concurrent connections to the
server, which means that there are fewer connections allowed than current
read/write requests normally supported by the Content Platform Engine. This
might result in decreased performance, but not error conditions.
For more information about content storage management and storage farming,
see this developerWorks article:
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/data/library/techarticle/dm-1003filen
etstoragemanagement/index.html
4.10 Considerations for multiple object stores
There are several valid use cases for deploying multiple object stores. A single
object store can handle a catalog containing over a billion objects. Using multiple
storage policies, there is a virtually unlimited amount of storage.

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Except under extreme conditions, size is not a factor in the decision to add
additional object stores.
Multiple object stores are warranted in the following situations:
An object store is subject to high ingestion rates or frequent update
procedures and needs to be segregated for performance reasons.
Content must be separated for security reasons.
User groups are separated by a large geographic distance.
For performance reasons
If an object store will be the target of high-volume ingestion rates, such as those
produced by Capture, Datacap, ICC, or Email Manager, it makes sense to
separate that object store from others that are dedicated to document lifecycle
use. Users who search for and check out documents for editing will experience
better performance if the object store they use is not busy handling high-volume
automated processes. There are two common examples of this situation where
multiple object stores are used: email archiving and IBM FileNet Records
Manager solutions (see Figure 4-17 on page 135).
The IBM Records Manager object store that hosts record information is subject
to processing intensive database activity during retention and disposition
processing. In addition, record objects are small and best suited for database
stores. For these reasons, records need to be stored in a separate object store.
Recommendations: Set up a separate, database object store for IBM FileNet
Records Manager. This object store is commonly called the file plan object
store (FPOS).

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Figure 4-17 Two solutions with multiple object stores
Use the Data Source sharing feature. For more information, see the “Sharing
Data Sources” and “Creating a Database Connection” topics in Administering
Content Platform Engine:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.
ibm.p8.ce.admin.tasks.doc%2Fp8pcb027.htm
For security reasons
Another reason to implement multiple object stores is a requirement to strictly
separate content for security reasons. Although it is possible to keep classified
content secure by using marking sets and security policies, certain content must
be kept absolutely separate. In these situations, install a second object store for
classified content.
Here are a few situations where secure object stores are a solution:
Board of director-level content
Secret or top secret government content
Public-facing Internet-accessible libraries
Service companies that offer enterprise content management services to
multiple customers
Email Object Store
Document Object Store
Content
Obj t St
Records
Obj t St
High Ingestion Solution
Records Manager Solution
Email
Manager

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By geography
Many organizations have large offices in several countries. Wide area network
(WAN) links are expensive over large distances and typically have low bandwidth
and high latency. It is not always practical for offices in this situation to share the
same P8 Content Manager system. One solution to this situation is two separate
repositories managed by two separate P8 Content Manager systems as shown
in Figure 4-18.
Figure 4-18 Two separate repositories
In this solution, an organization has installed two separate P8 Content Manager
systems in two distant offices, usually under a single p8 domain. Users in each
office have high-speed access to the local repository for document retrieval and
editing. Users in remote offices can still search and retrieve content in the remote
office repository, but because this activity is less frequent than local access,
traffic over the WAN link is reduced.
By functional group
In the organizations with several functional units, each functional unit, such as
Human Resources (HR), Legal, and Marketing, might want to have a separate
object store. This separation of data offers the flexibility for the users to control
the documents and implement the security and access rights for the users in the
organization. This separation also allows the line of business (LOB) applications
to use only the data pertaining to that business unit.
Location 1
Repository
Content Platform Engine
Location 2
Repository
Content Platform Engine
WAN
Link

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By the size of the object store
Content Platform Engine object stores can handle data from tens of millions to
hundreds of millions of objects. The number of objects that an object store can
handle depends on several factors, including the database used, storage areas,
rate of ingestion of objects, the metadata defined, and the kinds and size of data
stored. After the object store reaches its maximum capacity on any of the factors,
it is advisable to create a new object store.
4.11 Retention management and automatic disposal
P8 Content Manager can be configured to set the retention on the instances of
the annotations, custom objects, documents, and folders. The retention date on
the object prevents the deletion of the object until the retention date is passed.
Organizations might have to keep the documents for a certain period of time for
legal, regulatory, and contractual reasons. Setting a retention value on those
objects helps ensure that the objects are retained in the system until all the
obligations are met. Also, having a retention date on the objects removes the
possibility of the accidental deletion of objects until the retention date has
passed.
Automatic disposal lets you run the disposition task to remove all the objects in
the Content Manager based on the criteria specified. The following sections
describe retention management, automatic disposal, and best practices.
4.11.1 Retention management
To prevent an object from being deleted, you can specify a retention setting for
the object.
A retention setting can be applied either statically or based on events. Static
retention for an object is set once. After a fixed amount of time, the static
retention requirement is satisfied and the object can be deleted. Event-based
retention is dynamic, allowing you to change the retention setting for an object
after the occurrence of a business event. Event-based retention closely aligns
the retention policy of the data with the business requirements for that data.
The default retention can be set at the class level. Instance retention can be set
at the object level in the Content Manager. Events, such as Content Platform
Engine events, can be used to set and alter the retention.

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Class-level retention
The retention period you specify at the class level is applied to newly created
object instances and to document instances when the document is checked in.
Class-level retention can be set to the annotation, custom object, document, and
folder classes. Users need to have the modify retention permissions at the
object-store level to set the class-level retention.
Object-level retention
The objects of annotation, custom object, document, and folder can be set with
the retention date at the time of object creation. By default, objects inherit the
retention value from the parent class. To set or change the retention date for an
object, users need a special modify retention permission. These special
permissions are not required if the retention is defaulting from the class.
For static retention, users have to specify the retention date at the time of
creating the object or the exact value has to be specified in the class as the
retention date. Event-based retention is a scheme where you first set the
retention to Indefinite, which means it cannot be deleted, but the expiration
date is not defined. When a business event occurs, you initiate or trigger the
retention by changing the retention value from Indefinite to a specific date.
Another special value, Permanent, never lets the document delete from the object
store. The retention value can only be set to a greater value than the current
value. Content Platform Engine does not allow you to reduce the retention
period.
Retention modes
There are two retention modes that are supported by storage areas in Content
Platform Engine: aligned and unaligned. Only annotations and documents can
have the content in Content Manager. In aligned mode, the retention value is
reflected on the content stored on the fixed content device so that users cannot
directly delete the content from the fixed store and from the Content Platform
Engine. In unaligned mode, all the retention features are supported by the
Content Platform Engine, and the content in the fixed store is not stored under
retention. In unaligned mode, users can delete the content directly on the fixed
store, because the enforcement of retention happens in Content Manager, not by
the fixed store.
Note: Use aligned mode when you want strict enforcement of retention on the
content object in the document. Use unaligned when all you need is
enforcement by Content Platform Engine.

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4.11.2 Automatic disposition
Automatic disposition
is a process that runs in the background and deletes
objects automatically after their retention dates have expired. Disposition uses
the sweep framework in Content Manager. Many enterprise content
management applications involve searching among a large set of objects for
some subset that meets specific criteria, and then performing an operation on
those objects that match the criteria. Content Manager calls that type of
procedure a
sweep
.
The sweep framework is a policy-based framework. A sweep job is like a sweep
policy, except it only executes a single sweep. A sweep policy executes repeated
sweeps. A disposal policy has a target class that defines the set of objects that
will be examined, a filter expression that defines the subset of the objects that will
be disposed of, and a schedule that determines the time of day and the days of
the week it will execute.
Automatic disposition is declared by using the disposition policy. The disposition
policy requires a class, filter, and schedule to run. A disposal policy can run in
one of three possible modes.
Normal
mode where the disposition action is taken
on the resulting objects.
Preview
mode shows the preview of the objects where
this disposition policy is going to execute.
Preview only counters
mode shows the
count of target objects for this disposition policy. The disposition policy runs as it
is scheduled.
4.11.3 Retention update
The retention period for instances of the four classes that support retention can
be altered by using either a retention update policy or a retention update job. A
retention policy is used for recurring retention updates, for example, changing
retention from Indefinite to five years from the creation date on instances that
have been in the system for more than 90 days. A retention update job is used for
one-time only operations. For example, extend the retention date by one year for
instances of a certain class.
Note: Initially, set the sweep to preview or preview only counters mode to
determine the objects that are going to be disposed of. Use the FileNet
System Monitor to monitor the sweep activity and sweep rate.
Note: A policy-based sweep combines all policies, including the retention
update policy and disposal policy for a certain base class, into a single sweep.

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Retention update job
Retention update jobs allow the retention period to be altered on retainable
objects based on the class and property state of a candidate object. On a
retention update job, the new retention date can be explicitly specified. Or, it can
be computed by specifying the name of a date property on the Sweep Target
Class, an offset, and the time units in which the offset is expressed.
Retention reduction job
Normally, a retention update job is used to extend retention on instances. In
some limited use cases, a
retention reduction allow
job can be used to reduce
retention. An example is to handle a change to a regulation. A retention job
supports two modes of operation: retention reduction allow and retention
reduction prevent. The default mode of operation is retention reduction prevent
mode.
Retention update policy
Retention update policy is a policy-based implementation of retention update that
allows the retention period to be altered on retainable objects based on the class
and property state of a candidate object. Retention update policy can be
specified with the specific retention date or the new retention date can be
computed from the base retention date, offset, and offset units.
4.12 P8 Content Manager searches
There are several methods of searching for content in the P8 Content Manager
repository. The methods can be divided by the purpose of the search:
User-invoked searches
Content-based searches
Repository maintenance searches
P8 Content Manager offers a set of tools for each purpose.
Note: You can create a covering index for better performance of policy-based
and job sweeps on the base table being swept. The covering index needs to
include all the columns that are included in the selection list and define the
object_id as a unique value.
The selection list for sweep is in the P8 database trace logs with Sweep.SQL. A
sweep that includes the overflow table has to include a covering index for the
overflow table.

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4.12.1 User-invoked searches
Users can create and invoke P8 Content Manager searches through FileNet
Workplace XT and IBM Content Navigator. FileNet Workplace XT and Content
Navigator are web applications. FileNet Workplace XT and Content Navigator
offer two types of searches: search and stored searches.
Search
Search can be customized in FileNet Workplace XT and Content Navigator by
individual users. Search appears when users log in to P8 Content Manager.
Using FileNet Workplace XT or Content Navigator search is an ideal tool for
user-invoked ad hoc searches for repository content. Users can search any
properties and can add any system or custom property to the criteria display.
Stored searches
FileNet Workplace XT and Content Navigator offer a tool for designing search
templates for more sophisticated content searches. Search Designer offers the
following enhanced features:
Cross-object store searches
Search criteria expressions (AND/OR options)
Preset criteria for filtering search results
Searches that appear as links on a browser favorites or bookmarks menu
Use Search Designer to create stored searches and cross-repository search.
Stored searches can also be accessed as web links, which makes it easy to add
the stored searches as favorites to the browser.
4.12.2 Content-based search
P8 Content Manager supports content-based retrieval (CBR) for documents,
annotations, folders, custom objects, and their properties. With CBR, you can
search an object store for objects that contain specific words or phrases
embedded in document or annotation content. With CBR, you can also search an
object store for objects that contain specific words or phrases embedded in string
properties of objects that have been configured for full text indexing.
Note: When users modify their search criteria, the system remembers the
settings and will display them again on the next visit to the site.

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The Content Platform Engine uses the IBM Content Search Services (CSS)
server for indexing and searching the documents. Content-based searches can
be performed from all P8 Content Platform Engine client search tools. Content
Platform Engine has the capability to fail over during indexing and search, and
has supporting configurations with no single point of failure.
Indexing process
The indexing process begins at the Content Platform Engine when CBR-enabled
objects, such as documents, are created or updated. The Content Platform
Engine stores indexing data for the CBR-enabled objects in the indexes created
and managed by the CSS servers. Each index is associated with a distinct index
area in the object store. During an indexing process, the system can write to
multiple indexes across the index areas. When an index’s capacity is reached,
the index is automatically closed and a new index is created.
The Content Platform Engine queries the items from the index request table to
identify documents that are queued for indexing and then groups index requests
pertaining to the same target index into an index batch. The binary documents in
this batch are converted to text by the text extraction processes, then the entire
batch is submitted to a CSS server for indexing.
Text extraction happens in an external process running outside the Content
Platform Engine. Text extraction runs on the Content Platform Engine server by
default. All the Content Platform Engine servers in a site can dispatch the
requests for indexing. This allows the Content Platform Engine to share the text
extraction load among all the available servers because the text extraction
processes can be CPU-intensive and disk I/O-intensive. Text extraction
throughput can be configured by using the Content Platform Engine
administrative tools. The text extraction processes are also known as
text filters
.
The number of text filters for Content Platform Engine can be increased or
decreased based on the CPU utilization and the available system memory of the
server. During text extraction, the text filter process writes the intermediate
temporary data to the text filter’s temporary directory. Having this temporary
directory on a fast I/O device will increase the performance of the text filters.
After the batch of documents is processed by the text extraction processes, the
text file batch is submitted to the CSS server. After the CSS index server receives
the index batch, the preprocessing functions begin.
Note: When IBM Content Collector is used with the Content Platform Engine,
text extraction for the binary documents occurs on the CSS server via the IBM
Content Collector plug-in.

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Preprocessing functions consist of these tasks:
Document construction
Language identification
Ensure accurate processing and optimal performance by specifying a default
language for an object store. If one language cannot be definitively identified
for the content of an object store, set it to the list of languages that is
contained by the object store’s documents.
Tokenization
Tokenization creates the tokens from the extracted text. The language of the
document plays a key role in identifying the tokens. After the tokens are
created from the document, the index for the document is updated or created
with these tokens in its respective index area.
The full-text indexes in the Content Platform Engine have a stickiness to the IBM
Content search servers for the purposes of indexing. This stickiness is never
changed until the lease expiry time has been reached. The lease expiry time is
the time since the last server performed indexing on the full-text index has
reached a time threshold or the content search server for which it is sticky
became unavailable. The Content Platform Engine server changes the stickiness
of an index to the least loaded index server to load balance between the available
index servers.
Content Platform Engine can optionally be configured to group the CSS servers
and index areas accessing the common shared index area root directory into a
group called an
affinity group
. Each index area can be attached with an affinity
group. The CSS server can optionally be assigned to a single affinity group. If all
the servers in the affinity group are on the same machine accessing the local
index area root directory, any failure to the machine causes all the servers to go
down and the high availability for these indexes might be at risk. The load
balancing for indexing happens between the servers in the affinity group. Also,
the load balancing and failover occur between the CSS servers that are not
associated with any affinity group. For indexing purposes, it is important to assign
multiple servers for the affinity group. The Content Platform Engine servers
perform the indexing load balancing based on the active index servers and the
workload on each server.
Important: Content Platform Engine load balances and fails over within the
affinity group and among the indexes that are not part of any affinity group.
Consider the high availability feature when using affinity groups.

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Content Platform Engine performs the index partitioning based on the
partitioning property value configured on the object store.
Index partitioning
is
the way to group the indexing information for the objects whose partitioning
property value is the same. Indexing partitioning improves the performance of
CBR searches when the search criteria contains the partitioning property by
including only indexes that match the partitioning values specified. Without
partitioning, performance might be worse because the Content Platform Engine
has to search a larger number of collections. For a CBR search to work on the
partitions, consider the searches that are going to be run when you are creating
a partitioning property.
Search process
Users can submit CBR queries against the full-text index with its criteria:
CBR-enabled properties or terms that exist in the content. Search requests are
initiated through the Content Platform Engine administration tools or other client
applications using the Content Engine API and include a full-text expression that
is submitted to the CSS search server. The content-based search expression is
highlighted in the following query:
SELECT d.This FROM Document d INNER JOIN ContentSearch c ON d.This =
c.QueriedObject WHERE CONTAINS(d.*,'lion AND tiger')
The search server uses word stems, synonyms, and stop words to improve
search efficiency and accuracy. It searches for and identifies the stem for all word
terms included in a full-text search expression. A
stop word
is a word or phrase
that is ignored by the search server to avoid irrelevant search results caused by
common expressions. The search server uses these definitions on the index and
runs the full-text search. The results are returned to the Content Platform Engine
server, which then joins the results with other tables in the query and runs the
query. The stop words do not affect the indexing, and they appear in the indexes
created by the CSS server.
Important: Specify the complete list of languages used within the object
store’s content. Identifying the correct language for a document improves the
tokenization and search.
Use CSS in a dedicated mode, such as index or search. Avoid using it in the
dual mode of index and search. By default, each CSS server is configured to
use four CPUs for indexing. Consider this configuration when deciding how
many CSS server instances to create on the system.

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The Content Platform Engine server runs the searches concurrently. The search
server configuration on the domain allows full-text indexes to be searched in
parallel to satisfy user queries. With content-based searches, you can search the
content based on the words and phrases, string properties of a CBR-enabled
object, partitioned properties, and also by using the XML and XPath queries.
Index areas
An
index area
is a file system directory that contains CSS indexes. Each object
store can have multiple index areas and each index area can have multiple
indexes. The index contains the indexing information for the objects that belong
to the same indexable base class or subclasses of the base class. Index areas
can have different states: OPEN, CLOSED, STANDBY, or FULL. Unrelated to the
status of the index area, all the indexes in the index areas might be searched.
An
affinity group
is a group of CSS index servers and index areas. The servers
in a group access only those index areas in the same group. The servers that are
not in a group access only those index areas that are not in a group. Although the
configuration of affinity groups is optional, it is a good practice to have multiple
CSS servers assigned to an affinity group and to have the root directory local to
the CSS servers indexing. All the servers in the affinity group must have
read/write access to the root directory.
Recommendations: If query criteria includes partitionable properties,
consider using index partitions to reduce the number of indexes to search by
increasing the speed of the search. Index partitioning increases the number of
indexes created. If there are no partitionable properties on the query criteria,
we advise that you not use the partition. Search with order by rank reduces the
performance, so use this search only when required. Ranking is determined
by the CSS server.
Content-based searches tend to be slower when searches are run
concurrently with indexing. Dedicate servers for content search because I/O
and memory are the important factors in the search operation. We advise that
you have up to 6 GB of memory for each CSS server. Content-based searches
on property will perform better than the content and XML searches.
Important: Index area root directories need to be unique among index areas
even if the root directory path is on the local disk.

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Configure the number of index areas to less than or equal to the number of CSS
servers in the indexing mode. During content ingestion, you might want to have
an equal number of indexing servers and index areas to keep all the indexing
servers busy. You might want to consider having additional indexing servers for
failover purposes.
4.12.3 Searches for repository maintenance
Content Platform Engine Administration tools feature a query tool that can be
used for detailed report generation or for maintaining an object store repository.
With the Query Builder tool, you can create a search query and apply bulk
actions on the objects returned in the result set. With Query Builder, you can
perform these functions:
Find objects using property values as search criteria.
Create, save, and run simple searches.
Create and save search templates that will prompt for criteria when launched.
Launch search templates that are provided with each Content Platform
Engine and Content Platform Engine Administration tools installation. These
templates are provided to assist with managing the size of your audit log and
for managing entries in the QueueItem table.
Create, save, and run SQL queries.
Searches can be combined with bulk operations that include the following
actions (available on the Query Builder Actions tab):
– Delete objects.
– Add objects to the export manifest.
– Undo checkout (for documents).
– Containment actions (for documents, custom objects, and folders): file in
folder and unfile from folder.
– Run VBScripts or JScripts (Query Builder Script tab).
– Edit security by adding or removing users and groups.
– Lifecycle actions: set exception, clear exception, promote, demote, and
reset.
Important: The location specified for the index areas needs to be accessible
for read and write for all the CSS servers. If an index area is assigned to an
affinity group, it needs to be accessible to all the servers in the affinity group.

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In Query builder, there are two ways to construct searches: Simple View and
SQL View. Select view from the toolbar to select a view style:
Simple View offers a point-and-click interface where you can select tables,
classes, and criteria from drop-down lists.
SQL View translates anything that you create in Simple View. This is a
one-way translation only; you cannot translate an SQL View into a Simple
View. SQL View presents the query in an SQL text window that you can then
directly edit or load any *.qry files that you have saved on the network.
Both views construct a query that can be bundled with the other Query Builder
features: bulk operations, scripts, and security changes. Both views support
Search Mode and Template Designer Mode.
Search templates and template designer mode
Search templates are like simple queries except when search templates are
loaded from the Content Platform Engine Administration tools Saved Searches
node. Then, they prompt you for search criteria and whether you want to include
any defined bulk operations.
IBM FileNet provided search templates are installed with every Content Platform
Engine or Content Platform Engine Administration tools-only installation into a
folder on the local server named SearchTemplates. This folder is in the FileNet
installation directory. Any queries placed in this folder appear in the Content
Platform Engine Administration tools Saved Searches node as long as they have
.sch as a file name extension.
Querying object-valued properties
One of Content Platform Engine’s powerful search features is the ability to
retrieve an object when provided another object that is a member of one of its
object-valued properties. For example, you can find a document that has a
particular security policy by using the identifying ID of the security policy in the
search criteria.
Multiselect operations
Multiselect (or bulk) operations
perform an operation on all objects returned in
the search results from the query builder query. This feature is useful for object
store maintenance activities.
Tip: To aid administrators using SQL View, the P8 Content Manager help files
contain P8 Content Manager database view schema.

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With multiselect operations, you can perform the following actions on multiple
files at the same time:
Delete
File to folder
Unfile from folder
Undo checkouts
Change lifecycle states
Add to security ACLs (you cannot delete existing entries)
Run an event action script
For example, assume that several documents had been checked out by someone
who left your company. Using multiselect operations, you can search for all
documents that were left checked out by that person and undo these checkouts
in one operation. To do this, you use the Query Builder to construct a search to
find all documents currently checked out under the former employee’s system
login name.
4.12.4 CBR query optimization
CBR query optimization
specifies how searches that contain both a
content-based retrieval (CBR) search and a relational search on a database are
executed. By default, the Content Platform Engine always performs the CBR
search first and the database search second. The CBR-first approach is most
efficient when there are few full-text hits. Efficiency decreases, however, when
there are many full-text hits, and there are fewer database hits than full-text hits.
To provide control over how combined searches are executed, the
CBRQueryOptimization property can be set on the object store. As an alternative
to the default CBR-first option, you can set the property to the dynamic switching
option. In dynamic switching mode, the Content Platform Engine dynamically
determines whether to issue the CBR search first or the database search first,
optimizing performance for these types of searches.
In dynamic switching mode, the Content Platform Engine switches from CBR first
to database first based on an estimated number of CBR hits. The estimate is
compared to a threshold value, set in the CBRQueryDynamicThreshold property.
If the number of full-text estimated hits is less than or equal to the
CBRQueryDynamicThreshold value, the CBR search is executed first (CBR-first
search). If the number of full-text estimated hits is larger than the
CBRQueryDynamicThreshold value, the database search is executed first. The
dynamic switching operation is affected by various search options, including
requests for rank ordering. The CBRQueryRankOverride property on the object
store determines how the server responds to CBR search requests for rank order
and can affect server performance.

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4.13 Conclusion
In this chapter, you learned about the basic concepts and elements that
comprise a repository and repository design. While designing the system, ensure
that you have someone to look after the design of the repository. Use the prefix
for the symbolic names in the repository that uniquely identifies your solution and
does not interfere with Content Platform Engine symbolic names and naming
conventions. Create a meta object store and import the metadata from the meta
object store to other object stores. Ensure that you create a prototype to validate
your design before implementing it. Consider the best practices and performance
considerations before finalizing the design.
Best Practice: To ensure that database-first searches execute efficiently, set
database criteria on indexed properties. The database-first searches require
database indexes on at least one property in the WHERE clause for good
performance. Otherwise, queries perform inefficiently during the
database-only portion of the search.
Specify limiting conditions on database criteria to achieve relatively small hit
counts. Database-first searches are most effective when the database hit
count is relatively small.

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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
151
Chapter 5.
Security
This chapter describes the security mechanisms provided by the Content
Platform Engine to secure the resources under its management against
unauthorized access and to ensure that authorized users are given only sufficient
access to carry out the tasks assigned to them, referred to as
access control
. In
addition, it provides a series of recommendations for how best to employ those
mechanisms to achieve the desired access control goals.
We discuss the following topics in the chapter:
Access control
Authentication
Authorization
Security best practices
5

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
5.1 Access control
Access control can be thought of as being the answer to the question of
who
is
allowed to do
what
. There are two parts to that question, the
who
and the
what
,
and correspondingly two phases of the overall access control process. The
who

part concerns identifying the entity, usually a person but also potentially an
autonomous process, that is making a request of the Content Platform Engine.
This is the authentication phase. The
what
part concerns deciding what level of
access that entity needs to be given to the content objects targeted by the
request. This is the
authorization
phase.
The Content Platform Engine supports standard mechanisms for authentication
and a rich set of
authorization
features, as described in the remaining sections of
this chapter.
5.2 Authentication
All requests submitted to the Content Platform Engine are subject to
authentication, meaning that they must carry within them a verifiable (authentic)
identity of the entity making the request. The Content Platform Engine itself does
not define or implement authentication; rather, it delegates that to a standard
service of the application server environment in which it executes - the Java
Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS).
The outcome of JAAS authentication is required to be an identity that the Content
Platform Engine can resolve to a user in a directory service containing
configured users and groups, from which a security context can be built and
delivered into the authorization phase of access control. These elements of
authentication are described in detail.
5.2.1 Use of JAAS
The traditional authentication model of a user providing a user ID and password
is tried-and-true and has been in widespread use for decades. It is easy to
implement and conceptually simple, but it does have some drawbacks:
Software systems built to rigidly expect user ID and password credentials are
difficult to adapt in the face of other forms of credentials. Examples of other
forms of credentials, which can be used with or without a password, are
fingerprint scans and hardware security tokens. It is not possible for a
software system built today to anticipate all of the forms of credentials that
might be used in the future.

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In an environment where users must interact with several applications, either
the user must repeatedly enter credentials when crossing application
boundaries, or the credentials must be passed from one application to
another. The first choice represents a usability annoyance, and the second
choice represents an information security hazard, because it gives more
opportunities for the credentials to be discovered or exploited by an attacker.
For the first of these problems, the software industry has evolved to a model of
pluggable authentication
. Components for verifying different credential types can
be developed independently of the framework into which they fit. The output of a
pluggable authentication framework is often a token affirming that valid
credentials were presented and verified. That is typically enough information for
most authentication consumers, although some systems also provide information
about the types of credentials that were presented.
Pluggable authentication also works toward solving the second problem,
because the token produced can be more securely passed between applications
than the raw credentials. There are more factors involved in
single sign-on
(SSO)
solutions than pluggable authentication. There must be additional conventions or
APIs for the applications to communicate with each other or at least with the SSO
framework. A full discussion of SSO frameworks is beyond the scope of this
book. Most application server vendors provide at least some SSO capabilities,
and there are many vendor solutions available. For example, see Single Sign-on
Solutions for IBM FileNet P8 Using IBM Tivoli and WebSphere Security
Technology, SG24-7675.
In the Java environment, the pluggable authentication framework is JAAS. The
Content Platform Engine fully delegates authentication to JAAS (but does not
use JAAS for authorization purposes). Virtually all modern SSO solutions also
work in concert with JAAS, so the Content Platform Engine server will almost
always automatically participate in any SSO solution that might be employed.
The net outcome of JAAS authentication is that the Content Platform Engine
server receives a Java artifact called a
Subject
, containing unimpeachable
information concerning the authenticated user. The Content Platform Engine
requires that this Subject contain identifying information for a user in a configured
directory service.
5.2.2 Directory service users and groups
It is a requirement that organizations using P8 define the users of its systems in a
directory service. P8 supports the following directory service types:
Microsoft Active Directory
Microsoft Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS)

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Novell eDirectory
Oracle Internet Directory
Oracle Directory Server Enterprise Edition (formerly known as Sun Java
System Directory Server)
CA Directory
IBM Tivoli Directory Server
In addition, support is provided for IBM WebSphere Virtual Member Manager
(VMM), which is a directory service
aggregator
, capable of presenting a
collection of directory services of heterogeneous types as a single unified virtual
directory.
Alongside users, the directory service can (and usually will) define a number of
groups. A
group
is a container of users and possibly of other groups, although
not all directory services support nesting of groups. The contained users and
groups are said to be
members
of the containing group. A group provides a
convenient way to grant or deny access to the group members in a way that
adapts automatically to changes to membership in the group.
Users and groups are referred to collectively as
security principals
and the
authorization mechanisms described next are expressed exclusively in terms of
security principals, mostly without regard for whether a particular principal is a
user or group.
For each security principal, the directory service is required to provide an
immutable identifier, which unambiguously resolves to that principal. This
identifier is unique within that directory service and can be used to retrieve the
directory service object having that ID. The form this unique identifier takes
varies according to the directory service type and on configuration choices made
by the owning organization. No matter what form it has in the underlying directory
service, the Content Platform Engine transforms it to a universal format when it is
presented in the API. This universal format is referred to as a security identifier
(SID). SIDs are what the Content Platform Engine stores in its internal
authorization data structures.
A security principal also has a
distinguished name
, a
principal name
, and a
short
name
. The distinguished name (DN) is unique, and the principal name and short
name can be also (particularly the former).
In addition to SIDs obtained from directory service principals, the Content
Platform Engine acknowledges two special SID values, which have particular
purposes described later. These SIDs have an associated predefined display
name and do not resolve to a directory service object. They must be treated
specially by API consumers, including administration tools.

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There are two special SID values:
#AUTHENTICATED-USERS
This SID (often abbreviated as #A-U) notionally identifies a group, to which all
valid users belong (but for which there is no concrete representation). #A-U is
automatically added to the security context for any authenticated user. #A-U
can appear as the grantee of an access control entry (ACE) in order to grant
or deny access to all users (that is, to everyone).
#CREATOR-OWNER
This SID (#C-O), which is notionally of a user, plays no role in access
checking (it does not appear in the security context). Its purpose is to act as
an alias for the creator or current owner of an object during the application of
default security, inheritable ACEs, and security templates. It is substituted by
the actual creator or owner SID.
5.2.3 Security context
The security context (also sometimes referred to as the
user access token
)
provides the identity information upon which authorization checks are based. It
contains the SIDs of every security principal via which a calling user can be
granted or denied access:
The SID of the authenticated requesting user
The SIDs of any groups of which the user is an immediate member
The SIDs of any groups within which those groups are nested, and so on (an
exhaustive flattening of group nesting)
The SID for #AUTHENTICATED-USERS
The SID of the requesting user is determined by extracting the login name from
the incoming JAAS Subject and searching the directory service to locate the
corresponding user object. The group SID list (apart from #A-U) is obtained by
further searches of the directory service.
Searching the directory service is a relatively expensive operation, so to avoid
repeating it for each incoming request, the Content Platform Engine maintains a
cache of fully constructed security contexts keyed by login name. Management of
this cache, called the
user token cache
, is described in “User token cache” on
page 189.

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5.3 Authorization
Authorization
is the second phase of access control, and is the phase in which a
determination is made of the operations the caller is permitted to carry out on a
particular object.
5.3.1 Access rights
Authorization determines a set of
effective access

rights
that a caller is granted
for a particular object. These in turn determine what operations can be
performed on the object. Access rights are also the way grants and denials of
access to a particular principal are expressed.
Concretely, access rights are represented by bit values, which are combined into
an
access mask
- a 32-bit value in which distinct bit positions represent different
access rights.
Some access rights have nearly universal meaning for all objects. For example,
READ always implies permission to read an object and DELETE always implies
permission to delete it. Others have meaning only for particular types of objects.
Access rights that do not have meaning for a particular type of object can
nevertheless appear in its effective access mask (this can occur for a variety of
reasons) but play no role in determining what operations are permitted.
Table 5-1 gives a list of the access right names, a description of their meaning,
and the types of objects to which they are applicable.
Table 5-1 Access rights
Right Applies to Description
READ All types Confers permission to retrieve the object.
WRITE All types Allows modification, and also (where
relevant) the API Lock, Unlock,
ChangeClass, and MoveContent actions.
LINK Folder,
Document, a few
others
Grants permission to file into a folder or to
annotate a document, and other similar
things.
UNLINK Folder Grants permission to unfile from the folder
by deleting a referential containment
relationship.
MINOR_VERSION Document Allows checking out and checking in as a
minor version.

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157
MAJOR_VERSION Document Allows checking out and checking in as or
promoting to be a major version.
CREATE_
INSTANCE
Class Definition Permission to create an instance of the
defined class, specify the class as the
target of a ChangeClass API action, and
for custom event classes, allows the class
to be used in a RaiseEvent API action.
CREATE_CHILD Domain, Folder,
and Class
Definition
Allows creation of new domain level
(global configuration database (GCD))
objects, or subfolders of a folder, or
subclasses of a class definition.
CHANGE_STATE Document, Task Allows document lifecycle methods and
task state changes.
PUBLISH Document Permits the document to be submitted for
publication.
DELETE All types Allows the object to be deleted or marked
for deletion.
READ_ACL All types Permits read access to the Permissions
list.
WRITE_ACL All types Allows modifications to the Permissions
list and the API Freeze,
ApplySecurityTemplate, and
TakeFederatedOwnership actions.
WRITE_OWNER All types Allows ownership to be taken of the object.
CONNECT Object Store Allows access to objects in the object store
for read.
STORE_
OBJECTS
Object Store Permits new objects to be created in the
object store.
MODIFY_
OBJECTS
Object Store Allows objects in the object store to be
modified.
REMOVE_
OBJECTS
Object Store Allows objects in the object store to be
deleted.
WRITE_
ANY_OWNER
Object Store Permits any object in the object store to be
retrieved and the Owner property to be
modified.
Right Applies to Description

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
5.3.2 Security descriptor
The
security descriptor
(SD) is the primary mechanism through which access to
an object is controlled, although it can be augmented by other means. The
majority of independently persistable objects have a security descriptor, although
some do not and so are subject to a different access check, as described later.
The SD is an internal construct maintained by the server and not exposed
directly in the API. Instead, the two elements of the SD - the Owner and the
Permissions list - are exposed as independently editable properties, combined in
storage as the SD.
For objects stored in an object store (repository objects), the server implements a
single-instance mechanism for SDs, so that if two objects have the same owner
and permissions and therefore identical SDs, only one copy of the SD is stored,
referenced by both objects. This, along with other details of how SDs are
managed, makes them highly amenable to caching. The server maintains a
security descriptor cache
, which ensures that it is frequently possible to evaluate
access to an object without a separate database access to retrieve the security
descriptor.
ADD_MARKING Marking Allows the marking value to be applied to
objects.
REMOVE_
MARKING
Marking Allows the marking value to be removed
from objects.
USE_MARKING Marking Permits objects having the marking value
to be accessed without constraint of the
marking.
PRIVILEGED_
WRITE
Object Store Allows modification of certain properties
that are normally treated as read-only for
any object in the object store.
MODIFY_
RETENTION
Object Store Permits the retention date to be modified
for objects in the object store.
VIEW_
RECOVERABLE_
OBJECTS
Object Store Allows reading of objects that have been
marked for deletion and thus rendered
invisible to general users.
Right Applies to Description

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Owner
The Owner field stores the identity (SID) of the security principal that is
considered to “own” the object and is granted certain rights that cannot be
revoked by the permissions list. The owner is usually a user and in the majority of
cases will be the user who created the object, but there is nothing (other than the
rules) which requires that to be the case. In particular, it is allowed for the owner
to be a group (in which case, any member of that group is considered to own the
object).
Every SD has a slot for the owner but it is not always populated. There are a
couple of reasons why this can be the case:
For some objects, the concept of an owner is not considered meaningful, so
no mechanism is provided to set or retrieve the Owner field and there is no
default value initialized in it. This applies to all GCD objects and to a small
subset of repository objects.
The owner might have been explicitly set to null (or defaulted so) deliberately
so that no one has the additional access rights conferred by ownership.
In cases where there is an exposed mechanism to modify the Owner field (which
for the majority of repository objects there is, through the Onwer property), doing
so is subject to the following rules:
If the user has WRITE_ANY_OWNER access to the object store in which the
object resides, the Owner can be set to any valid real SID or to null. (It might
not be set to one of the special SIDs).
If the user has WRITE_OWNER access to the object in question (but not
WRITE_ANY_OWNER access), the Owner might only be set to the user’s
own SID (which is also known as “
take ownership
”) or to null.
Otherwise, the Owner cannot be modified.
Permission list
The
permission list
, referred to as the
access control list
(ACL) is a collection of
permissions or
access control entries
(ACEs), each of which grants or denies a
set of access rights to a security principal.
The order of the ACEs in the ACL has no particular significance, although when
the ACL is exposed in the API as a collection of permission objects, it is ordered
by source and type to match the order of precedence applied by the access
check. The ACEs in the ACL are generally a mix of automatically assigned
entries and entries applied “manually” through the API. See the Source field
described next.
Each ACE has the following fields:

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Grantee
The SID of a security principal to which the ACE grants or denies access
rights, which can be either a real SID or one of the special SIDs. In the API,
the SID is exposed as the name of the security principal (GranteeName
property).
Type
Either Allow or Deny. An Allow ACE grants permissions, and a Deny ACE
revokes them.
Access Mask
A bitmask of access rights granted or denied by this ACE.
Inheritable Depth
An integer value determining the extent to which this ACE can be inherited by
security (grand)child objects.
Source
An automatically populated (read-only) enumerated type indicating the origin
of the ACE:
– Direct - indicates an ACE that either was added manually through the API
or is a modified Default-sourced ACE.
– Default - an ACE that was added by default (described in 5.3.3, “Default
security descriptor” on page 161) and has not yet been modified.
– Template - an ACE that was added as the result of applying a security
template (described in 5.3.4, “Security templates” on page 161).
– Parent - indicates an ACE that was inherited from a security parent
(described in “Inheritance proxies” on page 165).
– Proxy - indicates an ACE that originates from a full security proxy
(described in “Full proxies” on page 164).
ACEs with a source of Template, Parent, or Proxy can neither be removed from
the ACL nor modified in any fashion through the API. ACEs with source Direct or
Default can be removed through the API and allow modifications to the Type,
Access Mask, and Inheritable Depth fields (Grantee cannot be changed). If an
ACE with source Default is modified, the source is updated to Direct. (Default is
purely presentational; functionally, it is treated no differently than Direct). ACEs
with source Parent do not form part of the stored security descriptor but will
appear in the API representation of the effective ACL of an object. ACEs with the
source Proxy are similar.

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5.3.3 Default security descriptor
For repository object classes, a mechanism is provided to allow the administrator
to define the ACL and Owner that will be set by default on a new instance of the
class. This is accomplished through an additional security descriptor, the default
instance SD, attached to the Class Definition for the class, and edited via the
Default Instance Permissions and Default Instance Owner properties.
Although they are stored together in the default instance SD, the default ACL and
default Owner are applied separately, depending on which (if either) of the
Permissions and Owner properties were modified before saving the new object.
For both, the default value is copied into the new object (with modifications
described next). If the defaults are edited, the changes take effect only for
subsequently created instances. There is no retrospective effect on instances
that already exist.
The #CREATOR-OWNER SID is given special treatment when forming the
instance security from the default:
If the default Owner is #C-O, the instance Owner is set to the SID of the user
issuing the creation request (that is, the user SID from the security context).
If an ACE in the default ACL has grantee #C-O:
– An ACE is added to the instance ACL with grantee set to the requesting
user SID and inheritable depth zero, but all other fields are copied from the
default ACE.
– If the inheritable depth of the default ACE is non-zero, in addition, an exact
copy (no grantee substitution) of the default ACE is added to the instance
ACL.
ACEs with a grantee other than #C-O are copied exactly, with no modifications
except that the source is set to be Default.
When a new object store is created, the default security descriptors for system
classes are initialized based on two lists of security principals given in the object
store creation request, the
administrators
and
general users
. The administrators
are given powerful default rights over all objects, although the exact set of rights
varies by object type. General users are given read-only access to the majority of
objects. In all cases, the default owner is set to #C-O.
5.3.4 Security templates
The
security template
mechanism provides a way to automate updating of an
object’s ACL as it transitions between versioning, document lifecycle, or
application-defined states. The objective is to bring the object’s effective access

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rights to an appropriate state without “manual” intervention from the user
initiating the state change.
Object model
A security template is essentially just an ACL tied to an identifier that determines
the object state in which that template is applied.
Security templates come in three types with different packaging:

VersioningSecurityTemplates
and
ApplicationSecurityTemplates
are fully
fledged dependent objects exposing a TemplatePermissions collection
(accessing the underlying template ACL), a GUID property ApplyStateID,
which identifies the state to which the template is applicable, and a boolean
property IsEnabled, which allows application of this template to be disabled.
For a versioning template, the ApplyStateID property is constrained to one of
four well-known values representing the four versioning states: Reservation,
In Progress, Released, and Superseded. For an application template, it might
have any (application-determined) value except those four well-known values.
A document lifecycle template is not a separate type of object. The template
ACL is simply part of the DocumentState definition object (again, exposed as
TemplatePermissions property), with the applicable state being implicitly that
of the DocumentState object. A boolean property ApplyTemplatePermissions
determines whether the template ACL is applicable during transition to this
state.
A group of Versioning and Application security templates representing all that
are applicable to a particular object or set of objects are collected together in
a
SecurityPolicy
object, which is associated to the relevant objects via their
SecurityPolicy property (which is often defaulted). Folders, documents, and
customer objects (collectively
Containables
) have the SecurityPolicy property
and participate in the template mechanism, although Versioning templates
are only relevant for Documents.
DocumentState objects, with their attendant template ACLs, are collected
together into a
DocumentLifecyclePolicy
, associated with relevant Document
objects through their DocumentLifecyclePolicy property.
Both SecurityPolicy and DocumentLifecyclePolicy have an additional Boolean
property PreserveDirectPermissions, which affects the manner in which
templates from that policy object are applied.
Template application
A template is applied to an object under the following circumstances and subject
to the noted constraints:
During a versioning state change (for example: Checkin, Promote, or
Demote), if the document has a non-null value for its SecurityPolicy property

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and if that policy contains an
enabled
(IsEnabled is set to true)
VersioningSecurityTemplate with ApplyStateID corresponding to the new
versioning state. If those conditions are not met, the object’s ACL is not
modified at all.
During a lifecycle state change, if the DocumentState for the new state has
ApplyTemplatePermissions set to true. (If ApplyTemplatePermissions is false,
no ACL change is made.)
During an ExecuteChanges operation that requests the
ApplySecurityTemplate action, if the object has a non-null SecurityPolicy
containing an enabled ApplicationSecurityTemplate with ApplyStateID equal
to that given as the parameter to the ApplySecurityTemplate action. (An error
is given if those conditions are not met.)
In all these cases, the template ACL is applied to the object’s stored ACL in the
same way:
Any existing ACEs with source Template in the object’s ACL are removed.
In addition, if the policy object from which the template is drawn has
PreserveDirectPermissions set to false, any ACE with source Default or
Direct ACEs are also removed. The purpose is to allow the administrator to
configure things so that the template completely controls access to the object
without the possibility of being overridden by ACEs applied manually.
ACEs from the template ACL are copied into the target ACL. This is done the
same way that default ACEs are applied (including the special treatment for
#C-O ACEs) except that the copies are given source Template rather than
Default.
It is permissible for the template ACL to be empty, in which case the last step is
skipped (but
only
the last step).
Also, as described above, template ACEs are copied into the ACLs of the objects
to which they are applied. Therefore, changes made to the template ACL have no
effect on objects to which that template has already been applied.
5.3.5 Proxies
Proxying
is a mechanism by which the security descriptor of one object (the
proxied object
) can be replaced by or augmented by the security descriptor of
another object (the
proxy object
). Replacement is referred to as
full proxying.

Augmentation is referred to as
inheritance
or
partial proxying
. In both cases, the
relationship between the proxied object and a proxy is represented by a singleton
object-valued
proxy-defining
property of the proxied object. Setting a value for
the property establishes (activates) proxying and removing the value severs the

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
proxy relationship. The proxy-defining nature of a property is specified as its
Property Definition, as either None (ordinary non-proxy defining property), Full,
or Inheritance.
Proxying is transitive. That is, if object A has a proxy-defining property referring to
object B, and B has a proxy-defining property referring to C, A’s security (as well
as B’s) is influenced by that of C. The server prevents proxying loops (where a
chain of proxy relationships leads back to the object from which one started),
producing an error at the point the attempt is made to set the property that closes
the loop.
Proxying is only available for repository classes; both the proxied and proxy
objects must reside in an object store. Proxy-defining properties are often custom
properties but there are a number of built-in system proxy-defining properties, in
some cases with additional special behavior.
There is no restriction on proxying between different types of objects. For
example, a Folder can act as a proxy for a Document or a Document for a Link. A
consequence is it might be necessary to assign access rights to a proxy object
that have no meaning for that type of object, in order for those rights to apply to
proxied objects.
When a proxied object is retrieved or accessed for update, the server evaluates
an
effective security descriptor
for the object by traversing each active proxy
relationship, evaluating the effective security descriptor for each proxy object (a
recursive process) and then applying those to replace or augment the stored
security descriptor for the object. This process can involve fetching a number of
additional objects, and to mitigate the cost, the server maintains a cache of
recently fetched proxy objects. This
object-security cache
is particularly effective
when retrieving a set of objects sharing the same proxy, as is typical for
subfolders and relationship objects.
Full proxies
Assigning a value to a proxy-defining property of type Full results in the effective
security descriptor (and active markings) of the proxied object being completely
replaced by that of the proxy. In this case, the Permissions collection presented in
the API for the proxied object will reflect exactly the ACEs in the effective security
descriptor for the proxy, but with the special source type Proxy. The Permissions
collection and the Owner property will both be read-only.
A class can define multiple proxy-defining properties of any mix of types, but
among those of type Full only one can have a value at a time. (An attempt to set
a value for a second full proxy-defining property will incur a “constraint-violated”
error.) This places some limits on the usefulness of the feature, since if two
applications want to full proxy a particular object in two ways, they can only do so

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cooperatively. No restriction is placed on setting or modifying inheritance
proxy-defining properties when a full proxy is in effect, but those will have no
influence on the effective security for the object.
When a full proxy is in effect, the object’s own stored security descriptor is
rendered invisible and inaccessible for direct modification. However, if a security
template is applied to a fully proxied object, the changes are made to the stored
security descriptor in the normal way and will become visible and effective if the
full proxy relationship is severed.
There are a few system properties that are full proxy-defining and in all cases
these require a value. This reflects the fact that for the objects in question, there
is no value in them having independently controllable security. As a
consequence, none of these objects have the Permissions or Owner property.
Table 5-2 lists the classes and properties to which this applies.
Table 5-2 Proxy classes and properties
Inheritance proxies
Security inheritance, like its genetic counterpart, is the passing of inheritable
traits - in these cases, ACEs rather than genes - from a parent (the proxy) to a
child (the proxied object). This analogy (and a certain amount of history) is the
reason behind the use of the ACE source designation Parent. The analogy
becomes a bit stretched when considering that a proxied object can have any
number of “parents”, represented by values in an arbitrary number of inheritance
type proxy-defining properties.
The effective security descriptor for an object with active inheritance proxy
relationships is constructed by combining the stored SD with copies of the
inheritable
ACEs from the effective security descriptor of each proxy. ACEs from
Proxied class Property defining full
proxy
Proxy object class
Referential Containment
Relationship
Tail Folder
Component Relationship Parent Component Document
Hold Relationship Hold Hold
Sweep Relationship Sweep Policy Controlled Sweep
Job Sweep Result Controlling Object Sweep Job
Policy Sweep Result Controlling Object Sweep Policy
Thumbnail Input Document Document

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
different proxies are combined on an equal footing and all are given source
Parent, regardless of the source for the ACE from which the copy was made.
Inheritability of an ACE is determined by its Inheritable Depth setting, with the
following rules:
A value of 0 means that the ACE is not inheritable and will not appear in the
ACL of the proxied object.
A value of 1 indicates that the ACE will be inherited through one level of
proxying only (the administrative UI refers to this as “Immediate children”).
When such an ACE is copied to an inheriting object, the copy has Inheritable
Depth 0 as a reflection of not inheriting further.
Other positive values similarly specify inheritance through a maximum
number of levels, with the value being decremented as a copy is made for
each inheritance step.
A value of -1 allows the ACE to be inherited to arbitrary depth, through any
number of transitive proxy relationships.
Other negative values have a subtle effect, because these ACEs (which are
referred to as inherit-only) are not considered when evaluating access for the
object on which they appear. They can be inherited, with their inheritable
depth being transformed as follows on the first inheritance step:
– -2 becomes -1, thus it means “inherit-only to any depth”
– -3 becomes 0, thus meaning “inherit-only to immediate children”
– -4 becomes 1, -5 becomes 2, and so on.
As well as ACEs that are directly applied, those that appear in a default instance
ACL or template ACL can also be marked as inheritable. Thus, for example, a
security template can apply inheritable ACEs. A number of system classes have
built-in inheritance proxy-defining properties, as shown in Table 5-3.
Table 5-3 System classes and their properties
Proxied class Property defining
inheritance proxy
Proxy object class
Folder Parent Folder
Document Security Folder Folder
Custom Object Security Folder Folder
Annotation Annotated Object Containable
Task Coordinator Containable
Class Definition Superclass Definition Class Definition

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Of particular note are the first three. A folder can inherit from its parent folder, and
it from its parent, and so on, all the way to the root folder. Documents and custom
objects can inherit from a folder, which is usually a folder in which the object is
filed, although that is not required. Thus, by combining these two features, it is
possible to manage security for the entire folder tree or for a subtree and all its
contents from the root of that tree/subtree.
The properties with names in italics in Table 5-3 on page 166 all require a value.
It appears impossible to have, for example, a folder that does not inherit from its
parent. (In contrast, the security folder property does not require a value, so
inheritance is always optional.) To overcome this deficiency, in three of the cases
in Table 5-3 on page 166, a companion Boolean property is defined that disables
this apparently required inheritance, shown in Table 5-4.
Table 5-4 Proxied class and inheritance
The default value for each of these properties is True, which means that
inheritance is enabled. Setting the value to False disables inheritance. The effect
applies solely to inheritance through the system property from the preceding
table; any additional custom proxy-defining properties are unaffected.
5.3.6 Markings
The origin of this mechanism is the military and intelligence notion of document
classifications and clearance levels:
Each person is assigned a clearance level indicating the maximum sensitivity
of documents they are allowed to see.
Each document is labeled with a classification indicating its sensitivity.
Recovery Item Recovery Bin Recovery Bin
Proxied class Inheritance disabling property
Folder Inherit Parent Permissions
Task Inherit Coordinator Permissions
Recovery Item Inherit Recovery Bin Permissions
Note: To date, no use case disables inheritance for class definitions or
annotations.
Proxied class Property defining
inheritance proxy
Proxy object class

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A person is allowed to see only documents that are classified at or below their
clearance level. For example, someone with Top Secret clearance level can
see Top Secret, Secret, and Unclassified documents. Someone with only
Secret clearance level cannot see Top Secret documents.
Furthermore, a person who is responsible for classifying new documents can
do so only up to their own clearance level. Therefore, a person with only
Secret clearance cannot classify a new document as Top Secret.
This approach is sometimes referred to as
labeling
or as
mandatory access
control
(in contrast to the features described earlier that can be categorized as
discretionary access control
).
The Content Platform Engine manifestation of this type of access control is via
marking-controlled properties
. A marking-controlled property is in every respect
an ordinary string property (single-valued or multi-valued), except that its
permitted values (called
markings
) are drawn from an administratively defined
set called a
marking set
. Its current values influence the access granted to the
object in a manner that is detailed next.
This approach generalizes upon the basic classification/clearance mechanism in
several dimensions:
An object can have multiple marking-controlled properties, drawn from
multiple marking sets, combining in their influence on the access granted. For
example, there might be a Classification property drawing from the Clearance
Levels marking set, and a Project property, designating a project from the
Projects marking set. The combined effect depends on the clearance levels
assigned to different users and the projects on which they are permitted to
work.
A marking set can be defined as imposing a hierarchical order of precedence
on the markings defined within it (for example, in the clearance levels
example, where Top Secret > Secret > Unclassified. Or, it can define the
markings as unrelated (likely be the case in the projects example).
In the classification/clearance scheme, failing to have sufficiently high
clearance with respect to a particular document acts as a blanket “off switch” -
you are not allowed to see or in any way manipulate that document. In
contrast, markings offer fine-grained control by way of an access mask that
can revoke any or all of the rights granted to the object via its security
descriptor.
The right to apply and remove a particular marking can be assigned
independently of the right to use objects to which that marking has been
applied. (Compare with the statement regarding “classifying new
documents”.) Therefore, someone might, in principle, be given the right to
classify objects as Top Secret even though that person only has clearance to

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see Secret documents. More likely, that person be allowed to designate
objects as belonging to a particular project even though that person is not a
member of that project team.
Rights to use, apply, or remove markings can be assigned to both individuals
(users) and groups.
This approach operates in the following manner:
A MarkingSet object, defined at the domain level, has a name, a type of
Hierarchical or List, and a list of dependent marking objects. In a hierarchical
marking set, the marking objects must appear in order, highest precedence
first. For a list type, the order has no significance.
Each marking object specifies a value (string) for the marking and defines the
usage and access control effect of that marking value via the following fields:
– An ACL (exposed in the API as a Permissions collection). The ACEs in this
ACL grant or deny some combination of UseMarking, AddMarking, and
RemoveMarking access rights. (Other bits can be set, but have no effect.)
The ACL is evaluated during the access check on an object that either has
this marking value applied to it, or to which an attempt is being made to
apply it. That evaluation depends on the type of the marking set, as
described in 5.3.7, “The access check” on page 169.
– A
constraint mask
, a bitmask of access rights representing the rights that
are
revoked
if a user with insufficient rights to the marking attempts to
access an object to which that marking has been applied. (Therefore,
markings only subtract rights, they do not add them.)
A custom PropertyDefinitionString can optionally reference a MarkingSet,
turning the defined property into one that is controlled by that marking set.
This establishes the marking values in that marking set as the permitted
values for the property, and activates the access control effect of the marking
value for instances of the class to which the defined property is added.
The access control effect of markings applied to an object acting as a full proxy
also affect the proxied object, completely supplanting the effect of any markings
on that object.
5.3.7 The access check
The
access check
is the process of evaluating the access control measures that
apply to a particular object for a particular user in order to determine the set of
access rights that are in effect for that object and user combination.
The following sections describe the circumstances and manner in which the
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When and how
All independent objects are subject to an access check during retrieval and
update. In most cases, that access check is based on evaluating the effective
access granted by the object’s effective security descriptor and markings.
However, a number of object types diverge from this general rule:
The overall effective access for an object store is determined by augmenting
that resulting from evaluating the object store’s own ACL with additional rights
determined from the Domain’s ACL (Table 5-5).
Table 5-5 Domain ACL
The effective access to other independent GCD objects (besides object
stores) is determined by evaluating the Domain’s ACL. (No other GCD objects
have their own ACL.)
Access to class descriptions, for which READ is the only relevant right, is
controlled by the scope from which the class description is drawn. To access
a class description from an object store scope requires CONNECT rights to
that object store. To access a class description from domain scope requires
READ rights to that domain.
For all repository objects, the result of the ACL check is augmented with the
WRITE_OWNER right if the user has WRITE_ANY_OWNER access to the
object store in which the object resides.
Queue Items (SecurityPropagation/Event/DocumentClassification), Index
Requests, Replication Journal Entries, and Sweep Queue Entries do not have
instance security. Instead, access to these types of objects is determined by
evaluating the default instance ACL for the object’s class.
There are no access checks for realm, user, and group objects. (It is sufficient
for the user to be authenticated in order to be able to see these objects, which
are immutable.)
Object retrieval
This form of access check takes place during a GetObjects operation (or
equivalent) and during the refresh phase of an ExecuteChanges operation, with
the purpose of determining whether the caller is allowed to see the object and
whether it needs to form part of the response.
Domain ACL grants Added to object store effective access
READ READ + READ_ACL
WRITE WRITE + READ_ACL + WRITE_ACL
DELETE DELETE

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For GCD objects and ClassDescriptions, being allowed to see the object is
simply based on the presence of the READ access right in the effective access
for the object, evaluated from an ACL as described next.
For repository objects, the access check is in two parts, both of which must be
satisfied:
The effective access evaluated from the ACL of the object store in which the
object resides must include CONNECT right.
The effective access evaluated from the object’s effective security descriptor
and markings must include either READ or WRITE_OWNER permission (or
both). The rationale for the inclusion of the latter is that it allows the owner of
an object or someone with WRITE_ANY_OWNER access to the object store
to retrieve the object regardless of the state of the ACL. Therefore, it provides
an escape mechanism by which the ACL can be repaired if it has been put
into a state that grants no access to anyone.
In the event that the access check fails, the intent is that the system behaves
exactly as though the object did not exist. Therefore, the following actions occur:
If the object is being retrieved directly, a “not found” error is returned.
If the object forms part of a collection, it is simply dropped from that collection.
If the object will be returned as the value of a singleton property, a null value is
substituted.
If the access check succeeds, the object is returned with values for all the
properties dictated by the property filter included, except for these properties:
Any values that are independently persistable objects reached through
recursion are subject to an independent access check and handling as
described earlier.
The Permissions collection and the Owner property are returned as
empty/null unless the effective access mask that was used for the primary
access check also includes either READ_ACL, WRITE_ACL, or
WRITE_OWNER.
If the property filter demands that content be returned, an additional check is
made for VIEW_CONTENT access in the primary effective access mask.
ExecuteChanges
ExecuteChanges is the name of the underlying server request type through
which creation, updates, and deletions are performed.

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Access checking during ExecuteChanges is for determining whether the
creation, update, or deletion operations in the batch are allowed. Each object in
the batch is access-checked individually, but any failure causes the entire batch
to be abandoned (rolled back).
For GCD objects, the access check operates on the effective access determined
from the Domain’s ACL, or in the case of an object store, the combination of the
Domain and object store ACLs. The following checks are made:
– When creating an object, the effective access mask must include
CREATE_CHILD right.
– When updating an object, WRITE right is required, and in addition, if the
object has an ACL and that ACL is modified, WRITE_ACL right.
– Deleting an object requires DELETE right.
For repository objects, the checking is more complicated and differs depending
on the basic operation performed - create, update, or delete:
Create
The access check is in three parts:
– First, the effective access to the object store in which the object is to be
created must include STORE_OBJECTS right.
– Second, the effective access evaluated from the ACL of the
ClassDefinition for the class of object being created must grant
CREATE_INSTANCE right.
– Finally, a provisional security descriptor is formed for the object from the
default defined by the object’s class, then the effective access granted by
that SD is combined with WRITE, MINOR_VERSION, and
MAJOR_VERSION to form an overall effective access mask that is fed into
a property access check for any properties for which values are given in
the creation request.
Update
Again, the access check is in three parts:
– First, the effective access to the object store in which the object resides
must include MODIFY_OBJECTS right.
– Second, the effective access evaluated from the object itself is checked for
specific rights according to the actions requested, as described in
Table 5-1 on page 156:
Special case: Checkout creates a reservation document and is subject to
the normal creation checks for that object, in addition to the checks applied
to the checked-out document.

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Special case: InstallAddOn is an action (treated as an update) on an
ObjectStore and is therefore subject to the previously described access
checking rules for GCD objects. However, in addition, all the operations
performed as part of installing the add-on (typically creating classes and
properties) are subject to normal access checks, as though they were
performed through the API directly.
– Last, the effective access of the object is fed into a property access check.
A simple Update action involves no second phase access check, only the
property access check.
Delete
The access check is in two parts:
– First, the effective access to the object store in which the object is to be
created must include REMOVE_OBJECTS right.
– Last, the effective access for the object itself must include DELETE right.
Special case: The deletion of the system class,
ReferentialContainmentRelationship (RCR), is permitted if the effective
access (which is evaluated from the tail folder) includes either DELETE or
UNLINK right.
Special case: The deletion of a reservation Document (also known as a

cancel checkout
”) is permitted if its effective access includes either
DELETE or MAJOR_VERSION or MINOR_VERSION right.
Handling of compound actions
A change request can apply multiple actions to a single object (for example,
Create + Checkin or Checkout + Lock), which is referred to as a
compound
action
.
Each action in a compound action is subject to separate access checking
according to the rules stated. However, the object’s individual effective access
rights are evaluated only once, prior to the first action (that is, before any
changes are made). Those effective access rights are used in the access check
for all the subsequent actions. Thus, security changes made by one action do not
affect the access check for subsequent actions (because the effective access is
not reevaluated to take account of those changes).
Property access check
The third phase of a creation or update operation access check validates that the
caller is allowed to set or modify properties presented in the request (the “
dirty

properties). The input to this check is the effective access mask determined
during the second phase, and that is compared with the metadata-defined or
implicit
modification access required
(MAR) for the property. The rule is that the
operation is permitted if all the rights present in the MAR are also present in the

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effective access mask. This rule must be satisfied for every newly set or modified
property; otherwise, the whole operation will fail.
For most system properties, there is no explicitly defined MAR, and for those
system properties, an implicit mask consisting of just WRITE right is used. For
most properties, setting or modifying them simply requires WRITE permission to
the object to which the properties belong. A number of system properties do
however have an explicit MAR (Table 5-6).
Table 5-6 Properties that explicitly define modification access
Special rules apply to setting Owner, depending on how the WRITE_OWNER
effective access comes about, as described in “Owner” on page 159.
The MAR for custom properties can be defined by the property definition author,
with again WRITE being the de facto value. Proxy-defining properties need to be
given a MAR of WRITE_ACL because modifying the property value affects the
effective ACL for the object.
In addition to the MAR check, certain property types are subject to further
checks:
Singleton object-valued properties (OVP)
Setting a value for a singleton OVP is subject to an additional access check
on the object specified as the value. This check evaluates the caller’s effective
access to the specified object (as determined by that object’s effective ACL
and markings) and tests it against the metadata-defined or implicit
target
access required
(TAR) for the property, allowing the operation to proceed if all
Property Modification access required
Permissions WRITE_ACL
Owner WRITE_OWNER
ReplicationGroup WRITE_ACL
SecurityPolicy WRITE_ACL
CmRetentionDate WRITE_ACL
SecurityFolder WRITE_ACL
DefaultRetentionPeriod WRITE_ACL
Inherit Parent Permissions WRITE_ACL
Inherit Coordinator Permissions WRITE_ACL
Inherit Recovery Item Permissions WRITE_ACL

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the rights present in the TAR are also present in the effective access. The
default (implicit) TAR is READ, but many system properties have more
stringent requirements.
For example, the TAR for the RCR.Tail is LINK. Therefore, it is necessary to
have LINK permission to a folder in order to file things into it.
As with the MAR, for custom properties, the TAR is controlled by the property
definition author.
There is no additional access check for unsetting (nullifying) a singleton OVP.
Only the MAR check applies.
Marking-controlled properties
Values placed into or removed from a marking-controlled property (MCP) are
subject to access checks on the marking objects corresponding to those
values:
– If setting a value of a singleton MCP where previously there was no value,
the caller must have ADD_MARKING effective access to the
corresponding marking object.
– If nullifying a singleton MCP, which previously had a value, the caller must
have REMOVE_MARKING access to the marking object.
– Changing the value of a singleton MCP from one non-null value to another
non-null value is treated as a remove followed by an add. Therefore, it
requires REMOVE_MARKING access to the initial value’s marking and
ADD_MARKING access to the new value’s marking.
– For updates to a list MCP, the server computes the net deltas - additions
and removals - and demands ADD_MARKING or REMOVE_MARKING
access to the corresponding marking objects.
The manner in which the effective access to a marking is determined is
described in “Markings check” on page 177.
Search execution
Search applies an access check to any object contributing columns to a result
row. (In a joined query, each From class is considered as contributing to the row,
even if no properties of that class appear in the SELECT list.) This access check
is the same as for object retrieval - READ or WRITE_OWNER rights are required
- except that if the query includes a CBR clause, VIEW_CONTENT is also
required. A failure is handled in the same way that it is handled for collection
retrieval, that is, the row is simply dropped from the result set.
The access check is accomplished by adding columns to the SELECT list
specified by the caller as needed to determine the security descriptor and the
values of any proxy-defining and marking-controlled properties for each

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contributing object, from which can be determined the effective access to the
object.
Effective access
Key is the calculation of effective access to an object, determined from the
effective security descriptor and markings applicable to the object. The overall
effective access is, in general, the result of combining three bitmasks, produced
by evaluation of the owner, ACL, and markings against the security context of the
caller, in the following way:
effective-mask = (owner-mask | ACL-mask) & ~markings-constraint-mask
The owner mask and ACL mask are combined, and then any rights constrained
by markings are subtracted. Note a couple of key points:
Denial ACEs in the ACL do not (cannot) revoke rights granted through
ownership.
Markings do not grant additional rights, they only revoke rights, and that
revocation is absolute (cannot be overcome via the ACL or ownership).
For an object without markings, the markings check is skipped and zero is used
for markings-constraint-mask.
Owner check
Subject to the following caveat, the Owner check returns a bitmask of either all
zeros or of READ_ACL+WRITE_ACL+WRITE_OWNER, depending on whether
the caller is determined to be an owner of the object. That determination is made
by comparing the Owner SID from the security descriptor with the SIDs in the
security context. If there is a match with any of those SIDs (user or group), the
caller is an owner and receives the non-zero owner mask. If there is no match (or
if the Owner SID is null), the owner mask is returned as zero.
The caveat is that when evaluating access to a repository object, possession of
the WRITE_ANY_OWNER right to the object store in which that object resides
causes WRITE_OWNER right to be added to the owner mask. (This obviously
only has impact if zero is otherwise returned.)
ACL check
The ACL evaluation phase combines the access masks from the ACEs in the
ACL according to the following rules:
Only ACEs whose grantee SID is present among the SIDs in the security
context are considered, while all others are ignored. The only relevant ACEs
are those whose grantee is the calling user or a group of which that user is a
member.

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Inherit-only ACEs are ignored.
ACEs with source Direct/Default take precedence over those with source
Template, which in turn take precedence over those with source Parent.
Within each source category (so as a second-level order of precedence),
Deny ACEs (which remove rights) take priority over Allow ACEs (which add
rights).
So, logically, we calculate six separate bitmasks, one for each (source, type)
permutation (treating Default and Direct as one). Each of those bitmasks is the
result of ORing together the access masks from the all relevant ACEs belonging
to that permutation (or is zero if there are no such ACEs). The six bitmasks are
then combined according to the following algorithm:
ACL-mask = parent-allow-mask
ACL-mask = ACL-mask & ~parent-deny-mask
ACL-mask = ACL-mask | template-allow-mask
ACL-mask = ACL-mask & ~template-deny-mask
ACL-mask = ACL-mask | direct-allow-mask
ACL-mask = ACL-mask & ~direct-deny-mask
An important point is that denials (Deny ACEs) override grants (Allow ACEs) with
an equal or lower precedence source (for example: Template Deny overrides
Template or Parent Allow) but are themselves overridden by grants with a higher
precedence source (example: Direct).
Markings check
This phase returns a bitmask of rights that are unconditionally revoked from the
caller - the constraint mask - as a result of insufficient access to markings applied
to the object. This is determined by forming a list of the marking objects
corresponding to all the values of all marking-controlled properties of the object,
evaluating the caller’s effective ask to each of those markings, and ORing
together the constraint masks of any for which the effective access fails to include
USE_MARKING right.
The key part is how effective access to a marking object is evaluated, which has
relevance both here and to the additional property access check for
marking-controlled properties described in “Property access check” on
page 173. This evaluation varies according to the type of marking set to which
the marking belongs.

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List
In this type of marking set, the markings are independent of each other. The
evaluation of effective access simply relies upon the ACL of the individual
marking, which is evaluated according to the rules given in “ACL check” on
page 176 and simplified because a marking ACL never includes anything but
direct ACEs.
Hierarchical
In this case, the evaluation is more complex because it must include the order of
precedence of the markings in the MarkingSet and the following rules:
Granting rights to a higher precedence marking implicitly grants the same
rights to all lower precedence markings. For example, someone given Top
Secret clearance is inherently able to access Secret and Unclassified
documents.
Denying rights to a lower precedence marking must also deny those rights to
all higher precedence markings. For example, if someone is not allowed to
see Secret documents, clearly they also are not permitted to see Top Secret
documents.
Therefore, evaluation of the effective access to a marking in a hierarchical
MarkingSet needs to include not only all the ACEs of the ACL on that marking
itself, but also the Allow ACEs from any higher precedence markings and the
Deny ACEs from any lower precedence markings. Although it is not implemented
this way, think of this logically as forming a composite ACL from those three
components and then performing a normal evaluation of that composite ACL.
5.3.8 Auditing
In some environments, the assurance that the Content Platform Engine will only
allow properly authorized operations might not be sufficient. It might be
necessary for legal or other reasons to have an actual record of attempts to carry
out unauthorized actions or even of permitted operations.
This is the purpose of the auditing feature, which allows an administrator to
enable recording of either failed operations, successful operations, or both. This
can be done with a considerable amount of selectivity:
Auditing is enabled by class. For example, it can be turned on for some
perhaps more sensitive classes but left disabled for others of lesser
sensitivity.
Within a class, auditing can be controlled by operation. For example, it can be
enabled for deletions but not for anything else.

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For each enabled operation, the administrator can select whether a record is
made of attempts to perform that operation that failed due to insufficient
access, of successful operations, or both.
Finally, a filter expression can optionally be specified that is applied to an
object that is a candidate for auditing based on the preceding settings. Only if
the object satisfies the filter condition will an audit record be written. This
allows auditing to be narrowed to objects having only certain property values
or to where certain properties are modified.
There is no mechanism for determining auditing based on the identity of the user.
Operations to be enabled for auditing are expressed in terms of events triggered
by those operations, and audit records take the form of stored Event objects of
various classes. These are the same objects that participate in the Content
Platform Engine Events and Subscriptions feature. For a full description of the
Event classes and the corresponding operations, see the following document:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.
ibm.p8.ce.admin.tasks.doc%2Fevents_reference.htm
In all cases, the audit record includes the date and time of the operation and the
identity of the user that initiated it. For everything apart from Query Event, the
record also includes the identity of the object on which the operation was
performed. (A query is of a class, not of any one object.) In addition, for all events
other than Query Event, Get Object Event, and Get Content Event, the
administrator can elect for the audit record to contain property values from the
object at the time of the operation. The record can be either a complete snapshot
of the object’s state (either before or after the update or both) or in the form of
selected properties copied (“audited as”) from the source object into custom
properties defined in the event class.
Audit records are independent of the object for which they record an operation
and, in particular, they are not automatically deleted when the source object is
deleted. An automatic disposal mechanism is however provided, through an
Audit Disposition Policy, which periodically scans the audit records deleting those
that satisfy a filter condition, often based on date.
5.4 Security best practices
The richness of the access control mechanisms described in the previous
section can be both a blessing and a curse. The richness means that a wide
variety of security requirements can be addressed but it is not always obvious
how best to meet those requirements. This section will give some guidance on
that issue.

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5.4.1 Physical security measures
The Content Platform Engine rigorously applies the access controls that have
been defined to any requests that are received via its APIs. But those controls
are only effective to protect the resources managed by the Content Platform
Engine if
the only way those resources can be accessed is through the APIs
. If
users are able to bypass the API and access resources directly, the Content
Platform Engine access controls are completely compromised. Therefore, it is
essential that an organization have in place “physical” security measures to
prevent such direct access.
A detailed examination of this topic is beyond the scope of this publication, but a
brief list of areas for consideration follows. These are all common issues that
arise in any distributed system:
Databases hosting the GCD and object stores must be secured against
unauthorized access. Generally, access is restricted to database
administrators (who ideally are not P8 users) and the identities used by the
Content Platform Engine itself to access the databases (as defined in the
application server data sources configuration).
The server host systems and the application server instances on those
systems in which the Content Platform Engine is running need strictly
controlled access, so that only appropriate people can stop and start the
Content Platform Engine and be able to modify the application server
configuration.
File systems used for content storage need controls in place to prevent
access by anyone but the operating system identities under which Content
Platform Engine server instances execute and those with responsibility for
maintenance operations, such as backup. File systems used for text index
storage must be protected similarly, but also allow access by the CSS server
processes.
Fixed devices used for content storage need to give access only to the identity
configured for use by the Content Platform Engine (in the Fixed Content
Device object) and to device administrators.
The network hosting the Content Platform Engine and CSS servers,
databases, and storage devices need to be secured against snooping and
attack.
Important: This area is critical for any network connections over which raw
authentication credentials (such as passwords) are transmitted. We
strongly advise that you configure these connections to use Transport
Layer Security (TLS)/Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or equivalent.

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As a further measure to prevent direct access to content, the content encryption
feature can be enabled for selected storage areas. This feature ensures that
even if access controls on the storage device are bypassed, the content will be
unreadable.
Compatible disk sector encryption technology can also be used to provide similar
protection for the GCD and object store databases as well as for content.
5.4.2 Directory service configuration
Configuring the directory service is one of the most important first steps in setting
up a P8 system. A particularly critical aspect is choosing which attribute of user
and group objects serves as the unique identifier from which SIDs are
constructed. This decision cannot easily be changed after SIDs are stored in
ACLs (which happens as soon as the domain is fully initialized), so it is essential
to get it right first time.
The default unique identifier attribute for each of the supported directory services
is shown in Table 5-7.
Table 5-7 Default unique identifier attributes by directory service type
Whatever attribute is chosen needs to be either enforced as read-only by the
directory service or treated as read-only by the administrators of the directory
service. A change in the value for a particular user or group invalidates any
stored SIDs referring to that principal and likely results in that principal losing any
access they might have been granted.
With the exception of the cn attribute employed for CA Directory, all of the
defaults listed in Table 5-7 have the required characteristics of uniqueness and
immutability guaranteed by the hosting directory service. We strongly advise that
you use them. Alternatives that are merely unique (such as distinguished name)
should only be used if procedures are in place to prevent changes.
Directory service Unique attribute
Microsoft Active Directory and AD LDS objectSid
Novell eDirectory guID
Oracle Internet Directory orclguid
Oracle Directory Server Enterprise Edition nsuniqueid
CA Directory cn
IBM Tivoli Directory Server ibm-entryuuid

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5.4.3 Defining the security approach
The key to defining an effective approach to access control is to make security
considerations an integral part of defining the general data model. Identify the
document, folder, and other classes that are to be used, and also in what ways
they are to be used and therefore what access rights will need to be granted to
them to allow their purposes to be served.
In developing this model, often different areas of responsibility are identified with
correspondingly different access rights needed to act on those responsibilities.
For example, being responsible for creating and editing a particular type of
document requires one set of access rights but being responsible for approving it
for publication requires a different set. It is important that the security model
clearly identifies these distinctions, and in refining this aspect of the model, you
need to remember a couple of general principles.
Avoid overlapping responsibilities. Overlapping responsibilities creates
opportunities for accidental violation of intended security controls and for
malfeasance. Continuing the previous example, it is likely undesirable for the
same individuals with responsibility for authoring documents to also be
responsible for approving them for publication.
Grant only the privileges (for example, access rights) that are necessary for a
particular task and no more. For example, if a particular task requires only
viewing the content of a document, do not give permission to modify or delete the
document. Again, the objective is to prevent accidental or malicious violation of
the intended security controls. Although this might seem obvious, it is not
necessarily always straightforward to apply this principle successfully.
In addition to identifying the responsibilities and corresponding access rights for
objects themselves, consider for the model:
Property updates: Under what circumstances can it be possible to modify a
particular property? This will determine the appropriate value for the
modification access rights defined for the property. (For proxy-defining
properties, always include WRITE_ACL.)
Relationships between objects: When is it possible to establish a relationship
between two objects by setting an object-valued property of one to reference
the other? This will dictate the target access required for the property.
Requirements for commonality of access between related objects: For
example, object A is related to object B and the same individuals need to
have similar access rights to both. These are potential opportunities for the
use of proxying.

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Having fully developed the security model, the next task is to determine how that
can be expressed concretely in terms of security descriptors, templates, proxy
relationships, and markings. Determine how to define the procedures for
identifying the individuals to be given particular responsibilities and for assigning
them the rights required to carry out those responsibilities. Design how the
security model will be
implemented
.
Two elements of a successful implementation are important:
Wherever possible grant rights to groups rather than to individual users.
To fully exploit this method means creating a group corresponding to each
area of responsibility or distinct set of access rights identified in the model,
making responsible individuals members of the group, and then assigning the
group as the grantee in ACEs.
Make the maximum use of defaults.
Some applications can set and update the security properties on individual
objects, either based on their own logic or input from users. However, these
are almost always adjustments to the defaults defined for the object class. By
far, the most common case is that the class defaults are allowed to take effect
without modification.
It is therefore essential that class defaults are defined appropriately. This does
not mean only the default permissions and owner. If security templates are to
be used through security policies or document lifecycles, defaults might need
to be defined for the properties that reference those objects. Similarly, if
markings are to be used, defining default values for marking-controlled
properties can be desirable. It can even be appropriate to define default
values for proxy-defining properties, although that is less likely.
In addition, it is advisable to keep the number of ACEs in any ACL reasonably
small (fewer than ten) since this results in more economical storage and makes it
easier for administrators to understand the overall effect of the ACL.
Supporting trusted applications
P8 is often used as a “back end” by “middle-tier” applications that offer a higher
level service to their clients, making calls to P8 on behalf of those clients. Such
an application will typically employ its own authentication and authorization
techniques, but the calls it makes to P8 are nevertheless subject to P8’s own
access controls. It is therefore preferred that the application’s authentication be
aligned with that of P8 (typically by use of JAAS). It is typically preferred that the
calls to P8 be made in the context of the end client, so that P8 access controls
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However, that is not always possible. It can be necessary in some cases for the
application to make calls to P8 under an identity that is distinct from that of any
client it is serving and that has sufficient access to objects in P8 to enable it to
carry out any operation on behalf of any of its users.
This is a somewhat tricky proposition, since it implies that the usual P8 access
controls must be relaxed for the identity under which the application makes calls,
and so further implies that the P8 administrator must trust the application to
prevent its users from obtaining access that is not allowed if making requests
directly to P8. This is not something to be taken lightly.
Assuming that such trust exists, the following approach for supporting such
applications is preferred:
A separate directory service user needs to be defined exclusively for use by
the one application. It is completely inappropriate for the application to call P8
using an identity that can also be used by direct users or by another trusted
application.
The application needs to be configured to perform a JAAS login as that user.
The configuration settings containing the credentials for the login need to be
stored securely where only the application can get at them.
The user (directly, not via any group) needs to be granted the required access
in the default permissions for any class of which instances will be acted upon
by the application.
If need for the application ceases, the directory service user needs to be
deleted, thus ensuring no possibility that the elevated rights granted to the
application can be taken over by anyone or anything.
5.4.4 Planning for evolution
Access control requirements will inevitably change over time. Individuals can join
the organization, others can leave, responsibilities can be reassigned, new
applications can be introduced, and so on. Being able to evolve the security
implementation to meet these new/changed requirements is therefore essential.
If the wrong approach is taken in the initial implementation, accommodating such
evolution can be impossible or at best extremely time-consuming.
The key to making such evolution possible in relatively straightforward fashion is
to heed the advice given earlier to grant access to groups rather than to
individual users. This is particularly critical for the lists of administrators and
general users given at object store creation. It is almost as important for objects
within an object store (although for those there is another technique described in
5.4.5, “Role-based access control using inheritance” on page 186 that can be
used to some extent to overcome the same issues).

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To see why not following this advice can cause immense problems, consider a
couple of examples:
Example 1
User X has sole responsibility for a particular task and is granted rights to
perform that task directly (not via a group membership) in ACEs applied to
various objects. Now, X leaves the organization and is replaced by Y.
In order to bring about this change, someone with sufficient privilege
(specifically, an object store administrator) must locate all the objects with
ACEs in which X appears and replace those ACEs with ones granting Y the
same rights.
There is no mechanism for querying for objects based on grantees in the
ACL. (The internal stored format of the security descriptor makes this
impossible.) In limited circumstances, it can be possible to identify the
relevant objects in some other way, based on queryable criteria. For example,
it can be known that all instances of a particular class are affected. However,
even if that is possible, the query can yield a large set of objects, making the
process of updating the permissions of each lengthy. And more typically, there
will be no such narrowing query and the administrator will have no option but
to scan through all documents and folders, examining the permissions of
each to locate those needing to be updated.
The most egregious case is where the task for which X is solely responsible is
that of object store administrator, for example, X was the sole principal given
in the administrators list when the object store was created. In this case, X
was placed in the default instance ACEs for every class defined in the object
store. Those ACEs likely have been copied into every instance created of all
those classes. Fixing that is, practically speaking, impossible.
Example 2
User A currently has sole responsibility for a particular task, but now user B
joins the department and is to share responsibility with A for that task. As in
the previous example, this requires locating and updating all the objects with
ACEs in which A appears, adding ACEs granting the same access to B.
This is largely the same as example 1 except that there is a slight possibility
of it being made easier by the participation of A, who can (a) be aware of all
the objects involved, and (b) can be able to undertake the permissions
updates without the intervention of an administrator, if granted WRITE_ACL
permission by the ACEs on those objects.
However, it is likely equally as intractable as the first example.
Compare this with how the changes can be accommodated if groups had
been used to assign rights to X and A. In each case, it is a matter of adding Y
or B to the group (and in the first example, removing X).

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5.4.5 Role-based access control using inheritance
The notion of roles in security access authorization is not new. The motivating
idea is to be able to describe access policies in terms of generic functional roles
rather than administering user access individually. Roles can be thought as a
formalization of the idea of areas of responsibility discussed earlier. Therefore, in
the example given previously, one might have an Author role and an Approver
role.
A basic
role-based access control
(RBAC) model typically consists of three
elements:
A role definition, specifying a set of access rights associated with the role
A member list for the role, identifying the security principals who are
authorized to act in that role
A set of objects to which that role applies
The overall effect of these three elements is that the members of the role are
granted the access rights defined by the role for the objects to which the role
applies.
Described in this fashion, it is apparent that roles have much in common with
groups and offer similar evolutionary benefits. So why not just use groups? One
can, in theory, define a directory group for every interesting role and assign users
to the appropriate group or groups. In practice, most enterprises are not happy
with that approach for one or more of the following reasons:
In large enterprises, the directory is administered by a different group of
people than those directly involved with applications.
The dominant pattern for directory groups is one that largely reflects the
hierarchical organizational structure of the enterprise. That does not align
with roles concepts well since roles tend to cut across organizational
boundaries.
Many applications depend on directory information about individuals, and that
tends to lead to a conservative policy about directory changes. Frequent
updates, for example, to account for temporary role changes, are specifically
avoided.
So, using roles defined “locally” for a particular application provides more
flexibility than complete reliance on directory service groups.
P8 does not provide a built-in RBAC mechanism. However, inheritance proxies
can be used to achieve much the same effect.

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The following technote provides a full explanation of various ways this can be
done:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21425080
The basic concept of using inheritance proxy as described in the technote is as
follows:
An object serves as the role. Inheritable ACEs are placed in the ACL of the
object, one per member of the role, with the same access mask in each
granting the access rights defined by the role.
For each object class to which the role is applicable, an inheritance
proxy-defining property is added, with required class that of the role object.
Applying the role to an instance of the class is then simply a matter of setting
the proxy-defining property to refer to the role object.
With this approach, adding and removing members for the role are achieved by
updating the ACL of the role object. Inheritance takes care of ensuring the effect
extends to all the objects to which the role has been applied.
5.4.6 Using markings
The important thing to consider about markings is that they only restrict access,
they do not extend it. Therefore, they must be used in conjunction with an
effective security descriptor that grants the maximum access anyone needs to
have to the marked objects. This is an effective technique when used in the
manner of the Projects example given earlier and is an alternative to creating a
group for each project or using a role-like scheme. (Changing the membership of
the group or role is replaced by editing the ACL for the markings.)
The server holds marking sets in memory (including each marking with the
associated security descriptor). A large number of marking sets or markings, or
markings with complex ACLs, can require an increase in the amount of memory
assigned to the Content Platform Engine server.
Marking sets of list type can contain a large number of markings without
performance cost, so using them as in the projects example can scale up to
many projects without problems (memory requirements notwithstanding).
However, hierarchical marking sets become increasingly expensive as the
number of markings in the set grows, due to the need to traverse up and down
the hierarchy when evaluating the effective access to any particular marking.
Therefore, they are best suited to uses similar to the classification example given
previously, where there are only relatively few markings in the set.

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5.4.7 Effective use of auditing
Auditing is a useful tool for detecting security intrusion attempts (operations that
are refused on access control grounds) or for recording a history of successfully
performed sensitive operations. However, auditing is relatively expensive, both in
terms of the cost of the additional processing and I/O to write the audit records
and of the storage cost, especially when the option to record a complete
snapshot of the object state is exercised. Therefore, it needs to be used
judiciously. Consider these guidelines:
Usually only certain objects will be of interest, for example, documents with
confidential content, so the auditing configuration needs to be narrowed as
much as possible to be enabled for just those objects. Often, this is a matter
of selectively enabling only certain classes, but in some cases, it can be
necessary to use the filtering mechanism to distinguish between interesting
and uninteresting objects.
For those objects, only particular operations are likely to be of interest, such
as viewing the confidential content or attempting to delete critical folders.
Therefore, the set of events for which auditing is enabled needs to be chosen
carefully. API operations, such as Checkout and Checkin, generate a specific
event
and
an Update Event. They will be audited if either Update Event or the
specific event (in this example: Checkin Event) is enabled. In consequence, if
Update Event is enabled, all API operations will be audited, which can be
more than necessary.
A complete snapshot of the audited object state consumes several kilobytes
of database large object (LOB) storage, and double that if both before and
after states are recorded for updates. This can quickly accumulate to
consume a large proportion of the available LOB storage if care is not taken.
A more economical approach is to use the “audit as” mechanism to capture a
limited set of properties from the audited object.
A disposition policy should be defined to remove audit records as quickly as
possible after they are no longer needed. For example, if auditing is being
used for intrusion detection, a potential approach is to regularly generate a
report from the audit log and to define a policy that deletes records that are
old enough that they are bound to have been included in a report.
5.4.8 Cache management
Several caches were described earlier that are used to improve access control
performance. The default configuration of these caches is adequate for many
situations, but in some cases, it can be necessary to adjust the configuration of
one or more to obtain optimal performance or to tune server memory usage.

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For each of these caches, the server maintains operational statistics that are
extremely useful as aids to tuning. These statistics can be viewed in the IBM
System Dashboard. Each Content Platform Engine server instance has separate
caches, so in a multiple server configuration, the statistics for each need to be
considered.
User token cache
The user token cache retains recently evaluated security contexts in memory.
The size of a security context varies according to the number of groups each
user is a member of. Therefore, the overall amount of memory consumed by the
user token cache varies by that and by the maximum size configured for the
cache. As the cache grows, the server discards the least recently used (LRU)
entries to ensure that the maximum size is not exceeded. (This is referred to as
an LRU policy and is common to all the caches discussed here.) So, the ideal
size for the cache is around the number of users actively issuing requests at any
time. More than this means wasted memory consumed by cache entries that are
not being used. Less can mean reduced performance due to LRU discarding and
reloading by querying the directory service. However, the ideal size can require a
significant amount of memory, so there are trade-offs to be made.
Cache entries can become
stale
as a result of changes in group memberships for
a user. To account for this, cache entries are retained for a maximum period of
time referred to as the
time to live
(TTL). A cache entry whose TTL has expired is
refreshed from the directory service to ensure it is up-to-date. However,
depending on the length of the TTL, there can be a period of time after group
membership changes are made during which the server will continue to use the
stale entry. The consequence can be that the user cannot be granted all the
access to which they are entitled (if added to a group) or can receive access to
which they are no longer entitled (if removed from a group). Therefore, in
configurations in which group membership changes are frequent, it can be
necessary to reduce the TTL. Conversely, if group membership changes are
infrequent, it can be possible to improve performance by increasing the TTL.
Security descriptor cache
There is one security descriptor cache for each object store, independently
configured for maximum size with again an LRU policy applied to ensure the
maximum size is not exceeded. The size of a security descriptor and therefore
the amount of memory consumed by a cache entry is proportional to the number
of ACEs in the ACL.

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Again, the optimal size for the SD cache is around the number in active use -
more leading to wasted memory and less to reduced performance because of
the processing time and I/O cost of retrieving security descriptors from the
database. However, sharing of security descriptors and other factors such as the
frequency of proxy relationships among objects being accessed makes it difficult
to estimate what the optimal size will be. So, using the performance statistics
available in the Dashboard is the best approach to tuning. The size is
independently configurable for each object store since the patterns of access to
objects, and therefore to security descriptors, can differ between object stores.
There is no TTL for security descriptor cache entries since they are never
modified and can never become stale.
Object-security cache
The object-security cache retains security information for proxy objects in
memory, improving performance when the same proxy is accessed several times
over a short period of time. An example is when retrieving the subfolders of a
folder (each subfolder has the same proxy, namely its parent folder), so the
security information for that folder is fetched just once and is reused to evaluate
the access rights for every subfolder.
There is an independent object-security cache for each object store, again
reflecting the possibility of different patterns of access, in this case, to proxy
objects. For each object store, the maximum size and TTL for the cache are
configurable.
The information retained in an object-security cache entry consists of a reference
to the security descriptor for the proxy object (not the SD itself) plus identity
information for the objects referenced by any proxy-defining properties of the
proxy itself and the values of any marking-controlled properties of the proxy
object. This typically requires a smaller amount of memory than for entries in the
other caches, giving more scope for increasing the size without risk of running
out of memory. Like the security descriptor cache, estimating the optimal size of
the object-security cache is not straightforward and using the Dashboard
statistics is the best approach for tuning.
An object-security cache entry can become stale as a result of updates to
security-related properties of the proxy object - changes to Permissions or
Owner or to proxy-defining or marking-controlled properties. The server that
receives the request to make these updates automatically flushes the now stale
entry from its cache, but other servers rely on a TTL as the means of overcoming
staleness. The default TTL for the object-security cache is relatively short (30
seconds). In a multiple server configuration, it should only be increased if
updates to any proxy objects are known to take place much less frequently than
that.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
191
Chapter 6.
Application design
In this chapter, we discuss useful principles for designing IBM FileNet Content
Manager (P8 Content Manager) applications.
We discuss the following topics:
IBM FileNet P8 applications
Application technologies
Principles for application design:
– Available P8 Content Engine APIs
– Transports available with the APIs
– Minimizing round-trips
– Creating a custom AddOn
– Exploiting the active content event model
– Logging
6
Note: Although the technical components that make up the server pieces are
called the Content Platform Engine, there are still many separate aspects,
including APIs, for content and process as of the writing of this book. For
clarity, we use the earlier term “Content Engine” when talking specifically
about content matters in this chapter.

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6.1 IBM FileNet P8 applications
P8 Content Manager includes a number of standard applications, and many
more applications are available as add-ons to the basic product. The applications
are aimed at different audiences and use cases. In this section, we introduce a
few of the applications to serve as examples for application development.
6.1.1 IBM Administration Console for Content Platform Engine
The IBM Administration Console for Content Platform Engine (ACCE) is a
powerful tool for administrators to use in performing routine setup, maintenance,
and specialized tasks. ACCE is implemented as a rich web application sharing
much infrastructure scaffolding with IBM Content Navigator.
Because it is an administrator’s tool that can be used for extraordinary and
powerful low-level changes, ACCE strikes a balance. It exposes low-level details
of the IBM FileNet Content Manager, yet it remains usable through extensive task
wizards and other user interface help.
Although ACCE is an administrator’s tool, it uses the normal Content Engine
APIs, and you are subject to normal security access checks. The administrator
running ACCE typically has a high level of security access, but ACCE does not
and cannot provide any additional privileges. It therefore serves as a good
example of the actions that can be done with custom applications that also use
the Content Engine APIs.
6.1.2 IBM Content Navigator
In contrast to ACCE (see 6.1.1, “IBM Administration Console for Content
Platform Engine” on page 192), IBM Content Navigator is intended for the wider
audience of non-administrator users. Even though it is generic in nature, it still
provides a comfortable and productive user interface for accomplishing a variety
of everyday tasks. IBM Content Navigator is a rich web application. The user
interface uses modern Web 2.0 and Ajax technologies to closely model a
desktop application experience. It provides easy-to-use windows and wizards for
Recommendations: ACCE is a replacement of an earlier thick client tool
called IBM FileNet Enterprise Manager. IBM FileNet Enterprise Manager is
still shipped because of the familiarity many administrators have with it.
However, the primary administrator tool is ACCE, and you need to get familiar
with it in preference to IBM FileNet Enterprise Manager. New features will only
be added to IBM FileNet Enterprise Manager as exceptions.

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navigating and searching for documents and folders. IBM Content Navigator can
connect to other IBM content repositories and is included as the standard client
in several IBM ECM products.
In addition to being a ready-to-use client application, you can also easily
customize IBM Content Navigator user interface elements or extend it with
entirely new features. See “IBM Content Navigator extensions” on page 199.
6.2 Application technologies
Content Manager comes with a set of applications that you can use as is. The
operations and interfaces provided by these applications might not always satisfy
your enterprise’s business requirements. In many circumstances, you have to
create custom applications to fulfill your business needs. Your applications will be
designed with specific business goals in mind, and those come in many varieties.
We do not attempt to cover business goals here. Instead, we discuss more
general technical application technologies.
6.2.1 Traditional Java thick clients
Content Manager’s Content Platform Engine consists of Java Platform,
Enterprise Edition (Java EE) components, but your client application can be a
Java thick client. By
thick client,
we mean an application running in its own Java
virtual machine (JVM) launched from the desktop. It can be a simple
command-ine program or have a full-featured graphical user interface. Because it
is launched from the local client machine, there are virtually no security
restrictions on what a thick client application can do.
A thick client application normally consists of directories or Java archive (JAR)
files of Java classes, both for the application and for supporting utility libraries.
One of the biggest problems in using thick clients is the logistical hurdle of
keeping all of the copies of the application up-to-date. This trait is not unique to
Java applications; it is the same for any thick client technology. Because of this
problem, however, thick clients are best suited for use by a small number of users
or for mature and stable software.
Recommendations: You might have experience with using and extending
earlier generations of IBM FileNet Content Manager web clients, including
Application Engine, Workplace, or FileNet Workplace XT. For any new client
application development work, you need to strongly consider basing it on IBM
Content Navigator.

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6.2.2 Java applets
A specialized form of thick client is a Java application that runs inside a
security-constrained Java environment in a web browser. This application is
called an
applet
. An applet can have most of the rich interactions of a traditional
thick client, but it has advantages and disadvantages.
The most obvious disadvantage is that the users must run a Java capable web
browser, and the use of Java applets must be enabled. All major web browsers
are Java capable, but for security reasons, organizational policies sometimes
forbid enabling the running of Java applets.
6.2.3 Java EE web applications and other components
The technology underlying much of the enterprise software development these
days is Java Platform Enterprise Edition (Java EE). Java EE helps you make
efficient use of resources by providing common services, such as security, high
availability, transaction management, and scalability. Because the platform
provides these services with mechanisms for configuring them when the
applications are deployed, you are free to concentrate on business logic in your
applications. The Content Platform Engine, which is implemented as Java EE
components, uses many common features of Java EE. You can write Content
Platform Engine applications with traditional thick client Java applications or even
non Java client technologies, but the tightest integration will naturally be available
when your application is integrated with a Java EE application server.
There are many standardized technologies available in Java EE, but a few
technologies are particularly worth mentioning because they often show up in
typical Java EE application development: servlets and Enterprise JavaBeans
(EJBs):
The Java EE servlet container is often thought of as the container for web
applications because it represents the tier where Java EE presentation logic
is generally placed. Web applications are perhaps the most popular use for
servlets, but it is not necessary to have an actual web interface to use
Recommendations: Limit the use of thick client applications to exploratory
code or utilities with a limited user population.
Recommendations: Avoid the use of Java applets. For most needs, modern
JavaScript toolkits and Ajax technologies can serve just as well and have
fewer deployment problems.

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servlets. For example, the IBM Content Management Interoperability Services
(CMIS) provider is implemented using a servlet, and any user interface is
provided by the CMIS client applications. The servlet container is appropriate
for application components that receive and respond to outside requests and
that optionally preserve some state on the server side between requests.
The Java EE EJB
1
container provides what are often thought of as
enterprise-level services. For example, EJBs can have declarative security
and transactional properties, provide transparent load balancing across
servers, and provide nearly transparent access to relational databases. EJBs
are frequently used to encapsulate reusable business logic and seldom, if
ever, contain any presentation logic.
In recent years, web services have expanded and matured. That has blurred the
line between what needs to be implemented in the web tier and what needs to be
implemented in the EJB tier.
6.2.4 .NET components
Just as the Java community has standardized on Java EE as a software
component architecture, Microsoft has popularized the .NET environment. .NET
shares many concepts with Java and Java EE, but, from the point of view of the
Content Platform Engine, only clients can be written using .NET technology.
.NET is fundamentally incompatible with Java and Java EE except when
interacting via a common protocol. In Content Manager, the common protocol is
the web services transport of the IBM FileNet P8 Content Engine APIs or the
direct use of IBM FileNet P8 Content Engine Web Services.
6.3 Principles for application design
In this section, we present principles to consider when designing your own
applications. Obviously, situations vary, and not all of these principles apply to
every situation. Our intention is to give you a brief survey, which will have a
bearing on your designs and that might even suggest new application designs to
you.
1
Although the Content Engine Java API uses EJBs internally to implement the EJB transport, those
EJBs are not exposed or available to application developers. They are accessible only indirectly
through the use of the Java API.

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6.3.1 Available P8 Content Manager APIs
One of the goals of the Content Manager is to make all features available through
robust APIs. Content Manager applications add their own utility layers, often with
significant amounts of application logic, but interaction with the server always
comes down to a set of calls to published and documented APIs. Those APIs are
also available to you for custom application development. If you see a feature in a
P8 Content Manager application, you can be confident that your custom
application can do the same or similar things via the APIs.
This section describes the APIs available in the IBM FileNet P8 4.0 release and
later. We do not discuss the
compatibility
APIs (for Java and COM) that exist to
help in the transition of applications written for earlier P8 Content Manager
releases. Both of those compatibility APIs are now deprecated, but no date for
their complete removal has been announced as of this writing.
Many specific details are treated lightly in this section. That is intentional
because there is a separate IBM Redbooks publication, Developing Applications
with IBM FileNet P8 APIs, SG24-7743-00, that provides in-depth descriptions,
details, and illustrative code samples.
Java API
Content Manager provides a full-featured Java API. Any feature that is available
in the server is completely available to Java programmers. This access includes
routine operations, such as retrieving and updating Document objects, and
specialized operations, such as adding a custom class or property to an object
store’s metadata definitions.
In simplified terms, an API object can be thought of as containing the following
information:
Something that identifies the object residing on the server. Typically, this is an
object store reference and an object ID or path.
Some number of locally cached properties. These might have been fetched
from the server, or they might have been set locally. A property value that has
been set or changed in the API object and not yet sent to the server is said to
be
dirty,
because its value does not match what is persisted on the server.
Recommendations: Use the current IBM FileNet P8 APIs for any new
development and, where possible, for additions to existing applications. Avoid
extending your use of the compatibility APIs any longer than necessary.

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Some number of pending actions. When you call a method that implies a
change to the object (including simple property value changes), the change is
not made immediately. Instead, a representation of that change is added to
the API object’s list of pending actions. For example, if you call the method
Document.checkin(), a Checkin pending action is added to the API object.
Dirty property values and pending actions are not sent to the server until an
explicit call is made to do so. If an API object is discarded without that call, the
changes are never made on the server. The most common method of sending
changes to the server is to call the save() method on an API object. There is also
a batching mechanism for sending updates to multiple objects in a single
round-trip over the network. Batching provides improved performance and
provides transactional atomicity for all of the changes in the batch.
.NET API
Content Manager provides a full-featured .NET API, which you can use to write
programs in any .NET compatible language. With a couple of exceptions, any
feature that is available in the server is completely available to .NET
programmers. The exceptions are mainly custom code that must be executed
within the server, for example, EventActionHandler. Because the Content
Platform Engine server is a Java EE application, internally executed custom code
is limited to Java compatible technologies.
The principles behind the .NET API are the same as those behind the Java API
(see “Java API” on page 196), so we do not repeat that discussion here. One
significant feature available only with the .NET API is the use of Kerberos to
perform authentication via Microsoft Windows Integrated Login. This is only
possible when the client application is running on Microsoft Windows and the
Content Platform Engine is using Microsoft Active Directory. In practice, that
latter constraint usually means that the Content Platform Engine is also running
on Microsoft Windows.
Recommendations: Use only exposed and supported classes and interfaces
in the API. Do not use internal implementation classes; in particular, do not
make calls into anything in the com.filenet.apiimpl.* packages.
Recommendations: Use only exposed and supported classes and interfaces
in the API. Do not use internal implementation classes; in particular, do not
make calls into anything in the FileNet.Apiimpl.* namespaces.

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Web services
Modern, loosely coupled frameworks, such as a service-oriented architecture
(SOA), favor web services protocols for connecting components. Content
Manager provides Content Engine Web Services (CEWS) for accessing nearly
all features available in the Content Engine server.
Typically, if you as a programmer want to use a web services interface, you obtain
the interface description in the form of a Web Services Description Language
(WSDL) file. You run the WSDL file through a toolkit to generate programming
language objects for interacting with the web services interface. You then usually
build up a library of utilities to provide abstraction layers, caching, security
controls, and other conveniences. The Java and .NET APIs provided by Content
Manager are already exactly equivalent to that, and both APIs can use web
services as a transport (see 6.3.2, “Transports available with the APIs” on
page 200). Consequently, there is not as much motivation to use CEWS directly,
although there are still a few occasions where the direct use of CEWS might be
useful:
You have an application already using CEWS, and no plans exist for
immediately porting it to the Java or .NET API.
You are building an application component as part of a framework in which
the use of web services is the model for communicating with external
systems.
Although a rare occurrence, you might be using a language or technology that
can make use of web services but is not compatible with the use of a Java or
.NET API.
For these occasions, the direct use of CEWS is a good choice and is supported.
In theory, you can take the WSDL file for CEWS and use any current web
services toolkit to generate the interfaces that you will use on your end. In
practice, however, toolkits are still individualistic in their handling of various
WSDL features, and it is difficult to write a WSDL for a complex service that is
usable by a wide cross-section of web services toolkits. Check the latest
hardware and software support documentation corresponding to the product
version you are using, and use only a supported toolkit.

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Content Management Interoperability Services
Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS) is an industry standard for
accessing content repositories and performing mainstream document
management tasks. It defines a set of REST and web services interfaces and
has fundamental constructs for documents, folders, and properties. IBM has
created a CMIS provider for IBM FileNet Content Manager that is included in the
Content Manager license (although it is a separately installed item).
Many third-party components include the ability to use CMIS to connect to
content repositories. In such cases, your integration work can be relatively
straightforward and simple.
CMIS is also well-suited for use in scenarios where you might already be
considering using a REST or web services interface for mainstream document
management functions. Instead of having to write those services yourself and
interfacing to Content Manager repositories by using Content Engine APIs, you
can instead use the CMIS provider as the service layer. There are readily
available vendor and open source toolkits to help you construct the client side to
communicate with a CMIS service layer.
IBM Content Navigator extensions
IBM Content Navigator is the current generation user client for all IBM content
repositories. It builds on the extensive experience gained from previous
generations of user clients across several product lines.
A key strength of Content Navigator is that it was built with extensibility in mind.
We expect that a large percentage of application developers will find it useful to
Recommendations: To decide which API to use to implement your
application, follow this approach:
If you are writing handler code that runs inside the Content Platform
Engine server, it must be written in Java or a supported scripting language.
If you have a case where you must use CEWS, use it. However, if you can
possibly avoid using CEWS, avoid it.
If your development organization has more experience in .NET or Java,
choose the corresponding Content Engine API.
If it is still a toss-up, choose Java (because of greater flexibility in API
transports that you might find handy later).
We intentionally do not list performance as a way to choose the API since it
really is dominated by the other factors.

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start with Content Navigator and then customize and extend it to meet their
custom application needs.
By customization, we mean altering the visual appearance or behavior of an
existing Content Navigator component. By extension, we mean adding new
features, large or small, to an Content Navigator environment.
Content Navigator is a browser-based web application. Its layered architecture
consists of these components:
A collection of visual widgets written using the Dojo JavaScript toolkit and the
dijit component libraries.
A layout framework for arranging visual components into logical desktops and
pages.
A browser-resident JavaScript model view controller (MVC) layer for
orchestrating the flow of information.
Mid-tier server-based components for interfacing to repositories and providing
other services.
Each of those layers has available customization and extension points for
application developer use.
In addition to being a highly customizable and extensible application framework,
most of the visual widget components used in the user interface layer can also be
easily adapted for use outside of the Content Navigator environment. The reuse
of those widgets can represent considerable development time savings even if
you do not choose to use Content Navigator itself.
All of the customization and extension topics in this subsection are covered in
extensive detail in Customizing and Extending IBM Content Navigator,
SG24-8055.
6.3.2 Transports available with the APIs
When designing any multi-tiered application, you must carefully consider how
information will be conveyed back and forth between the client side and the
server side of the network connection. Different frameworks for remote calls
typically come with different advantages and constraints.
Recommendations: Use Content Navigator as your application framework for
content-centric applications that need a rich and modern user interface.
Extend Content Navigator with features you need that are not already part of
Content Navigator.

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In the Content Engine APIs, the framework mechanisms are called
transports
.
The APIs were designed so that all API operations are completely independent
of the transport used. (The few exceptions deal with the propagation of security
and transaction contexts.) A benefit of this independence is that applications can
be written without considering the transport. The selection of a transport is a
configuration decision when the application is deployed (the API finds out about it
through the URI used for the Connection object).
There are two available transports: Content Engine Web Services (CEWS) and
Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB). EJB transport is available only for the Java API.
CEWS transport is available for both APIs. For most situations, the EJB transport
has slightly better performance, but the CEWS transport can be used in more
environments. In all cases, the transport is considered
stateless
, which means
that the APIs operate on the basis of a single request and response for each
interaction. No client state is maintained by the server after a request has been
serviced. There is one exception to the statelessness, which is that recent
releases of the Content Engine Java API can be configured to use a stateful
session bean when uploading multiple chunks of content over EJB transport.
EJB transport
The EJB transport internally uses EJB method calls. The method calls are made
on the client side and transported by the application server to the server side of
the network connection. Although many people think of EJBs using Java Remote
Method Invocation (RMI) as the remote communications mechanism, that is not
necessarily the case. Application server vendors are free to provide whatever
implementation they like as long as they meet the EJB requirements, and many
vendors use something other than RMI. In any case, the details of the application
server’s implementation are transparent to the API, and the API does not need to
have facilities for controlling things, such as clustering or server affinity of the
EJB, because those things are configured within the application server.
CEWS transport
As its name implies, the CEWS transport uses web services protocols. In fact,
the WS transport uses the same Content Engine Web Services (CEWS) protocol
that we mentioned in “Web services” on page 198. You probably already know
that means XML over HTTP or HTTPS. Because HTTP and HTTPS use only a
single port for the entire conversation and use a strict client/server interaction
model, it is generally easier to configure a firewall or reverse proxy through which
to allow CEWS transport requests to pass.

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Web services attachments are used for carrying pieces of content between the
client and server sides. Attachment handling has undergone many changes over
the years, and different environments and tools support different standards:
When using either API, you must select the CEWS endpoint that supports
Message Transmission Optimization Mechanism (MTOM) attachments
(recognizable because it has MTOM in the endpoint name: FNCEWS40MTOM).
There is another attachment format called SOAP that is less efficient in a
couple of ways than MTOM. Nonetheless, it is sometimes useful to
temporarily use the SOAP endpoint (FNCEWS40SOAP) as a troubleshooting step
if you suspect problems at the transport layer. That is seldom actually the
case, but it does not hurt to rule it out.
Comparing the transports
Consider the following information when deciding which transport to use:
Because it usually employs a binary protocol likely to have been engineered
for high performance, the EJB transport typically has better performance than
the CEWS transport in the same environment. In particular, processor
utilization is likely to be a bit higher with CEWS transport due to XML parsing
activity. The actual performance difference is extremely dependent upon the
specific mix of API calls your application makes.
The EJB used by the EJB transport automatically propagates any active
transactional context to the server. In contrast, transaction propagation is not
possible when using CEWS transport. Whether transaction propagation is
desirable depends upon the application. The Content Platform Engine always
treats incoming client requests transactionally, so most applications do not
need to worry about it at all.
The EJB used by the EJB transport automatically propagates any ambient
JAAS authentication context to the server. If you are already using a
JAAS-based authentication scheme, either in isolation or as part of a single
sign-on (SSO) framework, Content Manager is likely to participate in that
scheme with few or no configuration changes if you use EJB transport.
In contrast, there is no general framework for propagating an authentication
context when using WS transport. Although a standard called
WS-Security
provides a high-level framework for adding authentication schemes, CEWS
transport can only support schemes backed by specific implementation
programming in the Content Platform Engine server. Content Manager
directly supports WS-Security Username token and Kerberos token
authentication schemes. The latter can be used to facilitate integration with
Microsoft Windows applications. Custom authentication schemes can also be
implemented by using the IBM FileNet Web Services Extensible
Authentication Framework (WS-EAF).

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Specific details of using Kerberos and WS-EAF are provided in the Web
Service Extensible Authentication Framework Developer’s Guide section of
the online help files, IBM FileNet P8 Documentation.
CEWS transport, which is based on HTTP or HTTPS, uses just one or two
TCP/IP ports for all interactions. There are also commercially available
products for examining and validating web services traffic. Therefore, many
administrators find it easier and more secure to open their firewalls to CEWS
transport requests. In contrast, EJB transport might use a vendor-specific
binary protocol. Such protocols often employ a range of TCP/IP ports. These
factors typically lead to a greater willingness to allow CEWS transport to pass
through firewalls and a reluctance to do the same for EJB transport.
In cases where WS transport is using Username token authentication, the
credentials will appear on the wire unprotected unless you use Transport
Layer Security or Secure Sockets Layer (TLS/SSL), which we strongly advise.
With EJB transport, content is uploaded or downloaded in chunks. With
CEWS transport, the entire content is uploaded as part of a single HTTP
request. For download, however, CEWS transport also generally chunks
content.
Note: It used to be recommended to use CEWS transport for upload of
large content. However, recent releases have included some optimization
work using a stateful EJB call when uploading content chunks. That
translates directly to less work needed on the Content Engine server side
once the chunks have been uploaded. Although EJB transport still chunks
content on both upload and download, the performance overhead of the
chunking itself is typically quite small. Do not use the presence of large
content as your sole reason for selecting a particular transport.

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6.3.3 Minimizing round-trips
The number and nature of network
round-trips
, that is, requests from the client to
get a response from the server, usually dominate the performance picture of the
application. There are simple and powerful tools available in the APIs to reduce
your round-trips, and API logging can be used to assess how well you are doing.
Get or fetch
When many people think about interacting with an object from the server, they
first think about doing a round-trip to fetch the object. That is a necessity for
many things, but there are several cases where you do not need that initial fetch.
For example, if you are only going to use an object so you can set the value of an
object-valued property on another object, you really only need a reference. If you
somehow know that the object already exists, you can skip the round-trip to fetch
it.
Recommendations: To decide which transport to use, follow this
approach:
If you are using the .NET API, you must use the CEWS transport.
If you are using the Java API and need one of the features that is only
provided by EJB transport (security or transaction context propagation),
use EJB transport.
If you are writing a Java application that is hosted in a Java EE
application server, it is generally easier to configure EJB transport.
However, EJB transport is only supported between homogeneous types
of Java EE application servers on the client and server. So, if you have
heterogeneous types of application servers, you must use CEWS
transport.
If you are writing a Java thick application, it might be easier to configure
CEWS transport.
These considerations are mainly about the simplicity of runtime
configuration and deployment. For almost everything, your application
coding is exactly the same regardless of transport.
Recommendations: When developing your application, allow some time in
the schedule to examine the working application for opportunities to eliminate
round-trips. That can sometimes be done with simple code tweaks, but it will
sometimes require a bit of refactoring of your logic.

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(If it turned out that you were wrong and it did not already exist, the referential
integrity mechanisms in Content Engine will throw an exception when you try to
save the referencing object.) The APIs have a mechanism called
fetchless
instantiation
. There are three types of Factory methods for creating
programming language objects that reference Content Engine objects, and you
can tell them apart by the word used as the
beginning
of the method name:
create indicates that a new Content Engine object is to be created. No
round-trip is done as the result of this Factory method call. A save() call must
eventually be done.
fetch indicates that a round-trip is immediately made to the Content Platform
Engine to verify that the object exists and to return an initial set of properties.
Fine-tuning of the properties returned can be controlled via an optional
PropertyFilter. See “Property filters” on page 205.
get indicates that no round-trip will be made. This is a fetchless instantiation.
The API assumes that the object exists. There is no initial set of property
values available, so you need to request any property values that you need. If
you know that you always need some property values immediately, there is no
advantage to fetchless instantiation.
Property filters
Property filters
are optional parameters to a number of methods that fetch
objects or properties from the Content Platform Engine. They allow highly
granular control of the objects or properties being returned.
It is easy to understand how returning fewer properties can improve
performance, but, less obviously, you can also improve performance by returning
more properties and objects. The savings comes if you can return multiple
objects in a single round-trip instead of making multiple round-trips to perform the
same work. A property filter can do just that. Over time, most application
developers know what properties and objects they need, so this can be an
efficient way to perform most or all of your retrievals in just a few round-trips.
Most of the Content Engine API calls that can take a property filter also accept a
null value. In these cases, the API still works correctly, but it might make
additional round-trips in the background as your application progresses. It is
designed that way so that you can get your application working quickly and
optimize the performance later.

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Batching
The Content Engine APIs contain two separate but similar batching mechanisms:
A RetrievingBatch is used to fetch multiple, possibly unrelated, objects from
the Content Platform Engine in a single round-trip. Object references and
property filters are added to the batch, and retrieveBatch() is called to
trigger the round-trip.
An UpdatingBatch is used to group multiple updates in a single round-trip to
the Content Platform Engine. Instead of calling save() on individual objects,
the objects are added to the batch, and updateBatch() is called to trigger the
round-trip. Updates are performed as an atomic transaction.
6.3.4 Parallel processing
With any client/server application arrangement, there is likely to be a significant
amount of time where the client is simply waiting for a response from the server.
If your application is handling a large workload, it might benefit from being split
up into a number of parallel work items. Not every application activity is
amenable to that sort of splitting, but many are or can easily be adapted.
The usual way of splitting up work is to use multiple threads inside a single
process, but it is sometimes adequate to simultaneously execute multiple
single-threaded processes. Depending on the nature of the work being done, it
might be necessary to have a single overall coordinator thread or process that
dispatches specific work items to worker threads or processes. In other cases, it
is possible to assign each thread or process a specific piece of work in its
start-up parameters.
Recommendations: Unless it leads to tortured application logic, it is a
good idea to accumulate multiple changes to objects before calling save(),
and it is also a good idea to batch updates to multiple objects in an
UpdatingBatch.
As a general rule, plan to carry no more than 50 - 100 items in a batch.
Somewhere in that range, the overhead associated with batching itself
tends to neutralize any performance benefits. Since specifics of application
workload can change for various reasons, consider making the batch sizes
configurable so that a code change is not needed for that adjustment.
Recommendations: When splitting the application into multiple threads or
processes, make the number of these threads or processes configurable. That
eliminates the need for a code change if you discover that the optimal number
of threads or processes changes over time.

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There is a recurring application pattern that involves issuing a query for objects
matching a particular criteria and then performing an action on each result
object. The issuance of the query and accumulation of results are good jobs for
the coordinator thread or process. Disjoint sets of result objects can be handed to
worker threads or processes for action.
Alternatively, you might have an application that must process a large number of
objects, but your performance constraints are to operate as a background task.
That is, you want to the processing to move forward, but you do not want to
interfere with foreground work by placing an undue load on the server machines.
In that case, single-threaded processing might be a better match. In some cases,
you can easily distinguish the already processed objects from those still needing
processing. For example, your criteria might include some property value being
null, and your action might include setting that property to a non-null value. In
such cases, you can use a non-continuable query instead of a continuable,
paged query. Non-continuable queries have lower server overhead than
continuable queries. Just be sure to include a TOP qualifier to the SELECT clause,
for example, “TOP 50”. The number that you use can be convenient for the batch
sizes that you plan to use for the actions.
6.3.5 Client-side transactions
All work performed by the Content Engine in a database or other storage is done
transactionally, which means that you never get partially successful calls to
Content Engine. The call either completely succeeds or completely fails. This is
important for maintaining the consistency of the data in the repositories. You do
not need to do anything to get that sort of transactional behavior inside Content
Engine. Actually, there is no way to avoid it, because it is hardcoded into Content
Engine logic.
There is another type of transaction that you can control in your application. If
you use the Java API with EJB transport, you can include Content Engine activity
within a client-side transaction. This feature is unavailable when using CEWS
transport. (See “CEWS transport” on page 201.) The client-side transaction can
be started implicitly by the Java EE container or started explicitly through your
use of a javax.transaction.UserTransaction object.
Recommendations: When the semantics of iterative processing allow it, use
a non-continuable query for best performance. This approach generally does
not work when multiple threads or processes perform the update actions in
parallel.

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Content Manager follows the Java EE model for transactions, and Java EE in turn
follows industry standards for distributed transactions. In this context, the relevant
facts are that a transaction is started, operations performed by a transactional
resource (in this case, Content Engine) are tagged with the transaction identifier,
and the transaction is either committed or rolled back. All changes tagged with a
certain transaction identifier are committed or rolled back as an atomic unit.
Now that we have described the use of client-side transactions, here are a few
reasons to avoid them:
Client-side transactions tend to create or magnify performance problems. The
overall transaction times are longer simply due to network latency and other
factors inherent in the interaction between client and server. Longer
transaction times mean that resources all the way into the database are being
held for longer periods of time. This greatly increases the chances for
resource contention and slows overall system throughput.
Most of the tasks that applications want to do in a client-side transaction can
be done more efficiently with the API batching mechanism using an
UpdatingBatch object. A batch is performed as an atomic transaction, but the
transactional control is on the Content Platform Engine side.
API batches can be used with all APIs and transports, so it is a more flexible
mechanism than client-side transactions.
After some analysis, it almost always turns out to be the case that applications
using client-side transactions can be rewritten to use API batching. For the few
cases where client-side transactions are genuinely needed, they are supported
as described. The case where you might be forced into a client-side transaction
is when your application must include transactional resources outside of Content
Manager. For example, if you must include P8 Content Manager updates
atomically with updates to a stand-alone database, that is a motive for using a
client-side transaction. If you find yourself using a client-side transaction that you
cannot avoid, do your best to minimize the amount of time that the transaction is
active.
6.3.6 Creating a custom AddOn
If you plan to use your application in multiple environments, either in your own
organization or by distributing it to others, you need to be able to re-create the
classes, properties, and perhaps some instance data from your repository.
Recommendations: Avoid using client-side transactions. Instead, rely on the
inherent transactional behavior of the Content Engine server.

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We discuss the process of moving from development to production environments
in Chapter 9, “Deployment” on page 271. For situations where you want to
deliver your application as a package, you can consider developing an
AddOn
.
An AddOn is a bundle of exported data with optional pre-installation and
post-installation scripts. The scripts are run automatically before or after the
AddOn is installed. The scripts can be used for any programmatic activity that
you need to customize the data in the target environment. An AddOn also has
information about other AddOns that must be installed as prerequisites.
An AddOn is
created
by creating an instance of the Content Engine AddOn class.
When saved, the AddOn is stored within the global configuration database
(GCD). Available AddOns are accessible via the Domain object’s AddOns property.
An available AddOn can then be
installed
into an object store, which means that
the data is imported and the post-installation script is run. IBM FileNet ACCE has
menu actions and wizards for manipulating AddOns, including selecting which
AddOns to install when an object store is created.
6.3.7 Using the JDBC interface for reporting
In addition to programming language APIs, P8 Content Manager also presents a
read-only Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) interface. This interface is not an
interface directly to the relational database tables used in the repository. Rather,
it is a view into the object model represented by the Content Engine metadata. In
the JDBC interface, queries follow a model analogous to that of the native APIs,
where each metadata class looks like a database table and each property looks
like a database column.
The JDBC interface follows the JDBC specifications and programming models,
but the motivation for its development was primarily for use by reporting tools.
The JDBC interface is also purely read-only. Therefore, the JDBC interface is not
a good choice for use in application development. For general application
programming, the native APIs provide a richer interface.
Recommendations: Avoid the use of the Java API JDBC provider except for
integrating with off-the-shelf report generation packages and similar products
that require a JDBC interface. For developer-written code, use the facilities of
the Content Engine .NET or Java API. If you have an administrative need to
perform reporting and counts that cannot be done in a performant way using
the APIs, you might need to query directly against the underlying database.

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6.3.8 Exploiting the active content event model
Content Manager provides a unique
active content
capability that proactively
moves content and content-related business tasks through a business process
without requiring human initiation. You probably have several objects that are
mostly directly controlled by your application, but you also want to be aware of it if
another application tries to make a change to these objects. When that happens,
you might want to either prevent the change or perform follow-up actions to
ensure data consistency in an application-specific way. One well-known follow-up
action is to launch a workflow activity so that an affiliated IBM Case Foundation
system can coordinate a complex chain of events.
As a programmer or an administrator, your exposure to active content is via the
Content Manager’s event subscriptions model. You create and register a
subscription for various events. The subscriptions can be created for individual
object instances or for an entire class of objects. The subscribed events
represent updates (or at least attempted updates) to an object.
When an event occurs in Content Engine, any active subscriptions link the event
to an EventAction and ultimately to your code. Your code receives parameters
that describe the event that occurred as well as the state of the object when the
event occurred. For some events, you get both before and after snapshots of the
object.
Event subscriptions come in three types:
change preprocessor, synchronous,
and
asynchronous
. It is up to you as the creator of the subscription to decide which
type to use:
For a change preprocessor, which happens synchronously as an update
request arrives at the Content Platform Engine server, your handler is allowed
to make simple changes to the incoming object before it is passed along to
the main part of the server. A change preprocessor runs under the security
context of the original calling user.
For a synchronous event subscription, your event action handler is called after
the change has been made to the object, but before it is committed (in the
transactional sense). You are not allowed to make changes to the object, but
you have the opportunity to veto the change by throwing an exception.
For an asynchronous event subscription, your event action handler is called
after the change to the object has been committed to the database. Your
handler does not run within the context of the original transaction of the
update request. Instead, it has its own transaction started by Content Platform
Engine. You can make changes to the triggering object, but those changes
are just normal, additional changes as you might make from a client program.
Your handler cannot veto the original change, because it has already
happened and been committed.

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By using the event subscription model in Content Engine, you can create
handlers that monitor changes to objects not just from your application or
components, but from all sources.
6.3.9 Logging
The Content Manager APIs and the server have built-in logging that focuses on
providing details of round-trips between the client and server. The reason for that
focus is because those details are typically interesting information for resolving
both performance and functional problems. The main purpose of the logging is to
have artifacts for diagnosing problems when hands-on debugging is not possible.
Those logs are intended to be examined by IBM Support and development
engineers. They are not documented in detail, but you might easily develop an
informal familiarity with them if you work with them.
When designing logging for your own applications, you are likely to have similar
goals. You might want to consider the following points:
Determine the interesting interactions in your application. Focus your logging
efforts on those interactions first. You can always add more logging as your
application evolves or as you become more familiar with the types of problems
that occur in production. Think of logging those interesting interactions as a
unit, whether they are all contained within a certain software module or not.
Do not log uninteresting details. Logs can become quite large, and many
details that are logged turn out to be distracting clutter when you are looking
at log files later. If something is likely to help solve a problem, log it.
If there is just a remote possibility that it will help, skip it.
Be careful about tying things to source code. It is fine to assume that the
people looking at the logs will have access to the source code to see what
entries mean, but only do that if that is actually true. Otherwise, log entries
must be reasonably self-explanatory so that you can teach someone what
they mean.
Log the impossible. In any application, there are conditions that are supposed
to be impossible. It is tempting to silently ignore those conditions in program
logic. If one of those conditions actually happens, it must be logged, because
Recommendations: The event model is powerful and can be a useful
component of your overall solution design. Become familiar with the three
types of handlers. Do not be tempted to violate the usage rules for the three
types. Even if something non-compliant happens to work in a simple test, it
can fail later in mysterious ways.

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it is an indication of a design flaw or something seriously strange in the
runtime environment.
Pick a few severity and verbosity levels. It is probably better to have fewer
rather than more levels of granularity in your controls for logging. Modern
logging toolkits often give you the freedom to control things with many levels.
Do you really need them all? You probably do not. You probably do not need
much more than “on”, “off”, and perhaps one level in between. For each
combination, ask yourself who will really use it and why it is better than
another combination that you already need. One reason to have an
intermediate level is because voluminous logging usually has an impact on
performance. You can sometimes get ideas for narrowing your focus by using
only intermediate logging.
When logging error conditions, log the entire exception message and stack
trace, including any nested exceptions. Some people consider it a security
risk to display this information to users, but this is not a problem for logs seen
only by administrators.
Make it possible to reconfigure logging dynamically without restarting the
application. Some logging toolkits have this capability built in. If they do not,
code your application layer so that it periodically checks for a change.
6.3.10 Creating a data model
Designing applications goes along with the design of how you plan to store your
permanent data. In P8 Content Manager, the available mechanisms in the
repository fully support your use of object-oriented programming models. We
describe here just a few of the items that might be overlooked by developers
unfamiliar with an object-oriented persistence layer. In certain cases, there are
features that are not commonly available in object-oriented programming
languages.
Inheritance
Repository classes support a convenient inheritance model. You can define new
subclasses that add properties or change various characteristics of existing
properties for the subclass.
Recommendations: The 5.2 release introduces a new Java class,
HandlerCallContext, with several logging-related methods. That class is
intended for use by event handler code and other custom code that runs inside
the Content Engine server. Use those logging methods so that your logging
output is integrated with trace and error logging from the Content Engine
server itself. Enable it with the Handlers trace logging subsystem in ACCE.

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You can also add new properties to most system classes, although it usually
makes more sense to define a subclass just for that purpose and extend it (by
adding properties or further subclassing) for your application’s needs.
Property value constraints
The repository metadata model also allows you to define default values and
constraints on properties that will be enforced by the server. For example, you
can define an integer property constrained to a specific range or set of allowed
values. Although you might traditionally put that validation logic into your
application, having it in the metadata ensures that no other application can put
invalid data in those properties. After the constraints are in the metadata, your
application can read the metadata and use that to guide application layer
validation.
Object-valued properties
One of the more powerful features of the data model is object-valued properties
(OVPs). When one object needs to reference another object, use OVPs instead
of storing the ID or path to the object. By using OVPs, you can directly navigate
from object to object. For an OVP, the metadata provides type safety by only
allowing you to point to objects of a certain class (or subclass), just like an object
reference in a programming language. The server provides features for
referential integrity and configurable cascading deletion (automatically controlling
the deletion of pointed-to objects or preventing the deletion of pointing-to
objects).
Reflective properties
A particularly useful form of OVPs is a
reflective property
, also known as
association properties
. More than one object can point to a particular other
object. When that happens, the reflective property mechanism is used to simplify
the bookkeeping and let Content Engine perform most of the work. The usual
examples have a parent and many children. Suppose you have an Invoice object
with many LineItem child objects. With the reflective property mechanism, define
an Invoice property on the LineItem class and a LineItems property on the
Invoice class. The naming is just a convention that works well in practice. Any
property names can be used. To affiliate a new LineItem with the Invoice, you
need to only populate the Invoice property on the LineItem object. Because it
was created as a reflective property, the LineItems property on the Invoice class
automatically reflects the new line item being added. When you access the
multi-valued property (the LineItems property in our example), the Content
Engine automatically performs a query for applicable objects with the appropriate
value in the single-valued property (the Invoice property in our example).

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Many-to-many relationships
Especially because of reflective properties, it is easy to use OVPs to model
one-to-many and many-to-one relationships. You might find the need to model a
many-to-many relationship. The usual solution for that is to use an intermediate
object to express a single pair of relationships. The system class,
ReferentialContainmentRelationship (RCR), is an example of this solution for
the special case of containing objects in folders. A single object can be contained
in many folders, and a folder can contain many objects. The document class has
a reflective property, Containers, which identifies all the RCRs (and, therefore all
the containment relationships) that reference a specific document instance. The
folder class likewise has a Containees property.
You can see that this intermediate relationship object, combined with reflective
properties, is a powerful tool for simplifying your modeling of many-to-many
relationships. Not only does it express the relationship, but it can also have
properties specific to that particular relationship. For example, an RCR has a
property, ContainmentName, that gives a unique name to a contained object for
the purposes of path-based navigation. When you use an intermediate object for
a relationship, you can add whatever properties are appropriate to your business
needs. Both ReferentialContainmentRelationship and
DynamicReferentialContainmentRelationship classes are subclassable, and
you can use them for your own relationships if they happen to fit the folder
containment model. Other good choices for the intermediate object are
subclasses of customer object and link system classes.
Custom objects
You will often find yourself with a need to hold a collection of related properties
for one reason or another. In a database programming environment, you might
create a new table with rows representing the collection of information. The
Content Manager solution for this is to create a subclass of the custom object
class. The custom object system class has only a few properties of its own, and it
exists specifically to be subclassed for this use. The invoice and line item
example used for reflective properties can also be modeled this way.
As part of the persistence architecture the Content Engine stores all custom
objects, regardless of class, in a single database table. It sometimes happens
that different kinds of custom objects are used in significantly different ways by
applications. For example, an object store might have numerous custom objects
that represent business object entities, and it might also have custom objects that
represent configuration items. The latter custom objects are relatively few in
number and can get lost in the volume of business objects. That can result in
performance problems at the database level. Because of this occasional
database issue, the 5.2 release introduces
custom root classes
. A custom root

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215
class has its own table in the database but otherwise is similar to a custom object
subclass.
Recommendations: When contemplating the use of custom objects in your
data model design, consider using a subclass of CmAbstractPersistable as a
custom root class. This is useful if your objects will not be typical business
objects.

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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
217
Chapter 7.
Business continuity
In this chapter, we describe how to provide for business continuity with IBM
FileNet Content Manager (P8 Content Manager).
We discuss the following topics:
Defining business continuity
Defining high availability (HA)
Implementing a high availability solution
Defining disaster recovery (DR)
Implementing a disaster recovery solution
Best practices
Reference documentation
7

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
7.1 Defining business continuity
Business continuity
is defined as maintaining business services to an
organization’s customers despite disruptive events that have the potential to
interrupt service. Disruptions range from human errors or component failures to
full-scale human-caused or natural disasters. Providing for continued business
operations in the event of a local component failure is called
high availability.

Business continuity in the event of a full-scale disaster is called
disaster recovery
.
Business continuity is concerned with resuming all critical business functions
after disruptive events. High availability and disaster recovery are concerned
primarily with the subset of business continuity devoted to keeping information
technology (IT) services available during and after disruptions. Beside IT
services, business continuity covers all aspects of continuing business
operations, including crisis management and communications, alternate work
sites for employees, employee disaster assistance, temporary staffing,
emergency transportation, physical security, and chain of command.
Business continuity planning (BCP) involves all aspects of anticipating possible
disruptions to mission-critical business functions and putting in place plans to
avoid or recover from those disruptions. BCP focuses on planning for the
successful resumption of all mission-critical business operations after a
disruption, not just restoring IT functions. It involves much more than IT
professionals. It touches every department in an enterprise from upper
management to human resources, to external communications professionals,
telecommunications staff, facility management, healthcare services, finance,
sales, marketing, and engineering.
Business continuity planning in the limited scope of IT functions will involve the IT
department, facility management, telecommunications, and line of business
management who can assist in evaluating which IT functions are mission-critical
after a disruption or disaster. High availability and disaster recovery plans need
to be formally developed and reviewed by all these stakeholders, implemented,
and then regularly tested by all staff to be certain that they will function as
expected during and after a real disruption.
This chapter covers the part of business continuity that concerns restoring IT
functions, in particular P8 Content Manager, after a disruptive event.
7.2 Defining high availability (HA)
What is high availability (HA) and how is it measured? We start by defining
availability. A business system is said to be available whenever it is fully

Chapter 7. Business continuity
219
accessible by its users.
Availability
is measured as a percentage of the planned
uptime for a system during which the system is available to its users, that is,
during which it is fully accessible for all its normal uses.
Planned uptime
is the time that the system administrators have agreed to keep
the system up and running for its users, frequently in the form of a service level
agreement (SLA) with the user organizations. The SLA might allow the system
administrators to take the system down nightly or weekly for backups and
maintenance, or, in an increasing number of applications, rarely if at all. Certain
mission critical systems for around-the-clock operations now need to be available
24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
The concept of
high availability
roughly equates to system and data available
almost all of the planned uptime for a system. Achieving

high availability means
having the system up and running for a period of time that meets or exceeds the
SLA for system availability, as measured as a percentage of the planned uptime
for a system.
Table 7-1 helps quantify and classify a range of availability targets for IT systems.
At the low end of the availability range, 95% availability is a fairly modest target
and therefore is termed
basic availability
. It can typically be achieved with
standard tape backup and restore facilities. The next level up,
enhanced
availability
, requires more robust features, such as a Redundant Array of
Independent Disks (RAID) storage system, which prevents data loss in the first
place, rather than the more basic mechanisms for recovering from data loss after
it occurs. Highly available systems will range from 99.9% to 99.999% availability
and require protection from both application loss and data loss. At the high end of
this continuum of availability is a fault tolerant system that is designed to avoid
any downtime ever, because the system is used in life and death situations.
Table 7-1 Range of availability
Availability percent Annual downtime Availability type
100% 0 minutes Fault tolerance for life and death
applications
99.999% 5.3 minutes Five nines (near continuous
availability)
99.99% 53 minutes High availability
99.9% 526 minutes (8.8 hours) High availability
99% 88 hours (3.7 days) Enhanced availability
95% 18 days (2.6 weeks) Basic availability

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
To make this more concrete, consider the maximum downtime that can be
absorbed in a year while still achieving 99.999% availability, also called
five nines

availability. As Table 7-1 on page 219 indicates, five nines availability permits no
more than 5.3 minutes of unscheduled downtime per year, or even less if the
system is not scheduled for round-the-clock operation. This is near continuous
availability, but not strictly fault tolerant. For a three nines target of 99.9%, we can
allow 100 times more downtime, or 8.8 hours per year. An availability target of
99%, which still sounds like a high target, can be achieved even if the system is
down 88 hours per year, or over three and half days. So the range of availability is
actually quite large.
You might be asking yourself, “Why not provide for the highest levels of
availability on all IT systems?”. The answer, as always, is cost. The cost of
providing high availability goes up exponentially as availability approaches 99.9%
and higher.
Choosing an appropriate availability target involves analyzing the sources and
costs of downtime in order to justify the cost of the availability solution. Industry
experts estimate that less than half of system downtime can be attributed to
hardware, operating system, or environmental failures. The majority of downtime
is the result of people and process problems, which comes down to a mix of
operator errors and application errors.
This chapter focuses primarily on how to mitigate downtime due to hardware
outages, system, and IBM FileNet software problems outside the control of an
IBM FileNet client, or environmental failures, such as loss of power, network
connectivity, or air conditioning. This covers less than half of the sources of
downtime. The majority of the sources requires people or process changes.
Our advice is to determine what has caused the most downtime in the past for a
particular system and focus first on that. Frequently, we have found that stricter
change control and better load testing for new applications provide the greatest
benefit. Focus on the root causes of outages first and then address the
secondary and tertiary causes only after protecting against the root causes.
Here are several examples of best practices for avoiding downtime from people
and process problems:
System administrators need to be well-trained and dedicated full-time to their
systems so that they are least likely to commit pilot errors.
The applications running on the system must be designed with great care to
avoid possible application crashes or other failures.
Exception handling, both by administrators and application programs, must be
carefully thought-out so that problems are anticipated and handled efficiently
and effectively when they occur.

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Comprehensive testing and staging of the system is paramount to avoiding
production downtime. Testing of the system under a simulated production
workload is critical to avoiding downtime when the system is stressed with a
peak load during production. Downtime on a test system does not affect
availability of the production system, so make sure to eradicate all the
problems before taking a new system, software release, service pack, or even
software patch into production.
Deploying a new application into production must likewise be planned and
tested carefully to minimize the possibilities of adversely affecting production
due to an overlooked deployment complication.
Thorough user training will help keep the system performing well within the
bounds for which it was designed. Users who abuse a system due to
ignorance can affect overall system performance or even cause a system
failure.
Make sure that all sources of downtime are addressed, if high availability is to be
achieved. After the fundamental people-related and process-related problems
have been addressed, you need to consider hardware and software availability
next.
7.3 Implementing a high availability solution
There are a variety of building blocks for high availability, ranging from the most
basic backup and restore facilities, to hardened servers and backup servers, to
the best practices: server farms and server clusters.
It is important to note that server farms and server clusters, as those terms are
used in this chapter, are different solutions. We will explore server farms first, and
then explain how clusters differ.
7.3.1 Load-balanced server farms
Server farms are the best practice for web servers. In fact, they are the best
practice, in terms of high availability, for all the server tiers in a P8 Content
Manager solution where they are supported. The architecture and function of
some servers do not lend themselves to a server farm configuration. But, the
core P8 5.2 Content Platform Engine, as well as all the P8 web and presentation
tier products, supports server farming. In addition, IBM DB2 pureScale® and
Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) support server farming.
As we have already discussed in 3.2, “Scalability” on page 52, the key concept
for a server farm is to distribute the incoming user workload across two or more

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
active, cloned servers. This distribution is commonly called “
load balancing
,”
which can be implemented either in hardware or software.
This is a scalable architecture because servers can be added to the farm to scale
it out for greater workloads. It also provides improved availability because the
failure of one server in a farm still leaves one or more other servers to handle
incoming client requests. This availability keeps the service available at all times.
In a load-balanced server farm, clients of that server see one virtual server, even
though there are actually two or more servers behind the load-balancing
hardware or software. The applications or services that are accessed by the
server’s clients are replicated, or cloned, across all the servers in the farm. And
all those servers are actively providing the application or service all the time.
The load-balancing software or hardware receives each request and uses any
one of a variety of approaches for distributing the request workload over the
servers in the farm. This can be a simple round-robin approach, which sends
requests to the servers in a predefined order. A more sophisticated load balancer
might use dynamic feedback from the servers in the farm to choose the server
with the lightest current load or the fastest average response time, for example.
In any case, the load balancer tracks the state of each server in the farm, so that
if a server becomes unavailable, the load balancer can direct all future requests
to the remaining servers in the farm and avoid the down server, therefore,
masking the failure.
The key enabler for a server farm is the load balancer. In most cases, IBM
FileNet leverages third-party load-balancing hardware and software products,
rather than building load balancing into IBM FileNet products themselves.
IBM Content Search Services (CSS) and IBM FileNet Rendition Engine (RE) are
two exceptions that provide load balancing on their own, so they do not require
any external hardware or software load-balancing solutions.
All the Java application server vendors provide software to balance the Java
application workload running in their Java Platform Enterprise Edition (Java EE)
environments. For example, the IBM WebSphere Application Server Network
Deployment product includes built-in software load balancing for Java
applications that are deployed in WebSphere Application Server Network
Deployment clusters.
Note: The base WebSphere Application Server product bundled with IBM
FileNet Content Manager does
not
include this feature, so WebSphere
Application Server Network Deployment must be licensed separately for high
availability deployments.

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223
Java EE application server vendors, including IBM, use the term
cluster
for their
load-balancing software feature. The other Java EE application servers, Oracle
WebLogic and JBoss, also provide a similar load-balancing software feature.
Java method calls by clients of a clustered Java application, such as the P8
Content Platform Engine, are distributed across all the WebSphere Application
Server Network Deployment servers running Content Platform Engine by means
of the WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment Workload
Management (WLM) component. WLM consists of both a client-side component
and a server-side component.
The server side, in conjunction with the WebSphere Application Server Network
Deployment High Availability (HA) Manager component, keeps track of the health
of each instance of the Java application, and sends that information back to the
client-side WLM component on the return from every Java method call from the
client.
The client-side WLM component, which is part of the WebSphere Java Runtime
Environment (JRE) running on the client server, is responsible for distributing the
method calls from local Java applications, such as the IBM Content Navigator,
over the servers running the target Java application, such as the P8 Content
Platform Engine. When IBM Content Navigator makes a content-related or
process-related method call to the P8 Content Platform Engine, the local WLM
running on the IBM Content Navigator server will decide which currently active
server in the P8 Content Platform Engine cluster to use for that call, effectively
load balancing all the calls across the servers in the P8 Content Platform Engine
cluster.
Network hardware vendors, such as Cisco and f5 Networks, have implemented
load balancing for server farms in several of their network devices. f5 BIG-IP is a
popular hardware load-balancing device.
There are also many other vendors that have load balancer products. These
products are best for load balancing the HTTP network traffic from web browsers
to the web application tier in a P8 system, as well as the SOAP/HTTP network
traffic from P8 client applications that use the Web Services interfaces to the P8
Content Platform Engine. However, do not use hardware load balancers in
combination with WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment WLM
software load balancing for the native Java APIs to the P8 Content Platform
Engine, because the WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment WLM
load balancing is self-contained and complete on its own.
In the best case, the hardware load balancer affects only the initial Java
infrastructure call to locate the instances of the P8 Content Platform Engine in
the WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment cluster. After that, the
WLM component takes over the routing of all the Java method calls to the P8

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Content Platform Engine. In the worst case, a hardware load balancer can
compete with and disrupt the software load balancing provided by WebSphere
Application Server Network Deployment and cause serious performance
problems.
In addition to WLM for Java method call load balancing, WebSphere Application
Server Network Deployment provides another load balancing feature for HTTP
load balancing. This is the WebSphere Application Server HTTP plug-in for all
the popular HTTP servers. The plug-in intercepts HTTP traffic flowing through
the HTTP server to P8 servers, and distributes that traffic over the P8 servers
configured for each HTTP function. For example, HTTP traffic between users’
web browsers and the IBM Content Navigator web application can be load
balanced by HTTP servers in front of the IBM Content Navigator server
instances, if the WebSphere Application Server HTTP plug-in is installed on the
HTTP server and configured for that traffic. Another example is traffic from clients
of the P8 Content Platform Engine that use the Web Services interface to the
content and process functions of Content Platform Engine, rather than the Java
API. The Web Services calls are made outside of the Java infrastructure over the
SOAP protocol running on HTTP. These calls can be load balanced by any HTTP
load balancer, including the WebSphere Application Server HTTP plug-in, or
hardware load balancers from the network hardware vendors, such as f5
Networks.
Figure 7-1 shows a logical diagram of a load-balanced server farm. This figure
shows a pair of hardware load balancers and multiple servers in the server farm.
Redundancy is essential to prevent the failure of one load balancer from taking
down the server farm.
Figure 7-1 A load-balanced server farm
Load
Bal ancer

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225
This concept of no single point of failure is key to high availability. Every link in the
chain, that is, every element in the hardware and software, must have an
alternate element available to take over in case the first element fails. Software
load balancers, for example, are designed to avoid any single point of failure;
therefore, each server in the farm has a copy of the load-balancing software
running on it in configurations using software instead of hardware for load
balancing.
The software running on each server in a farm is functionally identical. As
changes are made to any server in the farm, you must replicate those changes to
all the servers in the farm. In this regard, a key benefit of WebSphere Application
Server Network Deployment is its facility for rolling out software changes across
all the nodes in a WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment cluster,
after one of the nodes in the cluster has been updated. So, it facilitates keeping
the software the same across all the nodes of a WebSphere Application Server
Network Deployment cluster. (Recall that a WebSphere Application Server
Network Deployment Java EE cluster is actually what we call an active-active
load-balanced server farm in this chapter. We describe next how that differs from
the concept of an active-passive server cluster.)
Load balancing offers a good solution: Any client calling into a load-balanced
server farm can be directed to any server in the farm. The load can be evenly
distributed across all the servers for the best possible response time and server
usage. However, load balancing can be a problem if the servers in the farm retain
any state between calls. For instance, if a user initiates a session by providing
logon credentials, it is beneficial for those credentials to be cached for reuse on
all subsequent calls to the server for that user session.
We cannot ask the user to log in over and over every time the application needs
to communicate with the server. Therefore, in one solution, the server keeps a
temporary copy of the user’s validated credentials in its memory. This works fine
if there is only one server, but in a load-balanced server farm, the load balancer
can easily direct subsequent calls from the same user session to different
servers in the farm. Those other servers will not have the session state in their
memory.
Load balancers can be configured for session-based load balancing to solve this
session state problem. This is also known as
sticky sessions
,
session affinity,
or
stateful load balancing
. The load balancer keeps track of which server it selected
at the beginning of a user session and directs all the traffic for that session to the
same physical server. Session-based load balancing is required for the
Application Engine, but not for the Content Platform Engine, because the
Application Engine caches session state, while the Content Platform Engine
does not.

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Load-balanced server farms (or Java EE clusters) that manage persistent data
stored on disk need to have a way for all the servers in the farm to share the
same set of disks. In data stored in databases, such as DB2, all the database
vendors provide interfaces with locking and transaction features that enable
multiple database clients in a load-balanced server farm to share read/write
access to the same database.
In addition to data housed in databases, the IBM FileNet Content Platform
Engine manages data stored in file systems, such as the file storage areas for
content objects, such as documents and annotations. So all the servers in a
Content Platform Engine farm have to be able to read and write to one or more
common file systems. The solution is a shared network file system, which
network-attached storage (NAS) devices provide natively over the Network File
System (NFS) or Common Internet File System (CIFS) protocols. NFS is
supported by the UNIX and Linux operating systems, and CIFS is supported by
Microsoft Windows. Another option for AIX and Linux based P8 Content Platform
Engine servers is the IBM General Parallel File System (GPFS™), which can be
deployed with storage area network (SAN) storage devices to provide a shared
network file system for P8 servers.
Now, we turn to active-passive server clusters and explore how they differ from
active-active load-balanced server farms (or from load-balanced Java EE server
clusters, such as WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment clusters).
7.3.2 Active-passive server clusters
Historically, active-passive server clusters were commonly required for the
business logic and data tiers beneath the web and presentation layer tier of
servers. Examples include business process servers, library or repository
servers, and database or file system servers. For instance, IBM FileNet Image
Services (IS) is a content repository that requires an active-passive server
cluster configuration when deployed for high availability.
Business logic and data tier servers all differ from web and presentation servers
in that they directly manage substantial dynamic data, such as content or
process data. A stream of dynamic data, by definition, is a stream of new or
rapidly changing data. For business logic or data tier server products that have
not been specifically designed to allow multiple servers to manage this kind of
dynamic data in a safe, cooperative process, a single server must manage the
dynamic data set, in order to avoid data inconsistency or corruption from multiple
servers trying to make changes to the data simultaneously.
Fortunately, more and more server products, including the IBM FileNet 5.2
Content Platform Engine and its predecessor Content Engine and Process
Engine products, make use of transactional software and locking to allow multiple

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server instances to manage dynamic data sets safely. Those products can take
advantage of active-active load balancing, described previously. But other
products, notably IBM FileNet Image Services, do not have this capability, so
each data set must be managed by only one server.
Because of that single server architecture, a server farm with two or more active
servers does not fit well with servers that have not been designed for cooperative
data management. Yet a second server is still needed for continued availability, in
case the first server fails. The solution in this case is an active-passive server
cluster, where the second server stands by until the first server fails, before
stepping in to take over the data management.
The second server needs to have access to the data that was being managed by
the first server, either the same exact copy, or a copy of its own. The common
solution allows both servers to be connected to the same copy of data either via
a network file share or, more commonly, a SAN storage device that both servers
can access, but only one at a time. The active server owns the SAN storage, and
the passive server has no access.
Shared access to SAN storage in this way is an alternative to replicating the data
to a second storage device accessed by the second server. However,
maintaining a replica of the data, sometimes called a
mirror
, on a second local
storage device is a good practice, as protection against the failure of the primary
SAN storage device. Even highly available SAN storage devices, which have
internal protection against the loss of a disk drive through redundant copies of
the data, have been known to fail completely. Active-passive server clusters can
still be configured such that all servers can take over the primary storage in the
event of the active server failing, with the local mirror as a standby copy that is
used only if the primary storage device failed. The IBM DB2 High Availability
Disaster Recovery (HADR) product is an example of a product that provides both
active-passive server clustering as well as data replication so that the passive
server has its own separate copy of the data.
If there is no local mirror, recovering from the loss of a primary storage device
involves either time-consuming restoration from a previous backup, or declaring a
disaster and failing everything over to the recovery site, which is also
time-consuming. Data updates that have occurred in the time since a backup
was taken will necessarily be lost when a backup is restored. If the sources of
those updates are still available, the updates can be made a second time to avoid
data loss. In comparison to restoring from backup or switching over to a disaster
recovery site, switching over to a local replica by reconfiguring the server
managing the storage is faster, simpler, and avoids any data loss.
Figure 7-2 on page 228 shows two servers in a server cluster with access to the
same shared storage. Recall that some server farms typically do not have this
requirement for shared storage. DB2 pureScale, Oracle RAC, and the Content

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Platform Engine are exceptions, in that they exhibit both server farm and server
cluster characteristics. They take advantage of load balancing, combined with
cooperative data management using storage that is simultaneously shared by all
the servers. In a load-balanced server farm with shared storage, all the servers
are active and thus need to access the storage in parallel, so a network file share
is required. An active-passive server cluster, however, is designed to allow only
the active server to access the storage, so the single-owner model of SAN
storage works well. The typical server cluster does not support load balancing,
but it does support shared storage via SAN. The storage is shared in a server
cluster in the sense that both servers are connected to the same storage, so they
share access to the same storage, but never concurrently in the case of SAN
storage.
Figure 7-2 Active-passive server cluster
As with server farms, clients of a server cluster see one virtual server, even
though the physical server they interact with will change if the primary server
fails. If the primary server fails, a
failover
occurs, and the second server takes
over the data copy and starts the software to manage the stored data. It also
takes over the virtual network address, which is shared by the two servers,
making the failover transparent to the client of the server cluster.
Both triggering a failover and actually accomplishing the failover cleanly are the
responsibility of clustering software running on both servers. This software is
configured on the secondary server to monitor the health of the primary server
and initiate a failover if the primary server fails. The active server in an
active-passive cluster owns the storage resources, commonly called a
resource
group
or
shared volume group.
The resource group is visible from both cluster
nodes but only dedicated to the active node. If the active node fails, the clustering
software will move the resource group to the remaining passive node. The
Shared storage

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229
passive node sees the resource group but does not write to it until the clustering
software ensures consistency. This is called a
shared volume group
for IBM
PowerHA® clusters.
After the failed server is repaired and running again, a
failback
is initiated via the
clustering software to shift the responsibility back to the primary server and put
the secondary server in waiting mode again. This failback is necessary to get
back to a redundant state that can accommodate another server failure.
In certain cases, intentional failovers can be used to mask planned downtime for
software or hardware upgrades or other maintenance. You can upgrade and test
the secondary server offline. And then, you can trigger a failover and apply the
upgrade to the primary server while the secondary server is standing in for the
primary server.
This type of configuration, in which the second server is inactive or passive until it
is called to step in for the active server, is called an
active-passive server cluster
.
Several clustering software products also support an active-active cluster
configuration, which is similar to a server farm where all servers are active. An
active-active cluster configuration is useful for data managing servers that are
designed to share the management across more than one server.
However, IBM FileNet products that use active-passive clustering software for
high availability all require an active-passive configuration. IBM FileNet products
that work with an active-active configuration always use a server farm and load
balancing rather than clustering software. (Server farms are always
active-active.)
Server cluster software requires agents or scripts that are configured to manage
key server processes on a particular server. These agents or scripts allow the
cluster software to monitor the health of the application software, as well as start
and stop the application software on that server. Cluster software typically comes
with predefined agents or scripts for common server types, such as database
servers.
A failover in an active-passive server cluster is not instantaneous. It will typically
take ten or fifteen minutes or longer, depending on how long it takes the
clustering software to stop the failing server, shift the virtual IP address and the
storage to the passive server, and start the application software on the passive
server. Before the system is accessible again, additional internal steps can take
place, such as database transaction recovery. Depending on the state of a
database and the number of in-flight transactions at the time of a database
server failure, it can take substantially more than fifteen minutes to roll back
incomplete transactions before the database is once again online and available.

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7.3.3 Geographically dispersed server clusters and server farms
Most server clusters consist of two side-by-side servers. However, certain
software vendors also support geographically dispersed clusters. The Symantec
Veritas Cluster Server, for instance, supports both
stretch clusters
and
replicated
data clusters
. A stretch cluster is defined as two servers in a cluster separated by
as much as 100 km (62 miles). The distance limitation is due to the requirement
to connect both servers via fiber to the same SAN device for shared storage and
also due to the maximum amount of time allowed for the heartbeat protocol
exchange between the two servers. The two servers in a stretch cluster always
share the same SAN storage device, just as though they were side by side, and
operate identically with the way a local server cluster operates.
A replicated data cluster is similar to a stretch cluster, but the remote server
always has its own replicated copy of the data. In the event of a failover, the
second server comes up on its local copy of the data. In certain cases (but not all
cases), this capability removes the need for an expensive fiber connection
between the two sites, because neither server needs the speed of fiber to access
storage at the other site. Data replication can be done over an IP network. There
is still a 100 km (62 mile) distance limitation to ensure that the heartbeat between
servers will not time out due to transmission delays and to allow for synchronous
replication. See 7.5.1, “Replication” on page 236 for an explanation of
synchronous and asynchronous replication.
A replicated data cluster cannot provide the same level of availability as a local
cluster, because of the additional downtime required for a data resync to the
primary site on a site failback. In addition, particularly in stretch clusters, the
network connectivity between the two sites is typically much more expensive and
substantially more prone to failure than the local network connectivity between
two servers in a local cluster.
Similarly, some server farms can be dispersed geographically across multiple
sites. In that case, load balancing must be done across sites. Servers that
manage persistent data, such as database servers, need to share a single copy
of the data, which necessarily must live at just one of the sites. The network
connectivity issues with geographically dispersed server clusters apply to server
farms as well. Some vendors supporting server farms caution against
geographically distributing their farms. Notably, IBM strongly discourages
stretching WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment clusters across
sites, due to the added risk of communication failures between the sites and the
complexity of this kind of deployment.
Because of the availability trade-offs and communication costs, geographically
dispersed server clusters and server farms are generally not the best practice for
high availability. However, some organizations have chosen to deploy twin data

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centers within a single metropolitan area, typically less than 40 kilometers (25
miles) apart. The motivation behind twin data centers is to reduce the risk of
downtime from one data center being unavailable, because of planned or
unplanned downtime for the whole data center. By limiting the distance between
sites, the networking costs and risk of network failure are reduced, making this
approach more feasible.
Still, the simplicity of keeping server clusters and farms local to a single data
center is the best practice for high availability, because this minimizes the risk of
failure due to the complexity of running these clusters or farms across multiple
data centers, and the increased risk of network problems.
As we will see later in the disaster recovery discussion, the best practice solution
for the loss of the production data center is to fail over to a standby recovery data
center that is typically located hundreds of miles or more away from the
production data center.
Twin data centers in a metropolitan area are less attractive for true disaster
recovery, because both can be lost in a single local disaster. Even if one of the
nearby data centers survives a disaster, the IT staff living in the metropolitan
area surrounding the two data centers can effectively become a single point of
failure for the two data centers. If their access to the remaining data center is cut
off, or they are otherwise unable to work due to effects of the disaster, the
remaining data center can be effectively lost without suffering direct damage
itself from the disaster.
Some organizations have combined twin nearby data centers with a third
recovery center farther away, in order to have both a local disaster recovery
option as well as a remote disaster recovery option. That is the best practice
when twin nearby production data centers are a company standard. But a more
cost-effective and lower-risk solution is to have a single production data center
configured for full local high availability, and a remote standby disaster recovery
data center located at least a hundred miles away, preferably more.
7.3.4 Server cluster products
All the server vendors offer their own server cluster software products (see
Table 7-2), as well as several software vendors.
Table 7-2 Server cluster products
Server and software platform Server cluster software products
IBM System p® AIX PowerHA
Microsoft Windows Server Microsoft Cluster Server

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7.3.5 Comparing and contrasting farms to clusters
Table 7-3 summarizes the differences and similarities between load-balanced
server farms and active-passive server clusters.
Table 7-3 Comparison of farms to clusters
Hewlett-Packard (HP) 9000 HP-UX HP ServiceGuard
Sun Solaris Sun Cluster
AIX, Solaris, Windows, and Linux Symantec Veritas Cluster Server (also
supports HP-UX) or IBM Tivoli System
Automation for Multiplatforms
Server and software platform Server cluster software products
Feature Farms Clusters
Clients see one virtual IP
address and one virtual
server
Yes Yes
All servers active Yes No
One server active and one
server passive
No Yes, typically
Capacity and performance
scalable by adding servers
Yes No
Instantaneous failover Yes, all servers active all
the time
No, must wait for software
to be started after failover
Shared storage between
the servers
Not necessarily, but can
include a network file share
for parallel accesses from
all the servers in the farm
Yes, typically SAN storage,
which allows just the active
server to access the
storage
Used for web servers,
presentation tier, and
certain services tier
servers
Yes Not usually
Used for data tier servers No Yes (except active-active
database products such as
DB2 pureScale)

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Now that we have covered the differences between server farms and server
clusters, we explore the advantages of farms over clusters and the advantages of
clusters over farms. Server farms have no idle servers, by definition, because all
servers in a farm are active. Server clusters always have one or more idle
servers in a steady state. Even more importantly, you can expand server farms
by simply adding a server clone, thereby scaling out the farm to handle larger
workloads. This horizontal scalability is not possible with active-passive server
clusters. The last advantage of a farm over a cluster is faster recovery time.
Server cluster failovers are delayed by the time that it takes to start the software
on the passive server on a failover. All the servers in a server farm are active and
immediately available to accept work that has been redirected away from failed
servers.
There are also some advantages that clusters have over farms, but on balance
farms have the advantage. The chief advantage of a cluster over a farm is that
the passive server can be configured identically with the active server,
guaranteeing no performance drop-off in the event of a failover. With server
farms, even if the initial server sizing is done to allow one server in a two-server
farm to handle 100% of the workload, the workload can increase over time to the
point where a single server is unable to handle the full workload after a failure.
Careful capacity monitoring and periodic testing can prevent this problem from
occurring with farms, however.
7.3.6 Inconsistent industry terminology
The terminology used in this book to distinguish load-balanced server farms from
active-passive server clusters is not unique to the book, but also not standard
across the industry. As you can see in Table 7-4 on page 234, many vendors use
the term “cluster” for both farms and clusters. Microsoft, for example, uses both
terms for server farms. Symantec/Veritas uses “failover group” for a cluster and
“parallel group” for a farm. Both Oracle and IBM call their Java EE application
Requires hardware or
software load balancer
Yes, such as BIG-IP or
WebSphere Network
Deployment clustering
No
Requires failover cluster
software
No Yes, such as PowerHA,
IBM Tivoli System
Automation for
Multiplatforms, Microsoft
Cluster Server, or
Symantec Veritas Cluster
Server
Feature Farms Clusters

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server farming configurations clusters. As we have seen, farms and clusters,
under our definition of those terms, are quite different, therefore the emphasis
here on distinct terms for these HA approaches.
Table 7-4 Inconsistent industry terminology for HA
7.3.7 Server virtualization and high availability
Chapter 3, “System architecture” on page 37 introduced the concept of server
virtualization and its promise of consolidating data center hardware and thus
reducing total cost of ownership for the data center. This has considerable
appeal, but it can also have a negative impact on availability. If a server farm or
server cluster with two physical servers is consolidated into two virtual servers
hosted on the same physical server, you must be careful to ensure that the
physical server has no single points of failure. Does it have redundant power
supplies, network interface cards, processors, memory, and so on? If any single
component failure on a server can take down all the virtual servers hosted on it,
that server cannot act as host for all the servers in a cluster or farm. Two of the
virtual servers must be hosted by different physical servers in this case to avoid
downtime caused by a single component failure.
7.4 Defining disaster recovery (DR)
Now, we turn from high availability to disaster recovery. How do they differ? Both
high availability and disaster recovery are part of business continuity, that is,
making sure that critical business systems and processes can continue to
operate despite system failures and disruptions. However, disaster recovery and
high availability solutions perform under different circumstances that require
different solutions.
Disaster recovery concerns restoring service after the loss of an entire business
system or data center due to natural or human-made disasters, such as fire,
Vendor HA terminology
Microsoft “NLB cluster” and “cluster farm” = farm
“Server cluster” and “cluster server” = clusters
Symantec Veritas “Failover group” = cluster
“Parallel group” = farm
Oracle WebLogic “cluster” = farm
IBM WebSphere “cluster” = farm
PowerHA “cluster” = cluster

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flood, hurricane, earthquake, war, criminal action, or sabotage. In contrast to that,
high availability concerns keeping a business system available despite a local
component failure – such as a server power supply failure, a network switch
failure, or a disk crash – that leaves most of the system untouched.
For recovery from the loss of an entire production system in a disaster, a full
remote system with its own up-to-date copy of the data is needed. All users and
operations must be switched over to the remote system. Compare that to when
just a single component fails in a data center: the optimal solution then is an
automated, localized, and limited substitution of a single replacement component
for the failed component. Server farms and clusters substitute a single
replacement component with minimal disruption to the rest of the system and its
users. Disaster recovery solutions are much more drastic, disruptive,
time-consuming, and heavyweight, because they have to replace an entire
system or data center, not just a single failed component. Therefore, disaster
recovery solutions are an inappropriate choice for high availability.
Disasters, such as the World Trade Center destruction on 11 September 2001
(9/11) or Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans and the Mississippi Gulf Coast, can
have a devastating effect on businesses in their path. Organizations with
business continuity, HA, and DR plans were much more likely to rebound and
recover from 9/11 and Katrina than those without such planning. Analysts
estimate that a significant number of businesses that suffer an extended IT
systems outage due to disaster go out of business within a year or two; other
businesses never resume operations at all. The obvious inference is that
planning and preparing for disaster recovery is a best practice for businesses of
all sizes.
7.4.1 Disaster recovery concepts
There are two key metrics that play important roles in determining an appropriate
disaster recovery (DR) solution for a particular business and application. They
are Recovery Time Objective (RTO) and Recovery Point Objective (RPO).
In certain cases, the most recent data changes at the production site, which
stretch back to a point in time prior to the disaster, do not make it to the recovery
site because of a time lag that is inherent in how the data is replicated. The
magnitude of this time lag is dependent on the particular type of data replication
technology that you choose. Assuming a disaster occurs, the
recovery point
is
the point in time before the disaster that represents the most recently replicated
data. How far back in time is the business willing to go after the disaster
happens? That is, the RPO translates to how much recent data the business is
willing to lose in a disaster.

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The duration of time that passes before the systems can be made operational at
the recovery site is called the
recovery time
. The RTO is the business’s time
requirement for getting the system back online. That is, how much downtime can
the business endure?
RPOs and RTOs for different businesses and industries range from seconds to
minutes or days, even to weeks, depending on business requirements.
7.5 Implementing a disaster recovery solution
Disaster recovery can be greatly facilitated by two key technologies. One is data
replication to a remote recovery site, and the other is software or scripting that
can automate most of a site failover to a recovery site after a disaster takes away
the primary site. The RTO and RPO for a particular business determine when
these two technologies are required for the disaster recovery solution for that
business. With an RPO and RTO measured in days to weeks, that is, if the
business is willing to lose days to weeks of data and can wait days to weeks for
the system to come back online, tape backup and restore are sufficient. But if an
RPO of seconds to hours is desired, a form of data replication is required. If an
RTO of hours to weeks is acceptable, replication alone might suffice. But if an
RTO of seconds to hours is desired, both replication and automated site failover
will be required.
Next, we explore replication and automated site failover in more detail.
7.5.1 Replication
Backing up to tape or other removable media is the minimum for copying data for
use after a disaster. You must ship the media off-site to a location outside of the
projected disaster impact zone. The greater the distance of the location from the
production site, the lower the risk that both production and recovery sites will be
affected by the same disaster. One general rule is that a backup tape vault and
recovery site must be at least 48.28 km (30 miles) away from the production
system, which in most cases is sufficient to avoid a flood or fire disabling both
sites. However, sites that are close together can still be in the same impact zone
for earthquakes, hurricanes, or power grid failures, so more cautious
organizations separate their production and recovery sites by hundreds, if not
thousands, of miles.
Companies usually perform backups once a day, which meets only a 24 hour
RPO. That means that as much as 24 hours of data can be lost. The recovery
time required for data restoration from tape can be days due to the need to
restore a series of tapes that represents a full backup and subsequent

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incremental or differential backups. So, you measure both RPO and RTO in days
if the only DR provision is tape backup.
For a better RPO, that is, to reduce the potential data loss in a disaster, you need
to periodically replicate the data to a remote disk, because periodical replication
can be done more often than tape backup. This effectively reduces the window of
data loss. Continuous replication that is done in real time can avoid any data loss
at all.
There are several levels at which you can perform replication: the application
level, the host level, and the storage level. Database replication is the best
example of application-based replication. Host-based replication is beneath the
application level, but it still resides on the server host and typically runs at the file
system or operating system level. Storage-level replication is implemented by the
storage subsystem itself, frequently, a SAN device or a NAS device.
Application-based replication
Application-level software that understands the structure of data and
relationships between data elements can copy the data intelligently, so that the
structure and relationships are preserved in the replica. Database and
object-based replication are examples.
Database replication
ensures that the
replica database is always in a consistent state with respect to database
transactions.
Object-based replication
ensures that content objects that include
both content and properties are replicated as an atomic unit, so that the content
and properties are always consistent with each other in the replica.
Each database vendor has replication products that replicate just the database,
but not other data. Examples include IBM DB2 High Availability and Disaster
Recovery (HADR) and Oracle Data Guard. Database replication products are
typically based on shipping database logs to the recovery site to be applied to a
database copy there. The advantage of these products is that they keep the
database replica in a fully consistent state at all times, with no incomplete
transactions, which reduces the recovery time required when bringing up the
database after a disaster. The disadvantage of these products is that they have
no means to replicate anything other than databases. File systems that need to
be kept consistent with the database, for instance, have to be replicated by a
different replication mechanism, which introduces the possibility of inconsistency
between the database and file system replicas.
Note: When you use continuous data replication products, point-in-time
backups, such as tape backup or periodic replication, are still required in order
to recover from data corruption or accidental deletion. Continuous replication
copies the corruption or deletion to the replica; therefore, you need to be able
to fall back on a point-in-time copy prior to when the corruption occurred.

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Host-based replication
In contrast to application-based replication,
host-based replication
has no
understanding of the data content, structure, or interrelationships. It detects
when a file or disk block has been modified and copies that file or block to the
replica. Symantec Veritas Volume Replicator and Double-Take Software
Double-Take are examples of host-based replication products. Unlike
application-based replication, they can be used to replicate all forms of data,
whether it is in a database, a file system, or even a raw disk partition. Several of
these products use the concept of
consistency groups
, which tie together data in
different volumes and allow all the data to be replicated together, therefore
maintaining consistency across related data sets, such as databases and file
systems. In contrast to application-based replication, however, the replica is not
guaranteed to be in a clean transactional state, because the replication
mechanism has no visibility into database or file system transactions. Recovery
can take longer, because incomplete transactions must be cleaned up prior to
making the data available again.
Storage-based replication
All of the storage vendors offer storage-based replication for their SAN and NAS
products. The storage products themselves provide storage-based replication
and do not use server host resources. Examples include IBM Metro Mirror
(PPRC) and Global Mirror (XRC), EMC SRDF and MirrorView, Hitachi Data
Systems TrueCopy, and Network Appliance SnapMirror.
NAS products replicate changes at the file level. SAN products replicate block by
block. In both NAS and SAN replication, as with host-based replication, there is
no knowledge of the structure or semantics of the stored data. So, databases
replicated in that way can be in any transient state with regard to database
transactions and therefore might require more database recovery time when the
replica is brought online. That increases the overall recovery time.
NAS replication covers any data in the file system, whereas SAN replication,
which is at the lower level of disk blocks, covers all data stored on the disk.
An emerging specialization of storage-based replication uses a SAN network
device to intercept disk writes to SAN storage devices and manage replication
independently of both the server host and the storage devices. IBM SAN Volume
Controller is an example of this type of product. It has the advantage of being
able to span heterogeneous SAN storage devices and replicate data for all those
devices in a consistent manner. You can think of the IBM SAN Volume Controller
as a new form of storage-based replication, because it resides in the Fibre
Channel infrastructure used to access SAN storage. Analysts have a new term
for this kind of replication:
network-based replication
.

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Synchronous as opposed to asynchronous replication
Host-based and storage-based replication commonly support two modes of
operation: synchronous and asynchronous.
Synchronous replication
writes new
data to both the production storage and the remote recovery site storage before
returning success to the operating system at the production site for the disk write.
So, when the operating system signals that a disk write is complete, it has
actually been completed on both storage devices. You can think of synchronous
replication as logically writing the data at both sites at the same time. That means
that after a disaster strikes the production system, we know that the recovery site
has all the data right up to the last block that was successfully written at the
production site. Synchronous replication ensures that there is no data lost in a
disaster, as long as the recovery site survives the disaster. (However, incomplete
transactions can still be rolled back when the recovery system is started, leading
to unavoidable loss of the data in those transactions, even with synchronous
replication.) But to make the latency for disk writes short enough, synchronous
replication is typically feasible only for sites that are separated by 96.5 km
(60 miles) or less. Above that separation, the wait for the write to the recovery
site slows the overall speed of the system significantly. The wait is a function of
the distance between sites, because signals can travel no faster than the speed
of light between sites. At more than 96.5 km (60 miles), the latency becomes too
great in many cases, although certain storage vendors are now extending this
distance to 290 km (180 miles).
For sites that are separated by more than 96.5 km (60 miles),
asynchronous
replication
is the choice. Asynchronous replication is not done in lock step, the
way that synchronous replication is. Instead, the local disk write is allowed to
complete before the write is completed to the second site. The update to the
second site is said to be done “asynchronously” from the local update, that is, not
in the same logical operation. This method frees the production system from the
performance drag of waiting for each disk write to occur at the remote site.
However, it opens a time window during which the production site data differs
from the recovery site copy. That difference represents data that is lost in a
disaster when asynchronous replication is used. In exchange for that data loss,
the two sites can be any distance apart, although the further apart they are, the
greater the typical data loss.
Storage vendors have devised a way to ensure no data loss over any distance,
however, by a configuration involving a third copy as shown in Figure 7-3 on
page 240. This solution requires a nearby synchronous replica and a remote
asynchronous replica. The data from the production site is replicated
synchronously to a backup site within 96.5 km (60 miles), which is Site 2 in
Figure 7-3 on page 240, and replicated asynchronously to a remote site, Site 3,
any distance away. As long as only one of the three sites is lost in a disaster, it is
always possible to recover all the data from the remaining two sites. In the
diagram in Figure 7-3 on page 240, if Site 1 is lost in a disaster, the synchronous

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
copy at Site 2 holds all the data up to the moment of the disaster. From there, the
data can be replicated asynchronously to Site 3, the actual recovery site,
therefore extending zero data loss all the way to Site 3. It works, but the added
replica and site can be expensive.
Figure 7-3 Zero data loss replication over any distance
Several vendors support an optimized version of the second site called a “
bunker

site
” where only the blocks not yet replicated are stored and no others. The list of
the blocks that have not yet been replicated is typically a small list, so a bunker
site can be configured with minimal storage space, which reduces the overall
cost of this solution. IBM Asynchronous Cascading Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy
(PPRC) is an example of this three-site zero data loss solution.
Comparing the replication options
What makes host-based or storage-based replication better than
database-based replication? First, storage-based replication has the advantage
that it allows a single replication product to be used for all data. With
database-based replication, the database is replicated separately from the rest of
the data, which can lead to inconsistency between the databases and the other
data stored in a file system, such as content data. Second, using a common
replication product for all data also simplifies the DR solution, which leads to less
required training of system administrators and less total cost of ownership
overall. Third, synchronous storage-based replication prevents any data loss
other than incomplete transactions. Database-based replication typically is
asynchronous and thus is vulnerable to more data loss in a disaster. Host-based
replication shares these three advantages over database-based replication.
Site 1
Site 2
Site 3
Synch
Asynch
Asynch
< 60 miles
Any distance

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Lastly, storage-based replication is implemented entirely by the storage device.
Database-based or host-based replication runs on the server and takes up
server resources. (Vendors of host-based replication products counter that the
load on the server is minimal and just a small percent.)
Why choose database-based replication over storage-based replication after you
see these disadvantages? The key reason is the lower recovery time that can
result from the database replica being in a cleaner state and therefore requiring
less recovery processing. A database replicated via its native replication facility is
always in a clean database transaction state, so no incomplete database
transactions have to be rolled back when the backup database is activated. This
allows the system to recover more quickly, which can be viewed as more critical
than a small amount of data inconsistency, when minimal recovery time is of
paramount importance. Moreover, if all the content and property data is stored in
the database, which is an option with the P8 Content Manager for small
deployments, database-based replication has no consistency disadvantage or
cost of ownership disadvantage.
7.5.2 Automated site failover
The second key technology that is used in many disaster recovery solutions is
automated site failover. Some software vendors offer a product to do this called a
global cluster option or a geographic cluster manager
. We use the generic term
global cluster manager here to distinguish it from geographically dispersed
clustering, which we described previously. Recall that geographically dispersed
clusters are still clusters in the sense of a heartbeat between the nodes and
failover if the active server fails; they just have the servers dispersed over a
distance as great as 96.5 km (60 miles). A global cluster manager, however,
extends an ordinary server cluster with the capability to oversee multiple sites
that are any distance apart. It manages local server clusters at each site, controls
replication between sites, and updates Domain Name System (DNS) servers to
redirect users to the recovery site system. Its major function is to automate most
or all of the process of failing over from a production site to a recovery site after a
disaster.
Most organizations prefer to have at least one manual decision step before
declaring a disaster, because of the gravity and cost of switching all operations
and users to a recovery site. But after that decision has been made, a global
cluster manager can automate the rest of the process. This is advantageous,
because automating the process reduces the chances of human error, makes the
process repeatable and testable, and thus increases the chances of a successful
site failover in the highly stressful period following a disaster. Symantec Veritas
Global Cluster Option is one example of a global cluster manager. The
Geographic Logical Volume Manager (GLVM) configuration of IBM PowerHA

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
SystemMirror® Enterprise Edition offers some global cluster management
features for the AIX platform.
In the absence of a global cluster manager, server command-line scripting is
another way to automate key parts of a site failover.
7.5.3 Disaster recovery approaches
IBM ECM Lab Services defines three common approaches for disaster recovery:
Build it when you need it.
Third-party hot site recovery service.
Redundant standby system.
Build it when you need it
The lowest cost approach, but the slowest and the hardest to test, is to build a
replacement system after a disaster has occurred. There is nothing in place prior
to a disaster, which makes it extremely low cost, but it allows no testing either.
This approach has an RTO of days to weeks.
Third-party hot site recovery service
The second approach is to contract with a third party for a hot site recovery
service. Third parties, such as SunGard, IBM, and HP, have shared recovery
sites around the world that you can reserve by contract for use in the event of a
disaster. This approach costs more than the first approach, of course, but it also
offers a shorter recovery time, because the site is equipped and hot at the point
of disaster. Data has to be restored at the hot site, but no hardware has to be
acquired or configured. The third-party providers include regular testing of
failover to their site as a part of their service. IBM ECM Lab Services has an
offering to assist you in setting up and testing the hot site and activating it in the
event of a disaster. This approach has an RTO of hours to days.
Redundant standby system
The third and most frequently chosen approach is a standby redundant system in
place at a client-owned and operated remote recovery site or at a third-party site.
This approach is the highest cost approach, because the cost of the redundant
system is not shared with anyone else. But it offers the shortest recovery time,
particularly if the data replica is constantly updated and available for use. It also
can be tested on a regular basis, which is in keeping with best practices for
ensuring that a disaster recovery plan will actually work as expected when
needed. This approach has an RTO of minutes to hours.

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Comparing the costs and technologies
No matter which of these DR options you choose, it is essential to have a copy of
the data off-site. Table 7-5 on page 244 summarizes the data backup or
replication choices and costs, as well as the recovery site choices. Table 7-5 on
page 244 shows the relationship between recovery time, recovery point, and the
type and cost of data replication required to achieve that recovery time and
recovery point. Like high availability choices, the choices for disaster recovery
become exponentially more expensive as RTO and RPO approach the
minimums of hours to minutes. The cost increase is due to the changes in
disaster recovery technologies required to meet increasingly more ambitious
recovery times and points.
For an RTO of three days or more, the minimum level of data replication, backing
up to tape, is sufficient. As we noted earlier, a form of point-in-time backup, such
as tape backup, is always required, regardless of RTO, as a means of recovering
from data corruption or accidental deletion. The solution is to retrieve the latest
backup tape or other point-in-time backup from the off-site storage location and
restore the data to a point in time prior to the corruption or deletion of the data.
Full data restoration from tape is a slow and laborious process, which typically
involves a full backup tape and a number of incremental backup tapes after that,
which takes days for completion. Backups are done periodically, usually once a
day, possibly multiple times a day, so the RPO for this minimum solution is hours
to days of lost data.
Periodic replication to off-site storage characterizes the next two solutions up the
cost curve with an increase in cost for communications links, but providing an
RPO and RTO of hours, not days. Periodic point-in-time backup to remote
storage, usually disk storage, is the first step up from standard local tape backup.
The next step up consists of shipping database or file system update logs to the
remote recovery site, where they are applied to a copy of the data to bring it
up-to-date with that log. These are both done on a periodic basis, but as the
period is shortened, it approaches the limit of continuous replication, which is the
next step up the cost curve.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Table 7-5 Range of disaster recovery solutions
The cost now starts to accelerate upward. As the name implies,
continuous
replication
is the process of replicating data to the recovery site as it changes,
that is, on a continuous basis. Near continuous and continuous replication greatly
decrease the potential for data loss when compared to periodic replication, which
brings the RPO down to seconds worth of data loss, or even zero data loss in
synchronous replication.
Disaster recovery time is similarly decreased with synchronous and
asynchronous replication, because the data is kept continuously in sync, or close
to it, at both sites. In the event of a disaster, no time is required to bring the data
up-to-date, as is the case with restoring from backup, periodic replication, or log
shipping, but time might be required for configuring and bringing up a duplicate of
the application environment on the replicated data. The RTO is in the range of
hours in that case, or, if a complete application environment is maintained at all
times at the recovery site, and global clustering is used to automate and speed
site failover, RTO can be in the range of just minutes.
Recovery time Recovery point Cost Technologies
Minutes to an hour Zero data loss $$$$$$$$$$$$$ Hot standby site,
synchronous
replication, or
global clustering
1 - 6 hours Minutes of data lost $$$$$$$$$ Hot or warm
standby site,
asynchronous
replication, or
global clustering
6 - 12 hours Hours of data lost $$$$$ Warm standby site,
continuous or
periodic
replication, or log
shipping
12 - 24 hours Hours to days of
data lost
$$$ Warm or cold
standby site, or
periodic backup to
remote storage
Days to weeks One or more days
of data lost
$ Cold or no standby
site, or nightly tape
backups shipped
off-site

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7.6 Best practices
Having defined the concepts of high availability and disaster recovery and having
detailed the key technologies and approaches used for HA and DR solutions,
what are the best practices for configuring P8 Content Manager for high
availability and disaster recovery from the available options and approaches?
Best practices for high availability
We start with high availability, which is summarized on the left side of Figure 7-4
on page 246. For P8 systems that will be accessed from an untrusted network,
including the public Internet, a DMZ is required for shielding the P8 system from
attack. Users or client applications on an untrusted network are shown on the far
left, with a DMZ interposed between them and the P8 system. The DMZ consists
of an external firewall shielding the DMZ from the untrusted network, a pair of
load-balanced HTTP servers behind the external firewall, and an internal firewall
shielding the internal, trusted network from the DMZ. The HTTP servers in the
DMZ intercept all HTTP traffic from the untrusted network and forward traffic (for
authenticated users only) through the internal firewall to the P8 system on the
trusted network.
External users typically use a URL address for the P8 web applications that
references a public HTTP port, such as port 80, by default. For authenticated
users, the HTTP servers in the DMZ map that public port to the specific private
port configured for the intended P8 web application, enabling the users’ requests
to be forwarded through the internal firewall to the P8 web application server.
The first part of the P8 architecture, to the right of the DMZ inside the trusted
internal network, is the web and presentation tier. For this tier, where the IBM
FileNet P8 Application Engine, WorkPlace, FileNet Workplace XT, and IBM
Content Navigator predefined web applications live, as well as custom
applications, the best practice is load-balanced server farms. All the servers in
this tier are active with incoming user/client HTTP requests directed to the load
balancer via virtual host names mapped to virtual IP addresses assigned to each
application, and then distributed by the load balancer across the servers running
those applications. IBM FileNet P8 eForms, IBM Enterprise Records, and IBM
Case Manager are all hosted on this tier as well and thus must be deployed in
load-balanced server farms for high availability.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 7-4 Recommendation for IBM FileNet P8 5.2
At the business logic tier, sometimes also called the
services tier
, the HA best
practices for the core P8 components shown in Figure 7-4 are all load-balanced
server farms. Only a few optional P8 components, not shown in Figure 7-4,
require active-passive server clustering because they do not support
active-active load balancing. Process Simulator is an example. (Many clients
choose not to make Process Simulator highly available, because it does not play
a runtime production role.)
Two or more P8 Content Platform Engine servers must be deployed in a
load-balanced server farm when high availability is required.
1
The Content
Platform Engine has been qualified with both hardware and software load
balancers.
EJB/IIOP
Web Server DMZ
IBM FileNet client web tier
E.g., IBM Content Navigator,
IBM Case Manager *,
IBM FileNet Workplace XT,
IBM FileNet Application Engine,
and/or custom web app
active-active,
WAS,
or WAS ND * cluster
active-active,
WAS ND
cluster
DB2 purescale
(or DB2 HADR *)
active-active
(or active-passive *)
N series
NAS
and/or
Snaplock
protected
storage
N series
SAN
SnapMirror
asynchronous
replication
with protection
groups
Disaster Recovery Data Center
(Standby)
Servers
mirroring
production,
with
redundancy
for HA
Production Data Center
(Active)
Scaled back
configuration,
without
redundancy
for HA
OR
Servers could be
used for Dev, QA,
staging, etc., then
rebooted in prod
mode for DR
active-active,
load-balanced by CPE
active-active,
proprietary load-
balancing
Rendition Engine
HTTP
HTTP
User/client 1
User/client n
HTTP
Content Platform
Engine
Content Search
Services
N series
SAN
N series
NAS
* IBM Case Manager 5.1.1 and
earlier requires WAS ND and
DB2 HADR for high availability;
WAS base and DB2 pureScale
are not supported by those
versions for HA.
Not shown but required for
disaster recovery:
Global load balancing or DNS
redirection to redirect users to
DR data center after a DR
failover.
Data-
bases
Files
Index
Data-
base
N series
NAS
and/or
Snaplock
protected
storage
N series
SAN
N series
SAN
N series
NAS
Data-
bases
Files
Index
Data-
base
1
Prior to P8 4.0, the Content Engine supported both farming and clustering for its Object Store
Services component, but only active-passive clustering for its File Store Services component.
Starting with P8 4.0, these components were unified and have since supported farming across the
board. Prior to P8 4.0, the Process Engine required active-passive server clustering for high
availability, but has also supported farming since P8 4.0. In P8 5.2, the Content Engine and
Process Engine were merged together into the Content Platform Engine.

Chapter 7. Business continuity
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Most client applications, such as IBM Content Navigator and IBM Case Manager,
use the Java EE EJB interface and transport when they access the Content
Platform Engine. They therefore impose a requirement on the Content Platform
Engine servers to be deployed on the clustering version of a Java EE application
server (WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment in WebSphere) in
order to provide the Java EE software load balancing required for the EJB
transport. Other client applications, such as IBM Content Collector, use the
content and process Web Services interface and transport when interacting with
the Content Platform Engine, and therefore require the deployment of HTTP load
balancing for the Content Platform Engine. So, the typical P8 system will require
both forms of load balancing, Java EE load balancing such as WebSphere
Application Server Network Deployment, and HTTP load balancing, for the
Content Platform Engine when it is deployed in a high availability configuration.
Figure 7-5 on page 248 shows both Java EE load balancing, in this case
implemented by WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment WLM, and
HTTP load balancing, in this case implemented by a pair of hardware load
balancers, for a pair of Content Platform Engine servers.
IBM FileNet Image Services repositories can be federated with the P8 Content
Manager via Content Federation Services. Image Services must be deployed in
active-passive server clusters for high availability; it does not support being
deployed in load-balanced server farms.
At the data tier, all the database servers can be deployed in active-passive server
clusters for HA, such as DB2 HADR. In addition, DB2 pureScale and Oracle RAC
are active-active load-balanced alternatives.
2
The Content Platform Engine
makes use of network file shares for file storage areas for content storage and
index areas for content-based search indexes, so the network file servers or NAS
devices underlying the Content Platform Engine file storage areas and index
areas need to be highly available as well. For a network file server, the typical HA
configuration is an active-passive server cluster; NAS devices typically have
internal support for either active-active or active-passive configurations for HA.
NAS devices are purpose-built for high performance and scalability, so they
generally scale and perform much better than generic server clusters providing a
network share to SAN storage.
Note: A Content Platform Engine deployment typically requires both Java EE
software load balancing via Java application server load balancing (for
example, WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment in
WebSphere), as well as HTTP load balancing via hardware or software load
balancing, when deployed for high availability.
2
IBM Case Manager 5.1.1 only supports active-passive database clusters, due to a Business Space
constraint.

248
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 7-5 High availability best practices for P8 5.2 with protocol detail
Best practices for disaster recovery
For disaster recovery, the best practice is dependent on RTO and RPO. In all
cases, point-in-time backup to tape or disk is the best practice for protection
against data corruption or accidental or malicious deletion. For any RTO/RPO
values less than days to weeks, we suggest data replication to a remote standby
site as a best practice, as shown in Figure 7-4 on page 246. At the high end, with
RTO and RPO in the range of minutes to hours, a dedicated warm standby
recovery site and automated site failover are the best practice, and near
continuous to continuous replication is also the best practice. Zero data loss
requires synchronous replication to a bunker site or intermediate site if the
distance to the remote recovery site is too great. For the absolute minimum RTO,
on the order of minutes, database-based replication, in addition to storage-based
or host-based replication for the other data, is the best practice. For the best data
consistency after a disaster, at the risk of adding minutes to an hour of database
recovery time to RTO, the use of a single replication mechanism for all data,
combined with consistency groups, is the best practice.
The best practice for redirecting the user community to the replacement systems
at the recovery site is via DNS updates or DNS load balancers such as f5 BIG-IP
Global Traffic Manager, Cisco Global Site Selector, or similar products from other
network device vendors. DNS aliases (CNAMES) must be used by the user’s
client computers to locate the P8 Content Manager services, so that the aliases
can be redirected after a disaster through DNS updates or DNS load balancing.
A
D
O
CIFS/NFS
JDBC
JDBC
CFS-IS/IS RPC
CLI
CEWS-PEWS/SOAP/HTTP
S
O
A
P
/
H
T
T
P
Web Server DMZ
HTML/HTTP
to P8 web client
SOAP/HTTP
for CEWS or PEWS
HW load
balancer
HTTP
RDBMS
Active-active DB2 pureScale
(or active-passive DB2 HADR *)
Storage for content, indexes
NAS or protected storage
P8 web client
Active-active
WAS,
or WAS ND * cluster
RMI/IIOP
CIFS/NFS
TCP/IP
EJB/IIOP
Web servers allow
only authenticated
users through the
internal firewall
CIFS/NFS/GPFS/API
P8 Rendition Engine
Active-active,
proprietary load balancing
P8 Content Search Services
P8 Content
Platform Engine
farm
Active-active
WAS ND cluster
CIFS/NFS/API
Image Services
Active-passive, e.g.
AIX/PowerHA
MSAR/ISDS
HW load
balancer
HW load
balancer
Active-active,
load-balanced by CPE
Files
TCP/IP
RDBMS - a/p or a/a
SAN
SAN
SAN
EJB
WLM
Active-active
IBM Content Navigator,
IBM Case Manager *,
Application Engine,
Workplace XT,
and/or custom web app
User/client 1
User/client n
* IBM Case Manager 5.1.1 and
earlier requires WAS ND and DB2
HADR for high availability; WAS base
and DB2 pureScale are not
supported by those versions for HA.

Chapter 7. Business continuity
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This redirection allows reconnection to the recovery site without making any
client computer changes. The DNS servers or DNS load balancers themselves
must be redundant, of course, to avoid being a single point of failure.
Combining HA and DR into a single solution
There is a common temptation to try to simplify business continuity by combining
high availability and disaster recovery into a single solution. The idea is to locate
a second site within the same metropolitan area as the production site and make
both sites active with each site having a full copy of the data. This is a workable
approach when the data being managed is essentially static, as in a corporate
website. Changes to the website are carefully reviewed and managed and then
pushed out to multiple hosting sites in parallel, and incoming user requests can
be load-balanced across the sites. If one of the sites goes down or even is lost in
a disaster, user requests can be directed to the other site for continuous access
to the largely static content (assuming the second site is far enough away to be
out of the disaster’s impact zone).
Why does this approach not work with Content Manager? The key is the nature
of the data and how it must be managed. P8 Content Manager, as the name
suggests, is designed to manage rapidly changing and growing collections of
data that are being accessed and modified in parallel by users across an
enterprise. Unlike the largely static data of a corporate website, which is
published or released to the site in a carefully controlled authoring and
information publication process, content in a typical P8 Content Manager object
store is being collaboratively authored, enhanced, deleted, created, and
processed in a dynamic manner under transaction control to avoid conflicting
changes. As a result, only a single active copy of the data can be online and
changeable at any point in time so that transaction locking can be enforced and
changes are saved in a safe, consistent manner. Therefore, the basic idea of two
sites, in which each site has an active copy of all the content, is not the best
practice for a transactional system. It is not supported by the P8 Content
Manager.
A related temptation is to deploy a disaster recovery solution with a standby
(inactive) copy of the data at the recovery site and depend on this single solution
for both high availability and disaster recovery. This can be done with P8 Content
Manager, but there is a clear trade-off that you need to carefully consider.
Relying on a disaster recovery configuration for high availability compromises the
availability target for the system, because any failure leads to a full site failover as
though the entire production site had been lost in a disaster. A site failover is a
time-consuming, complicated process that necessarily takes much longer than a
single server failing over to a local passive server in a cluster, and even longer
than the nearly instantaneous switch to another, already-active server in a server
farm when a server fails in that farm. The net result is that high availability (in the

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
range of 99.9% and higher) is not reachable when every local failure triggers a
full site failover (and later a full site failback to return to a protected state).
How about using geographically dispersed farms and clusters, that is, with the
farms and clusters split between the two sites? If one server fails, the server at
the other site takes over, either coming up at the time of failure in an
active-passive server cluster or simply taking on redirected client requests in
server farms. Again, there is an availability trade-off because of the added risk of
communication problems between the two sites. We do not recommend
geographically dispersed farms and clusters as best practice because of the
added risk and higher networking costs.
So the best practice is to deploy local server farms and clusters for high
availability in order to provide for continuing service in the event of local
component failures and to deploy a second site with data replication and,
optionally, global clustering, to provide for rapid recovery from disasters. The best
practice is to locate the recovery site outside the disaster impact zone of the
production site.
7.7 Reference documentation
For additional information on high availability, see the IBM FileNet Version 5.2
Information Center section devoted to high availability:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.sysove
rview.doc/p8pha001.htm
See the IBM Redbooks publication IBM High Availability Solutions for IBM
FileNet P8 Systems, SG24-7700, for more details on P8 (and IS) high availability
deployments:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247700.html?Open
See the IBM Redbooks publication Disaster Recovery and Backup Solutions for
IBM FileNet P8 Version 4.5.1 Systems, SG24-7744, for more details on P8 (and
IS) disaster recovery deployments:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247744.html?Open

Chapter 7. Business continuity
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See “Images Services 4.1.2 High Availability Procedures and Guidelines.” This
document describes both high availability via clustering software (Microsoft
Cluster Server or Veritas Cluster Server) and disaster recovery via data
replication software (Veritas Volume Replicator - see Appendix C) for Image
Services:
ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/software/data/cm/filenet/docs/isdoc/412x/HAC
luster.pdf

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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
253
Chapter 8.
Capacity planning with IBM
Content Capacity Planner
In this chapter, we briefly discuss capacity planning and the use cases for the
IBM Enterprise Content Manager system capacity planning tool. This tool is
called IBM Content Capacity Planner, formerly known as Scout.
We cover the following topics:
IBM Content Capacity Planner:
– Example use cases for IBM Content Capacity Planner
– Capacity planning for new systems
– IBM Content Capacity Planner output
– Predictions from a baseline
– Best practices
IBM FileNet Disksizing Tool spreadsheet
Performance-related reference documentation:
– Standard product documentation
– Benchmark papers
8

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
8.1 IBM Content Capacity Planner
When you introduce a new system or extend an existing one, choosing the
correct hardware is an important consideration in your planning. The IBM sales
team supports you in planning the capacity of the system during this phase.
The marketing team uses IBM Content Capacity Planner to model transactions
and to obtain answers to various questions:
Based on the projected use of the IBM FileNet ECM system, what servers are
needed?
Given a certain hardware configuration, how busy will the servers be?
IBM Content Capacity Planner is generally used by IBM FileNet ECM System
Engineers, IBM FileNet ECM Lab Services, and IBM FileNet ECM Partners.
After modeling a workload, IBM Content Capacity Planner produces utilization
reports that show the demand placed upon a certain set of hardware by that
workload.
Figure 8-1 illustrates the basic modeling process for capacity planning.
Figure 8-1 Basic modeling process for capacity planning
OK
NOK
Adjust
Select
hardware
Define
workload
Examine
utilization
Refine
Document
and present
Transform
(automatic)
Input OutputProcessing

Chapter 8. Capacity planning with IBM Content Capacity Planner
255
IBM Content Capacity Planner uses at least two input sources. One is the
hardware configuration, and the other is the defined workload that consists of
one or multiple transactions. The output from IBM Content Capacity Planner
consists of performance charts. If the system utilization of all components is
below a threshold, the system is deemed adequate to meet the workload
requirements. The results are documented. If system utilization is at or above the
threshold, you need to change the hardware configuration.
When defining a workload in a presales situation, the details of a model might not
be obvious. Therefore, it might be easiest to develop your general model first and
refine it as you learn more details.
You might want to start with a moderate hardware configuration. When defining
your workload, after each transaction, you can immediately see the result in the
chart and scale the hardware with the transactions. This provides a better
understanding of the cost per modeled transaction. However, there is a chart
option to view utilization by transaction function to get the explicit cost per
modeled transaction function.
When modeling the workload, IBM Content Capacity Planner provides a
walk-through wizard for a quick start that helps you to configure the basic
parameters of the components that you want to size. We found it useful to use
the wizard and save the result to another file. The wizard helps you learn which
transaction functions to add to your workload but it creates a simplified model.
Some of the lesser used functions can only be obtained by manually adding them
to your workload from the Transaction Templates in the tree view.
8.1.1 Example use cases for IBM Content Capacity Planner
Use IBM Content Capacity Planner to help you prepare for the following tasks:
A new system is planned, and you need to select the hardware.
During a system implementation, the IBM Content Capacity Planner sizing is
refined reflecting the latest requirements.
An existing system is extended. Additional users and additional applications
are rolled out.
An existing system needs to be migrated to new hardware. This can occur in
conjunction with reorganization and moving into new buildings, system
consolidation, new outsourcing contracts, or simply replacing outdated
hardware.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
The current system needs to be analyzed. For example, a client wants to
know what additional workload the system can handle or requests a detailed
performance analysis. In this case, current production data is available and
can be used by IBM Content Capacity Planner.
8.1.2 Capacity planning for new systems
In this section, we list typical questions for sizing a system.
In Chapter 2, “Solution examples and design methodology” on page 17, the
following P8 Content Manager solutions were introduced: policy document
management process, invoice archiving, email archiving, insurance claim
processing, and social enterprise content management. Each solution focuses
on a different functionality:
Versioning and document management
Scanning and processing via a business process and records management
High volume ingestion and storage using IBM Content Collector
Ingestion, storage, and compliance
Social features of IBM FileNet Content Manager in conjunction with IBM
Connections
Each system sizing is individual. Avoid the “one fits all” approach after sizing one
initial IBM FileNet Content Manager environment. Each solution is built to fulfill
defined functional requirements and has a different sizing of required hardware,
number of CPUs, memory, disk capacity, and network bandwidth.
We concentrate on general sizing questions. The typical questions to ask the
client when preparing to size a system usually fit into the following categories:
Client environment
Content ingestion
User activities
Configuring records management
Business process management specifics
Client environment
The following list provides questions to ask during sizing that are related to the
client environment:
Does the client prefer specific hardware? If yes, which vendor?
Are there standard machine types that the client wants to use? If yes, what is
the standard server, which processor, and how many CPUs?
What application server will be used?
What database server will be used?

Chapter 8. Capacity planning with IBM Content Capacity Planner
257
What are the default working hours? You can overwrite this default value in
each transaction if needed.
Content ingestion
The following list provides questions to ask during sizing that are related to
content ingestion:
If content is ingested through scanning:
– What are the scanning hours?
– What is the average number of scanned documents during the scanning
hours?
– What is the total number of documents usually scanned?
– What is the average size (in KB) of a scanned document?
– In how many batches are these scanned documents processed?
– How many documents are in a batch?
If content is ingested through file import:
– What are the importing hours?
– What is the average number of documents imported during that time?
– What is the total number of documents usually imported?
– What is the average size (in KB) of an imported file?
If ingested content is email via IBM Content Collector for Emails:
– Will original emails be archived?
– What is the average email size (in KB)?
– What is the average properties set?
– What is the number of duplicate email pointers?
– What is the number of original attachments?
– What is the number of duplicate attachment pointers?
– What is the average size of attachments (in KB)?
User activities
After the content is ingested, corresponding actions are started. The content can
be processed by IBM Case Foundation or simply stored and used for retrieval
later. A user can work on the content using a custom application or FileNet
Workplace XT. How the user uses the content might determine the sizing of the
system.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
The following questions relate to user activities:
For logon and logoff activities:
– How many times does a user generally log on and log off per day or per
week?
– Are there peak hours of logon and logoff activities during the day or during
the week?
– Are there different logon and logoff behaviors for different users (for
example, are there different behaviors for power users compared to
occasional users)?
For search, browsing, and retrieval activities (the same questions can be
asked for different user groups):
– At what times do browsing and retrieval take place?
– Are there peak hours during the day?
– Are there deadlines (such as all orders have to be reviewed by noon)?
– What is the average document size of the documents to be retrieved?
– How many searches are usually performed per day?
– How many documents are returned on average per search action?
– How many custom properties (metadata fields) are retrieved on average
per document?
– How many folders are browsed on average per day by a user?
– How many folders are accessed via a bookmark?
– How many documents are retrieved per day by a user?
For new document creation:
– Will new documents be created evenly during the work hours?
– How many documents on average will be created during the work hours?
– What is the average document size (in KB)?
For check-out and check-in activities:
– Will check-out and check-in be distributed evenly during the work hours?
– What is the number of documents checked out and in during the work
hours?
– What is the average document size (in KB)?
Note: After documents are checked out, they usually are viewed. This
viewing is modeled as an additional retrieval.

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For metadata modification activities:
– Are there major updates of metadata? If yes, in what time frame?
– How many documents are usually updated during the working hours?
– Before they are updated, how many properties are retrieved?
Configuring records management
We distinguish records management actions by the Records Manager role and
by the users who declare records. Records can be declared through a system
step in a business process or manually by users. Ask the following questions
when sizing an IBM FileNet P8 records management solution:
For Records Managers:
– What is the logon and logoff pattern of the Records Managers?
– How many searches for records are performed in a certain time period?
– How many browse actions in the file plan are performed?
– How many times are details retrieved? Examples of details are access
security, detail, history, holds, and so on.
For general users who declare records:
– How many existing documents are declared as records in a certain time
period?
– How many new documents are declared as records in a certain time
period?
Business process management
If the solution involves business process management, ask the following
questions for each workflow:
What is the time pattern for launching workflows?
How many metadata fields does the workflow contain?
What is the average field length (in bytes) of the metadata?
How many workflows are launched in the time pattern?
How many user steps does a workflow contain?
How many system steps does a workflow contain?
How often are workflow fields updated?
How often are users updating their views?
Note: IBM Techline provides dedicated ECM sizing questionnaires that cover
all these questions and many more questions for other IBM FileNet products:
Industry Solutions ECM Sizing Questionnaire Oct2012, PRS5034
IBM FileNet P8 Platform Sizing Questionnaire Jan2012, PRS3071

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8.1.3 IBM Content Capacity Planner output
For every server and certain infrastructure components, IBM Content Capacity
Planner produces a utilization chart for one day. The system is adequately
handling the workload if the CPU utilization is below 40%. This threshold is used,
because response time is exponential, not linear (Queuing Theory).
By sizing the system for 40%, the system can handle temporary peaks with
acceptable wait times. Figure 8-2 shows a sample output of IBM Content
Capacity Planner with the threshold at 0.4 (40%).
Figure 8-2 Sample IBM Content Capacity Planner output
You can see the Content Platform Engine load throughout the day. In the morning
hours between 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m., the system load is higher due to
scanning activities. From 11:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., the activity level is lower,
because only retrieval and processing activities occur. Between 3 a.m. and
4 a.m., prefetching takes place. Documents that are needed for the next day are
retrieved and loaded into the cache for better performance.

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8.1.4 Predictions from a baseline
When sizing a new system, IBM Content Capacity Planner converts a certain
workload to utilization data for a selected, dedicated kind of server.
If you are sizing a system upgrade, you already have current data (an existing
baseline) available on which you can perform additional modeling. Examples are
migration to new hardware, added applications, or added users.
The first step is to collect baseline data for the involved systems. For the Content
Platform Engine baseline, you use the System Manager Dashboard. A
dashboard
is a tool for gathering performance data and provides current Content
Platform Engine utilization data. If an Image Services system is also involved,
data can be exported by the integrated performance data collecting function
(perf_mon). The baseline data can be imported to IBM Content Capacity
Planner, and the utilization data can be used as the basic workload.
Regular capacity planning is important for business continuity. All baseline data
must be taken and analyzed on a regular basis. That information is helpful in
forecasting upgrades of the actual IBM FileNet environment at the client site.
Schedules for upgrades of hardware and software are planned and managed
with minimum or no interruption to the production system during normal working
hours.
Figure 8-3 is an extension of the capacity planning process. It includes the
collection and importation of baseline data from running systems.
Figure 8-3 Import from a baseline
OK
NOK
Adjust
Select
hardware
Define
workload
Examine
utilization
Refine
Document
and present
Transform
(automatic)
Collect and
import
Input OutputProcessing

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For example, we show an existing IBM FileNet P8 system, including IBM FileNet
Image Services. The client is planning to roll out another application on Content
Platform Engine that is expected to double its workload. In addition to that, a
third-party application is installed that adds about 20% additional load.
For modeling purposes, we import the current Content Platform Engine utilization
with a factor of two, import the Image Services utilization, and add an application
that accounts for an increased workload of 20%.
Figure 8-4 shows the utilization for the Image Services system.
Figure 8-4 Utilization of an Image Services system
The chart shows the workload summary after importing the three workload
profiles: one for Content Platform Engine, one for the Image Server, and one for
the additional third-party application. The various colors represent single
services that run simultaneously. The chart illustrates the imported workload
together with the new application workload.

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The result is that with the additional application, the Image Services server,
exceeds its threshold at 7:30 a.m. It needs to be scaled up with two additional
CPUs.
8.1.5 Best practices
The following bullets summarize several recommendations when working with
IBM Content Capacity Planner:
When initially performing an IBM Content Capacity Planner sizing, the client
will not have the exact answer to all of the questions; therefore, make
assumptions and document them. Get the clients to sign off on the
assumptions used for sizing. Be conservative when making assumptions.
Configure the system for peak loads.
Add a document to the IBM Content Capacity Planner calculations describing
which data was provided by the client, which assumptions were made, and
what the IBM Content Capacity Planner output was. Also, document how the
IBM Content Capacity Planner input fields were calculated from the data
given by the client. This helps you to review an IBM Content Capacity Planner
calculation after a certain amount of time and helps you to understand why
transactions were modeled in a particular way at a later refinement.
Use project variables to ensure consistency throughout your transactions.
When you start, you might want to choose medium performance hardware to
better see the effects of the configured transactions.
If you are unsure about the parameters of a transaction, use the online help.
Use the Help topic icon that lists the details quickly.
Split a complex scenario into several steps to reduce complexity.
After changing parameters, immediately check the output to learn what effect
the change has created, which gives you an idea of the costs of the
transactions.
Common mistakes are defining workload hourly instead of daily (and
therefore creating eight times the load) or making mistakes when entering the
number of transactions (for example, entering 1,000,000 instead of 100,000).
If the system looks misconfigured, change the chart to the Average Utilization
view instead of the Transaction Functions view. The Average Utilization view
allows you to compare the utilization by function and helps you to localize the
function that most influences the system load.

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Figure 8-5 shows an example in which the Content Platform Engine is under a
heavy load.
Figure 8-5 Content Platform Engine under heavy load (utilization is more than 90%)
We want to discover what transaction led to the workload. So, we switch to the
Transaction Functions view. Figure 8-6 on page 265 shows the result and the
transaction responsible for the workload.

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265
Figure 8-6 Transactions Function view (showing the transactions causing the workload)
As shown in Figure 8-6, we see that the IBM FileNet P8 4.x Java Create
Documents transaction creates the most intense workload. When verifying with
the system, in this example, we realize a typographical error in the number of
input documents and correct it.
With the correction made, we see in Figure 8-7 on page 266 that the system
operates well under the threshold.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 8-7 Normal system workload
For international users, two troubleshooting tips might be helpful:
If you encounter IBM Content Capacity Planner runtime errors, change the
regional settings of the operating system to English.
Do not use region-specific special characters. If you do, IBM Content
Capacity Planner might not be able to open the files and informs you at which
line the problem occurs. In that case, you can edit the IBM Content Capacity
Planner files (.sct), which are in XML format, to remove the special
characters.
8.2 IBM FileNet Disksizing Tool spreadsheet
In addition to sizing hardware by calculating the utilization, which was derived
from a modeled workload, another important point is the sizing of disk space for
the managed content. The IBM FileNet P8 Disksizing Tool spreadsheet enables
you to enter key system values, and then, it produces the estimated required disk
space.

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267
Figure 8-8 shows an extract of the spreadsheet that contains the input system
values and the output, which is the estimated disk space required for IBM FileNet
Content Platform Engine and additional components.
Figure 8-8 Extract of IBM P8 Disksizing Tool spreadsheet
There are also several additional sizing spreadsheets provided by IBM for other
IBM FileNet P8 products.
8.3 Performance-related reference documentation
In this section, we provide additional references about where to find
performance-related material.
P8 Disksizing Tool for the Content Engine and Process Engine
Version 2.3 Beta About
Enter values for the sections in green. Appropriate disk size
s
will be displayed in the yellow sections.Assumption
s
Global settings
Headroom
1.25
Search Engine
CSS
Concurrent active collections for Search Engine
5
CSE Maximum Collection Size
8.0
CSS Maximum Index (Collection) Size Criteria
Max Ob
j
ects
p
er Index
CSS Max Size
p
er Index
(
Collection
)
100.0
CSS Max Objects per Index (Collection)
8.0
CSS Object stores for CM
1
CSS Batch size for CM
100.00
CSS Threads for CM
4.00
CSS Object stores for ICC
1.00
CSS Batch size for ICC
100.00
CSS Threads for ICC
4
Index to Content Ratios for various file types
22%
20%
25%
25%
50%
Content Manager
How many objects associated with content will be stored?
1.00
How many custom objects will be stored?
1.00
How many versions of each object will there be?
1

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8.3.1 Standard product documentation
This documentation is available for IBM FileNet P8 Content Manager:
IBM FileNet P8 Performance Tuning Guide
Provides information about tuning parameters that can help improve the
performance of your IBM FileNet P8 system. This document covers operating
system, database, and application server parameters and IBM FileNet P8
component parameters to help you tune an existing system. You can retrieve
this white paper directly from the following website:
ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/software/data/cm/filenet/docs/p8doc/50x/p
850_performance_tuning.pdf
IBM FileNet P8 Performance Tuning
There are several web pages that provide additional information for improving
the performance of IBM FileNet P8 components. Go to the following website:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.per
formance.doc/p8ppt000.htm
For the latest performance-related documentation and technical papers, go to
the product documentation website for the IBM FileNet P8 Platform:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=86&uid=swg27036917
8.3.2 Benchmark papers
These papers are system performance tests of specific configurations performed
either by independent companies or in the IBM FileNet test environment. All
these documents are only available for IBM technical sales, IBM lab services, or
IBM Business Partners. For more details, contact with your IBM Sales Team or
IBM Business Partner.
8.4 Conclusion
This chapter offers a brief look of the concept and process to define and size
hardware, network bandwidth, and storage by using IBM Content Capacity
Planner. It also offers hints about the input information that is needed to size the
environment with IBM FileNet Content Manager.
Note: The sizing with IBM Content Capacity Planner will only be as good as
the provided input information.

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269
Now that you have a general understanding of how to plan and lay out an IBM
FileNet Content Manager environment, we explore the basic deployment
concepts of IBM FileNet Content Manager in Chapter 9, “Deployment” on
page 271.

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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
271
Chapter 9.
Deployment
In this chapter, we describe the deployment for your IBM FileNet Content
Manager solution. We provide advice about how to automate deployment from
organizational and technical points of view. We describe the repository design
elements and the repository infrastructure components that are part of a FileNet
Content Manager solution.
When you read through this chapter, you will understand the deployment of a
FileNet Content Manager system.
The chapter will give you the following insights:
Overview
Deployment by using a formal methodology
Deployment approaches
Deployment based on cloning
Deployment by export, transform, and import
FileNet Content Manager deployment
Summary
9

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
9.1 Overview
Why is deployment important to you?
The most important reason is to ensure consistency in two areas:
Ensure consistency in your deployment.
Ensure consistency of the metadata model across the environments and in
different stages.
Deployment has different technical meanings. For instance, if you talk to your
WebSphere Application Server administrator, the administrator will mostly
associate deployment with web or enterprise application deployment via IBM
WebSphere Network Deployment Manager Console. As another example, in the
IBM Case Manager product, deployment refers to the process of migrating and
installing an IBM Case Manager solution that was developed in one environment
into another environment.
In this chapter, we discuss the following aspects of deployment:
FileNet Content Manager data model deployment
FileNet Content Manager repository deployment
Discuss the technical and organizational dependencies of FileNet Content
Manager deployments in general
In the following sections, you will get information that deployment is defined as a
collection of related assets used in an application. At the end, the assets will be
packaged together and delivered as an application solution. Therefore, we will
treat this package as a solution and talk about solution deployment.
Each deployment starts with the following questions and considerations:
Which objects need to be deployed?
What is the source and the destination?
This chapter describes deployment methods and approaches. It provides details
about the tools and features available in the IBM products that can be used in the
deployment process.
The deployment discussed in this chapter does not cover content migration,
upgrade scenarios, or switching to a different platform. Chapter 11, “Upgrade and
migration” on page 371 covers some topics regarding upgrading to the current
release of FileNet Content Manager as of this writing.
Note: This chapter assumes that you are performing the deployment.

Chapter 9. Deployment
273
The next section gives us an overview about technical environments and their
organizational role in our deployment strategy.
9.2 Deployment environments
With multiple environments, more people can work on different tasks
simultaneously without interfering with each other. For example, you can have an
environment for developers to create code, an environment for developers to
perform functional testing, and another testing environment for system
integrators to test everything. Every company needs a production environment in
which only tested and deployed software runs. Development and testing
must
not
be done in the production environment.
Synchronizing the various environments becomes a new challenge. You want to
make sure that every environment behaves identically after having the same
changes applied. This verification ensures that no surprises occur after deploying
to the production environment. Of course, because development and even the
test environments usually do not have the same hardware as the production
environment, performance and load test results typically differ.
9.2.1 Single stage development environment
A single stage development environment is a FileNet Content Manager
development system installed manually or by using Composite Platform
Installation Tool (CPIT). Refer to 3.1.9, “Setting up a sandbox or demo
environment” on page 49 for more information about CPIT.
Typically, this environment is disconnected from the destination environment
where you want to deploy your solution. To be able to test deployment to a
different environment, you can create additional object stores within the same
FileNet Content Manager domain. The main purpose is to perform a
regression
test
of your solution before it is deployed to the disconnected destination
environment. These additional object stores will simulate the object stores
targeted by the deployment process in the destination environment for the
solution. The additional object store is often called the
target object store
and the
destination environment is also called the
target environment
.
Recommendations: Create at least one additional object store in your
development environment to simulate the deployment of your solution to
another environment.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Another reason to have several object stores in each environment is so that your
repository design objects are separate from your data object store when the
application runs. In your design object store, you have no instantiated application
or solution data. This is advantageous in that you have no technical constraints
by deleting a property or changing repository design objects. The repository
where the design objects are stored is also called a
metastore
. For more
information about designing a metastore, see Chapter 4, “Repository design” on
page 81. IBM Case Manager maintains a metastore automatically for you and is
part of the solution design process that is seamlessly integrated in the solution
deployment model. In IBM Case Manager, the design object store acts as the
metastore.
For more information about IBM Case Manager, see this website:
http://www.ibm.com/software/advanced-case-management/case-manager
9.2.2 Multi-stage deployment environments
The term
environment
in this section describes a collection of servers that
typically belong to one FileNet Content Manager domain for one particular
purpose. The purpose can be development, regression testing, acceptance
testing, load testing, performance testing, or production.
Typical projects split their infrastructure into at least three environments:
Development
User acceptance, testing, and quality assurance
Production
While trying to isolate phases of the software development cycle into different
environments, the complexity of maintaining different stages becomes
challenging.
Recommendations: Development must not be done in the
same environment

as the production site or test site. Segregating these activities in different
environments avoids the introduction of unwanted configuration changes or
code changes by developers before those changes are ready to be tested or
put into production. Furthermore, we highly advise that you use the same
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) foundation across all stages
except the development environment. We discuss the security later in
“Exporting user and group information” on page 306.
Note: Maintain deployment in an organized manner to ensure consistency in
any case.

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275
Larger companies tend to add these additional environments to the basic three
environments identified earlier:
Performance testing
Training
Staging
You might add more environments for the following reasons:
A need to mitigate risks associated with multiple projects running at the same
time interfering with each other, while retaining the ability to reproduce errors
from the production system in a test environment
A need for multiple training environments so that many people can be
educated in a short period of time
The more environments that you have, the more important it is to maintain and
synchronize them correctly.
The segregation of environments by the FileNet Content Manager domain is a
best practice. The isolation achieved by this approach is optimal to allow people
to work simultaneously and independently on the same project but in different
phases without adversely affecting each other. In particular, giving each
environment its own FileNet Content Manager domain makes it easy to grant
domain-wide permissions in each environment to different groups. For example,
developers can be given full permission to configuration objects in the
development environment but no permission to configuration objects in the
production environment.
The next section provides guidance to set up a formal deployment process
before you start using the IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility in later
sections.
9.3 Deployment by using a formal methodology
Establish clear guidelines and common processes for the deployment to ensure
that you have the ability to consistently deploy an application. The explanations
and graphics in this section will help you to achieve this goal.
In this section, we focus on the following areas of common process management
to establish a common understanding of deployment in a software development
project:
Release management
Change management
Configuration management

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 9-1 provides an overview of a standard software development process.
Figure 9-1 Overview of the processes for software development
Release
Planning
Gather
Requirements
Development
Design and
Development
phase
Release
Backlog
Build and
Regression
testing 1..n
Release
build 1..n
Iteration 1..n
Testing
Quality
review 1..n
Regression
test
Useraccept
ance test
Release
accepted
Rollout
planning
Ready to
implement
release
Production
Verification
Regression
test
Rollout
completed
Implement
release

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277
Figure 9-1 on page 276 shows three phases of a software development lifecycle:
development, testing, and production. Each phase can correspond to one or
more individual environments. This lifecycle is the groundwork for our
deployment strategy.
In each phase, the regression testing has a different focus. In development, your
automated regression test is done on your local resources. You cannot map
these results to another environment. You will get a statement about the
functional verification test (FVT) in development. In testing, you can perform
system verification testing (SVT) with load and performance tests to get the
business requirements verified and qualified. In production, a short functional
verification test is typically performed by starting the application and creating test
data that has no impact on the production environment and must be reversible.
The illustration in Figure 9-1 on page 276 also shows that a change management
process is indispensable.
How do you document deployment requirements in a change request as the
deployer? As a best practice in typical client situations, you include at least one
spreadsheet with multiple worksheets inside that are added to your change
management system. This deployment sheet allows you to track the changes
that you made across the stages. It also provides detailed history about the
implementation schedules and results. We agree that it is absolutely crucial to
have a good change management process in place be able to track the same
level of detail also for the non-production environments.
In the next sections, we present more details about release, change, and
configuration management, as well as testing, before we dive into a discussion of
moving the applications from development to production. To understand how
deployment works, it is important that you understand how a software
development process works.
Note: Development or change running directly on production without using the
staging-based approach is a
bad practice
and can cause loss of consistency.
Recommendations: In each environment, always create test data in a
dedicated storage area that has no special requirements for retention or
security and that is separate from the production storage. You must sanitize
the production data that is used as test data for FVT/SVT in each environment.

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9.3.1 Release management
Today, it is popular to run component-based architectures (Java EE and .NET
applications) and service-oriented architectures (SOA). These approaches
transform the enterprise into a highly interoperable and reusable collection of
services that are positioned to better adapt to ever-changing business needs.
For example, typically, you can implement a web service that is reused and
called by different components of our applications. This can be also a workflow
that was exposed by using a WebSphere Service Registry and Repository.
As architectural approaches lead to more reuse and separation, the development
of enterprise applications continues to require well-defined processes and more
tiers of technology. As a result, certain areas of enterprise application
development increase in complexity. In enterprise development (for example,
Java EE and .NET), software vendors have made many efforts to reduce this
complexity. They provide advanced code generation and process automated
tooling and simplify complex aspects of enterprise development through the use
of proven design patterns and best practices.
One way to meet this challenge is by introducing the role of a
release manager
. In
most large companies, this role becomes crucial for large-scale deployments. A
release manager is not always one person and can be implemented as a team
with diverse technical skills. Additionally, some tasks are distributed to different
teams within the company or to external partners as a result of the release
management process.
A software release manager is responsible for handling the following tasks and
requests:
Risk assessment
Deployment and packaging
Patch management (commercial or customized bug fixes)
For example: operating systems, application servers, and FileNet Content
Manager fixes
From the software development area:
– Software change requests (modifications)
– New function requests (additional features and functions)
Note: It is important to understand the business and technical requirements
and to implement them in a systematic and formal way. In a deployer role, you
often only get to work with the technical requirements.

Chapter 9. Deployment
279
From the quality assurance (quality of code) area:
– Software defects of custom code/commercial code
– Testing (code testing)
Software configuration management (the rollout of new custom application
releases, hardware, and supplier software upgrades)
Select one or more of these roles and match them to job functions in your
company to manage deployment.
Later sections of this chapter describe the use of IBM FileNet Deployment
Manager. It is important to understand and create a sequence of activities first as
a part of the deployment planning.
In general,
release management
relates to the features and functions of the
software; how the software is designed, developed, packaged, documented,
tested, and deployed.
A solid release management process can produce the following documentation:
Project plan
Release notes
Test matrix, test plan, and test results
Installation scripts and documentation
Support documentation
User documentation
Training material
Operations documentation
The following documentation and information can help the release manager for a
FileNet Content Manager solution perform release management tasks:
Hardware and software compatibility matrices from all involved vendors of
your solution.
Release notes, technotes, and the latest fix packs with their descriptions.
Available export and import options to deploy the solution between
development and production environments.
Search and replace scripts used to prepare exported assets for use in the
target environment where object stores, users, or groups differ from the
source environment. Tools required for needed data transformations.
Deployment guidelines in the IBM FileNet P8 Information Center
Online help

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
In addition, the IBM Rational® product line from IBM can be helpful in supporting
release management, change management, and testing:
http://www.ibm.com/software/rational
Release management delegates several of the underlying support processes to
the change and configuration management that is discussed in 9.3.2, “Change
management” on page 281 and 9.3.3, “Configuration management” on
page 286.
A
release
can consist of multiple components in specific configurations of the
involved components. Release management handles the validation of
combinations of application releases, commercial components, customized
components, and others. While a specific component is developed on the basis
of a concrete version of its underlying commercial application programming
interface (API), at the moment of deployment to production, this combination
might have changed in the bigger context of our solution. The management of
combinations of versions of involved components is a time-consuming activity
and needs to be scheduled and planned carefully and early.
Another aspect of release management deals with objects that have been
created in production that affect the configuration of the solution and might affect
deployment. In FileNet Content Manager solutions, these types of objects include
folder structures, entry templates, search templates, and others. Release
management must have a strategy in place to handle or restrict bidirectional
deployment between multiple environments.
We talked about the role of release manager and their organizational tasks in a
FileNet Content Manager deployment process. The release manager works with
the change coordinator that we describe in the next section of this chapter.
Recommendations: Have a strategy in place to handle or restrict changes to
the production environment that might affect the overall solution configuration
and future deployment. Have a policy that all application changes must be
made first in development and test environments, then deployed to production.
Typically, a bidirectional deployment is only defined between a development
environment and a testing environment.

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281
9.3.2 Change management
In most organizations, change management is the process of overseeing,
coordinating, and managing all changes to the following areas:
Hardware
System software
All documentation and procedures associated with running, supporting, and
maintaining production systems
In the previous section, we discussed the role of the release manager. In this
section, we describe the change coordinator role.
With FileNet Content Manager solutions, there are two important points
associated with change management:
The number and details of configuration items needed for a proper
deployment
The creation of an impact analysis to evaluate the effect of the deployment on
the satellite systems (Table 9-1)
Table 9-1 Shows a sample impact analysis worksheet
Table 9-1 shows an example communication between the change coordinator
role and a FileNet Content Manager solution development team. It shows
information that is needed to create change requests that relate to different
deployment types. In this sample sheet, the change coordinator first identifies the
type of deployment used. This worksheet indicates that three IT departments
(A,B, and C) of the company will potentially be affected by the entire master
change.
Type Component Name Task
description
Tool Package Notes
A Property
template
MyProperty1 Remove
default
value
FDM 004_SRC_TGT_A
_
Properties_
YYYY_MM_DD
FDM import
option
always
update
B Stored
procedure
MyProcedureA
B
Replace DB2-CLI 004_SRC_TGT_B
_
MyProcedureAB_
YYYY_MM_DD
Delete all
previous
versions
C Web
service
MyWebService
3
Deploy WAS
console
004_SRC_TGT_C
_
MyWebService3_
YYYY_MM_DD
Uninstall old
web service
first

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The package column shows an example of a naming convention:
DEPLOYNO_SRCSYSTEM_TARGETSYSTEM_TYPE_NAME_TIMESTAMP
With this naming convention, the change requester, if a complaint is made, can
determine the package that caused the query. The owner of the deployer role can
find the associated log files and change comments. For more information about
naming conventions, see 4.3, “Repository naming standards” on page 87.
You create one master change request with three different tasks assigned to your
three different departments with their responsibilities and schedules. The
order
of execution
was previously identified by the development team.
What are the advantages of separating deployment into different types?
You can see that type A is the job of the IBM FileNet Content Manager
administration department. Type B is the responsibility of the database
administration department. And, type C is the department that works with
application server infrastructure. The dependencies between them might be that
a type A deployment can only happen if a type C deployment occurred first.
With this layer-based approach, you can delegate responsibilities to those
departments with the appropriate skills. These entities usually have their own
process model to implement such changes. At the end, you receive a
well-documented and detailed change. This approach improves quality and
accuracy due to the involvement of many people, the “many eyes” principle.
Let us look at the change management process in relation to the different
software development phases. When the development system is not part of your
change management process, the following situations can occur when changes
are applied to the development environment without being documented or in an
uncontrolled manner.
Tip: Ensure that the dependencies of the deployment types are mapped to
your change management system.
Recommendations: Every change applied to the production system must be
carefully tracked, documented, and, where possible, automated. Automation
of changes reduces the risks of error-prone manual deployment processes.
Every bidirectional change from test to development must also be strictly
documented because in a typical three-stage environment, the test
environment becomes the master system for production from the deployment
point of view.

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If you inspect the data in Table 9-1 on page 281, you see that some areas
outside

of FileNet Content Manager are affected but still belong to our FileNet Content
Manager solution.
Consider the following areas related to FileNet Content Manager when managing
the change process:
Commercial code and assets (versions of FileNet Content Manager, as well
as individual patches and levels of its add-ons, such as IBM Case Manager)
Custom code and assets (for example, the versions of the application
leveraging a commercial API, such as the FileNet Content Manager API, or
versioned assets, such as FileNet Content Manager code modules)
In software development companies, there is often a department called the
build
team
. Investigate whether you have a department that can assist you in creating
a build process.
At the beginning of the deployment of every custom application or FileNet
Content Manager deployment by using IBM FileNet Deployment Manager, we
advise you to handle commercial code and custom code separately. For the
targeted solution release, everything must be assembled via an automated
process if possible in observance of the dependencies.
Figure 9-2 on page 284 shows the areas for which you distinguish between
custom code (red area) and commercial code (green area):
IBM Content Navigator
FileNet Content Manager
Recommendations: Deployment starts in the development phase.
Incorporate a defined build process that acknowledges changes to
commercial components and custom components in a controlled manner. A
build process can be established with commercial products, such as Rational,
or a manually defined set of process steps and shell scripts that build the
custom application. As the deployer, work together with your development
team to implement a common build process.
Note: Always keep an integral point of view on the deployment process. If you
follow these guidelines, you will treat deployment as a solution.

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Figure 9-2 Custom code at the level of object store and IBM Content Navigator
Figure 9-2 shows you that a custom application is dependent on the commercial
code but treated separately. Part of code works inside the application but has
dependencies to parts of the commercial code to make a functional verification
successful. Therefore, it makes sense to declare deployment into at least two or
three layers with different technical and organizational responsibilities. To
determine whether the custom code plug-in inside of IBM Content Navigator has
been deployed correctly, conduct a regression test by calling the plug-in inside
IBM Content Navigator. The functional verification is done by the business
department that belongs to the application layer, not by the owner of the
implementer or deployer role.
A regression test of a custom code module in FileNet Content Manager
determines whether a new version in FileNet Content Manager has been
generated for the code module after running the related IBM FileNet Deployment
Manager import package.
Figure 9-3 on page 285 shows the layer-based deployment approach.
ObjectStore
Content Platform
Engine node2
Content Platform
Engine node1
ICN node2
Custom code
module
Custom code
plugin
P8 Content Manager farm
IBM Content Navigator farm
WAS ND
cluster
ICN node1
WAS ND
cluster
...
EJB over IIOP

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Figure 9-3 Layer-based deployment approach
This three-layer approach shows the differences of deployment types and also
the different departments with their responsibilities for the solution. The solution
contains the
presentation layer
(the application tier as shown in Figure 9-2 on
page 284) where IBM Content Navigator is running. The IBM Content Navigator
depends on a
service layer
where the underlying configuration database is
deployed. The service layer also provides the support for the FileNet Content
Manager
base layer
where your FileNet Content Manager is running. In our
example, it is IBM WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment. Each
layer has its own deployment type and process.
Note: From an architectural point of view, this diagram might differ from your
environment in distinguishing between the back end and the front end.
IBM Workplace
XT
Custom
Application
IBM Enterprise
Records
Workflow
System
Component
Integrator
CBR
Presentation layer
Service layer
FileNet Content Platform layer
FileNet Content Manager solution
IBM Content
Navigator
Content Platform
Engine
Database
Application Server
Network
LDAP

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For more information about the separation of custom code and commercial code
and the build process for IBM Content Navigator, see 9.7.5, “Exporting and
importing other components” on page 311 and Customizing and Extending IBM
Content Navigator, SG24-8055. For more information about the separation of
custom and commercial assets during repository design, see Chapter 4,
“Repository design” on page 81.
In summary, a layer-based approach is necessary to split responsibilities, reduce
risk, and improve the quality of the IBM FileNet Content Manager solution. These
layers represent different change requests based on deployment types that are
determined by the development team and documented in a common worksheet.
A layer-based approach also shows the complexity of deployments.
To speed up the change requests and reduce their complexity, it is essential to
automate. The next section describes tooling that can be used to achieve useful
configuration management.
9.3.3 Configuration management
Typical FileNet Content Manager projects use three environments, but many
projects use five or more environments to satisfy the diverse needs of
development, training, testing, staging, performance measuring, and production.
Every environment has its own set of configuration items, such as server names,
IP addresses, and versions of the various components (commercial and
customized).
While an enterprise configuration management database might not be suitable to
track all parameters needed for the deployment process, it is the responsibility of
configuration management to track applied changes.
From our experience, when performing automated deployments for FileNet
Content Manager-based applications, it is generally a good practice to employ a
centralized datastore. The centralized datastore tracks the specific values of
parameters:
Object store name
Object store Globally Unique Identifier (GUID)
Directory objects’ prefix per environment
Virtual server name of Content Platform Engine farms
Virtual server names of Application Engine farms
Database names
Database server names
Ports

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These parameter values can be used by the build process for specific
environments. It makes sense to keep track also of the access control entries
(ACE) from an access control list (ACL) of a FileNet Content Manager repository
design object.
Retain a zip/tar file of all release-specific data, including code, exported assets,
and documentation, in a central datastore. Typically, you maintain
release-specific data by using a code version control system. IBM clients can use
IBM Rational ClearCase®, for example.
9.3.4 Testing
There are multiple ways to address environments associated with testing. One
way is to split testing into two major phases that typically happen in different
environments:
Development environment
In this environment, the following tests are commonly conducted:
– Unit testing verifies that the detailed design for a unit (component or
module) has been correctly implemented.
– Integration testing verifies that the interfaces and interaction between the
integrated components (modules) work correctly and as expected.
– System testing verifies that an integrated system meets all requirements.
Testing environment
In this environment, the following tests are commonly conducted:
– System integration testing verifies that a system is integrated into the
external or third-party systems as defined in the system requirements.
– User acceptance testing is conducted by the users, customer, or client to
validate whether they accept the system. This is typically a manual testing
process with documented expected behavior and the tested behavior.
– Load and performance testing.
Recommendations: Implement a central datastore that tracks the
parameters, such as GUIDs, object store names, and project names, that you
need for the deployment. The datastore needs to be implemented for all target
environments in one location that is accessible to every environment. The best
way is to use this datastore via FileNet Content Manager API to automatically
track changes and specifications vigilantly.

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Regression tests
For all environments, automated regression testing must be implemented to be
able to verify earlier test cases. In production, you mostly perform a
smoke test
,
which means testing only the most critical functions of a system. The automated
regression testing suite might include from each relevant aspect one test object,
such as a test document class, a test search template, a test folder, and a test
workflow. In the deployment of repository design objects, it is best practice to
deploy repository design objects on the same environment in another object
store by using IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility.
The regression test must be used after having modified software (either
commercial or custom code) for any change in functionality or any fix for defects.
A regression test reruns previously passed tests on the modified software to
ensure that the modifications do not unintentionally cause a regression of
previous functionality. Regression testing can be performed at any or all of the
previously mentioned test levels. The regression tests are often automated.
Automating the regression test can be an extremely powerful and efficient way to
ensure basic readiness. The implementation of automated regression tests is
time-consuming and the test cases must be adjusted every time a change occurs
in the business functionality.
Test automation
Two areas of consideration for automating tests are available:
Load and performance test
Regression test
While the load and performance test might be executed only on major version
changes (commercial or custom releases), the effort to maintain the code for the
automation might be substantial.
Recommendations: Whenever a software system undergoes changes, verify
that the system functions as desired in a test environment, before deploying to
production. Include time and resources to test and make corrections based on
testing whenever planning and scheduling a software release. Applying this
best practice without fail helps avoid costly and time-consuming problems in
production.
Recommendations: Establish a small suite of automated regression tests in
each environment. The best synergies are achieved by having the deployment
of the test assets and the test script as automated as possible. One side effect
is that this automation of regression tests affects the repository design and
you must be able to revert changes.

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If you use the datastore to track all repository design objects, you can revert
those changes that were made by your regression suite.
The regression test must be generic enough so that the scripts are written once,
and maybe updated if there are minor changes, but typically stay pretty stable
over time. This approach can be reached by developing a regression test
framework. We advise that you store the scripts together with the supporting
version of the test application in one location. Typically, this location is your
source code version control system.
Test automation tools are available from IBM and other vendors. For example,
see the IBM Rational products website:
http://www.ibm.com/software/rational
Hint: It is essential that you test with production data. Have a process in place
to make production data anonymous before you start testing.
Recommendations: Ensure that your testing environment or performance
load environment is preloaded with test data. The data inserted by your
regression suite must simulate the amount of data generated by average
concurrent users to get a baseline performance matrix.
Recommendations: Distinguish load and performance tests from regression
tests. Each area has its own characteristics.
You can typically use the existing testing infrastructure for load and
performance tests. For regression testing, it makes no sense to use a
centralized large and complex infrastructure. It is more important that the tests
can be executed and quickly show simple results.

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Figure 9-4 Generic framework of reusable regression tests
Figure 9-4 shows an example of a regression framework that can be used to
perform basic regression testing of a FileNet Content Manager solution. A
framework approach enables more flexibility and reusability during iterative
development phases. The framework can be automated by using a script
interface and the configuration information is provided by the central datastore.
Your regression suite can contain smoke test procedures.
Test documentation
Before we move to a discussion of the actual deployment, we must discuss the
testing documentation and its importance.
In a FileNet Content Manager project, multiple departments with different skill
sets are involved. It is difficult to perform user acceptance testing or integration
testing without a clear concept of what needs to be tested, how it must be tested,
what the expected behavior is, and how the tests must be conducted. This
documentation is derived by the requirements analysis of the business needs.
Documenting the test cases with descriptions of the inputs and expected
behavior is useful. Test descriptions must have enough information to achieve
repeatability, which means that multiple testers can perform the same test (in an
identical environment) while working from the test documentation and get the
same results. After the execution of the tests, collect and document all of the
observed system behaviors. Using this information, the release manager can
decide to proceed with the new release or to delay the release if there are more
bugs to fix.

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Several of the tests might fail. It is crucial to document the behavior but also the
resolution. The
knowledge base
must be part of problem management.
Combining test documentation with a searchable interface to find known
problems is advantageous.
In FileNet Content Manager and authorization, the detailed, different levels of
security must be tested by using an intersection of security principals. More
information about security is in Chapter 5, “Security” on page 151.
The social media platform is available from IBM and other vendors. For example,
try out IBM Connections. For IBM Connections information, see this website:
http://www.ibm.com/software/lotus/products/connections
9.4 Deployment approaches
The term
deployment
is typically used in two contexts when mentioned in
combination with FileNet Content Manager solutions:
In a broad sense, the term includes all of the activities that are needed to
move from one entire environment to another environment.
In a stricter sense, the term describes the actual execution. Less frequently,
this type of deployment is called
migration
or
transport
. It describes the
typical automated process of export, convert, and reimport of
application-related items, such as application code, configuration settings,
and repository assets.
Most of the implementation preparation work occurs in the development
environment. In the development environment, the IBM FileNet components, the
Java EE and .NET applications, and configurations provide an exportable
blueprint for the same configuration that is used for testing and the quality
assurance environment. The security configuration can be different and needs to
be mapped separately.
Recommendations: Carefully document your tests with sufficient detail
before the tests are executed. Make the test documentation database
searchable to search for problems previously seen by users. Create a
knowledge database and publish it on a social media platform, for example, in
an internal wiki.

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There are at least three preferred practices to deploy (transport) changes from
one environment to another:
Cloning (AIX logical partition (LPAR)-based cloning or VMware based
cloning)
Exporting, converting, and importing using the IBM FileNet Deployment
Manager utility
Using scripted generation of all the necessary documents and structures
9.4.1 Cloning
You can deploy changes from one environment to another by cloning the source
environment and bringing it up as a new but identical instance of the source
environment.
Cloning is practical when you temporarily need a dedicated environment. It must
be an exact copy of what you have already in place, for example:
In a training class, you need to be able to quickly revert or go forward to a
well-known working environment (by a teacher over lunchtime) for the next
class or for the next part of the lectures. (A few students might not be able to
follow the exercises and then are unable to continue with the rest of the class
because their environment has not been set up correctly.)
Many parallel identical training environments are needed to educate more
people in a short period of time.
Development environments are needed to work in parallel.
Test environments are needed for specific tests.
You can use local VMware based images to clone a system. For a large system,
however, this might not be a workable solution. Large systems are often not as
flexible as small systems, or there is a lack of powerful machines that can be
made available in a timely manner for cloning. Sometimes, the security and
networking policies do not allow these virtual environments to connect to
back-end machines.
The next logical step is to use virtual farms that host applications at larger client
sites. This approach might not be practical for the following reasons:
Note: IBM AIX LPAR-based cloning and IBM AIX workload partition
(WPAR)-based cloning are alternatives to VMware based cloning. The cloning
methods that you use depend on your infrastructure. For more information,
see IBM FileNet P8 Platform and Architecture, SG24-7667.

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From the corporate network, they cannot be accessed unless using remote
desktop applications. A direct interaction is not possible due to using the
same host names and IP addresses multiple times in the same network.
Single virtual images are typically not powerful enough for the full stack of
components that are needed for a solution (the stack includes the directory
server, database, application server, and other FileNet Content Manager
components).
A good way to still rely on virtualization techniques is described in 3.3.1, “A
virtualized IBM FileNet Content Manager system” on page 60. The solution is
built on individual images hosting the various IBM FileNet P8 components,
including the database and directory server. The images are accessed by a
gateway, which shields the network topology of the FileNet Content Manager
solution from the corporate network by using network address translation (NAT)
and virtual private network (VPN) access.
You clone an environment by copying all files representing the storage of virtual
images. With this approach, you can clone an environment within hours with little
knowledge. Use this approach predominantly for development and training.
For cloning, consider the following topics:
Action plan (execution order, manual tasks, and script environment)
Virtualization technology (native virtualization and para-virtualization)
Storage technology (logical volume mirroring)
Post-cloning activities (host name and network preparation)
9.4.2 Custom-scripted export, transform, and import
A common way of deploying an environment is the process of exporting,
transforming, optionally installing, and importing. A key advantage of this
approach is that it allows you to carry forward incremental changes from the
source to the target environment without requiring the recreation of the entire
target environment. The major difficulty with this approach lies in the number of
dependencies between different components and the number of manual steps
that are needed to achieve a target configuration that matches the source
configuration.
In the past, we have seen projects struggle for months when using a manual
process to move Java EE applications that include FileNet Content Manager
components. Today, we can deploy similar projects in 1 - 2 days. The following
factors contribute to the improvements:
Introduction of a solid release management process

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Separation of commercial code from custom code and automation of the build
process mainly for Java EE based or .NET based applications
Adherence to the proposed guideline of stable GUIDs to reduce
dependencies
Implementation of a central datastore (database-based or file-based) in which
environment-specific information is stored and serves as the datastore for
scripting
Automation wherever possible
Deployments typically apply assets from the development environment to the
testing environment. The production environment typically receives deployments
from the testing and acceptance test environment.
There are cases for which you might consider the reverse:
Documents with configuration characters, such as search templates, add
entry templates, custom objects, and folders, that have been created in a
production environment. (This raises the question of what a release needs to
contain and restrict.)
Hot-fixing a serious production problem in the staging area.
Refreshing and populating a training environment or acceptance test system
with anonymized or obscured production data.
For example, you can use IBM InfoSphere® Optim™ Data Lifecycle
Management Solutions to anonymize or obscure production data:
http://www.ibm.com/software/data/optim
The activity for transformation can take place as described in Deploying IBM
FileNet P8 applications in the IBM FileNet P8 Information Center, before or
just after import. Custom scripts can be called to make the necessary
transformation. The transformation can also be conducted on the exported
files before importing. The IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility has a
script interface. This script interface allows you to run a code fragment on
each object before or after import. Furthermore, it allows you to run a script
once before or after import. You can combine all four of them. For more
information about the IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility, see the IBM
FileNet P8 Information Center where you can find an example of creating
marking sets during import.
9.4.3 Scripted generation
This approach assumes that after a basic object store has been generated,
every property template, document class, folder, and other structural asset is
generated by a script.

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This approach has been proven to work, but the effort to maintain this type of
script is huge and every change must be put into the script code. All of the
benefits of using a tool, such as the IBM Administration Console for Content
Platform Engine (ACCE) (or IBM FileNet Enterprise Manager, are lost with this
approach. There is little benefit in using this approach unless it is to overcome
limitations where there is no alternative.
Nevertheless, this approach can be used to create basic structures, such as a P8
domain, create generic object stores with their add-ons, marking sets, folder
structures, or maintain application roles.
For object stores and their add-ons, you can customize the schema script that is
used to generate the object store tables over Java Database Connectivity
(JDBC). The advantage of customizing the script is to create custom indexes.
With a customized object store add-on, you can create specific metadata for your
custom FileNet application.
The script-based approach has a problem because every change within the
FileNet Content Manager master system needs to be synchronized with the
script source. You can develop a wrapper to perform this work but developing a
wrapper can be time-consuming. In the next sections, we describe other FileNet
Content Manager population techniques.
9.5 Deployment based on cloning
One of the biggest challenges to making an environment clonable is the system
dependencies that cannot be easily removed, such as the dependencies related
to a Microsoft Active Directory. Changes might take time to implement and can
impede the cloning process.
Figure 9-5 on page 296 illustrates that each source LDAP can be replicated to its
own instance and serve as the dedicated LDAP for your FileNet Content
Manager environment.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 9-5 Example of LDAP replicas
Figure 9-5 shows using IBM Tivoli Directory Integrator or the Active Directory
Lightweight Directory Service replicating from a Microsoft Active Directory.
Additionally, you can enable referrals in each naming context to have a
distinguished name (DN) available that does not exist in the current naming
context. Referrals are not problematic if you have UserPrincipalNames (UPN)
enabled in FileNet Content Manager across the naming contexts due to the
unique short name requirement.
Replica root dev
domain
root1.local
namingcontext.root1.local
OU1
FileNetUsers/
FileNetGroups
namingcontext.root2.local
OU1
FileNetUsers/
FileNetGroups
Replica root testing
domain
root2.local
namingcontext.root3.local
OU1
FileNetUsers/
FileNetGroups
Replica root load
and perf. domain
root3.local
Referral
Referral
unidirectional synchronization
instance 1..3
source root LDAP domain
root.local

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9.5.1 Cloning an object store
Follow this manual procedure to clone an IBM FileNet Content Manager object
store where the IBM FileNet Deployment Manager reassign object store
functionality is not available.
To clone an object store, follow these steps:
1.Create an empty object store database with minimum requirements.
2.Create a data source on your application server pointing to the empty object
store database.
3.Create in the target P8 domain an object store that has the same name as the
object store from the source P8 domain. (Now, we have created a container in
the global configuration database (GCD) for our object store from the source
P8 domain that will later be “partially” incorporated.)
4.Shut down IBM FileNet Content Manager.
5.Bring the source object store database online.
6.Change the data source defined in step 2 to match the database defined in
step 5.
7.Start IBM FileNet Content Manager.
This procedure
does not
preserve the GUID of the source object store and can
be used to incorporate an object store from a different IBM FileNet Content
Manager P8 domain. If the source P8 domain uses a different naming context,
the security objects
might not
match with your target P8 domain.
When this procedure is completed, you can delete the object store database that
you created in step 1.
Recommendations: When introducing FileNet Content Manager to your
company, use a dedicated LDAP provider for FileNet Content Manager. This
can be achieved by using IBM Tivoli Directory Server or Active Directory
Lightweight Directory Service (AD LDS) with unidirectional synchronization, if
necessary, and illustrated in Figure 9-5 on page 296. This gives you the ability
to maintain the security principals by yourself and reduces organizational
dependencies to other departments significantly.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
9.5.2 Topology
Figure 9-6 illustrates a clonable topology with three identical environments that
use VMware images. Every domain is formed by a collection of servers that are
part of multiple VMware images. All images of one domain are connected over a
private network to a special image that is called the
router
. The router
implements network address translation (NAT) and virtual private network (VPN)
gateway functionality by using tunneling over Secure Shell (SSH) or other
products. The other network link of the router is mapped to a network card that
has access outside, which can be to the corporate network.
To clone the environment, only the router image needs to be modified and the
public interface needs to be set up correctly. An IBM Content Navigator instance
resolves the Domain Name System (DNS) of the router image.
Figure 9-6 Three identical environments using VMware images
Figure 9-6 shows how an access to a FileNet Content Manager domain can be
established by using a separate gateway for each environment.
Cloning offers these advantages:
Automatic provisioning of environments by using a master clone
Less effort to create a FileNet Content Manager environment
Note: This approach is useful for development environments only.
router
router
router

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Cloning has this disadvantage:
The clone system is static with a fixed version and patch level since it is based
on a master clone that was created at one point in time.
9.5.3 Access to the environment
There are two clients:
The user’s workstation
A development system hosted on VMware running on the user’s workstation
Even though a large group of developers might have all of the tools necessary to
perform their tasks, developers might prefer a pre-configured image to run on
their individual workstations. If Microsoft Active Directory is used, use a VMware
image that was initially part of the same Active Directory.
9.5.4 Post-cloning activities
After cloning this environment, consider resetting passwords and generating new
users and groups for the project. These tasks need to be automated as much as
possible.
9.5.5 Backup changes
There is no real benefit in backing up a cloned environment because it can be
created again easily with less effort.
9.6 Deployment by export, transform, and import
In this section, we discuss deployment by export, transform, and import either for
a full or incremental deployment.
9.6.1 Incremental deployment compared to full deployment
The two major types of deployments are a full deployment and an incremental
deployment. A
full deployment
for a FileNet Content Manager solution means
that both the structure information and the content are deployed in
one iteration
.
The target environment gets everything with the assumption that the target object
store is empty.

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An
incremental
deployment for a FileNet Content Manager solution means
deploying only the changes that have been made since the last deployment.
Documents, custom objects, and other objects might have already been
instantiated. New changes to the structure must respect the associated
constraints.
Before you run the
import
, you must choose one of the following options:
Update If Newer
Always Update
Never Update
The system property DateLastModified is used by the IBM FileNet Deployment
Manager utility to determine whether if an object has changed. This information
is required if using the “Update If Newer” option.
Full deployment is a powerful vehicle to move a project the first time through the
various stages of deployment. A project includes creating test deployment
systems, and, possibly, multiple production systems. So, you can perform
multiple full deployments for the project. For test systems, you might clear them
out and fully deploy them again. For the production environment, you only
perform a full deployment
one time
for your project.
After populating a production object store with documents, it is impractical to
perform a full deployment to the production object store for the following reasons:
The number of documents that you need to move from production into
development and then propagate back is typically too high.
Security restrictions often prevent us from moving production data to other
environments.
The production system cannot be stopped during the time that it takes to
create the next release.
The duration for moving documents is much longer than just applying
structural changes.
There are documents created in production that have configuration
characteristics, such as search templates and entry templates. If you perform
a full deployment, you must also move them back to the development
environment and propagate them back.
An
incremental

deployment
means the propagation of changes that will transition
an environment from a certain status (existing release) to a new status (new
release).

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There are multiple ways to figure out the differences between the two releases:
Manually
By strictly rolling forward changes from the source environment to the target
environment and preventing any changes to the target environment between
releases
Automated discovery of the differences
Manually detecting the differences between the source environment and the
target environment is time-consuming and error-prone. This option is only valid
for small deployments or if the difference is related to only one asset type, such
as an instance of the custom object class.
Clients typically choose the second option with the consideration that someone
has manually verified both environments. In a multi-stage environment, there is a
good chance that mistakes in this approach will be detected in the first
deployment step from the development environment to the test environment.
When errors are detected at this point, there is an opportunity to fix the
underlying problems and retry the same procedure. As soon as the deployment
to the test environment passes testing (and is documented), the future
deployment to production most likely works smoothly.
The third option is extremely difficult to achieve and potentially too expensive.
There are many exceptions when just comparing date times between the various
environments. A development or source environment might include more objects
than will be used for the target deployment. So, a selective tagging of objects,
which are part of a release, seems to be mandatory.
9.6.2 Reducing the complexity of inter-object relationships
GUIDs reduce the complexity of inter-object relationships. A Globally Unique
Identifier (GUID) is a 128-bit data identifier, which is used to distinguish objects
from each other. If there is a need to merge objects from multiple object stores
into a common object store, GUIDs ensure that the objects maintain their
uniqueness and that they do not collide with each other in the common object
store.
When moving objects between multiple environments, you must consider
dependencies. Objects are often dependent on other objects in the object store
or on external resources, for example:
An
entry template
references a folder and vice versa. In FileNet Workplace
XT, you can associate entry templates to a folder. This type of dependency is
automatically considered by IBM FileNet Deployment Manager.

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An application’s stored search definition is an XML document in an object
store. The XML content references multiple object stores by name and ID.
This type of dependency is automatically considered by IBM FileNet
Deployment Manager.
A document references an external website that contains its content. This
type of dependency has to be maintained manually.
FileNet Deployment Manager can convert some external dependencies, such as
URLs that are referenced by form templates.
For inter-object store dependencies, you can keep the identification of these
objects (GUIDs) consistent across various environments. This is not in
contradiction to the previously mentioned uniqueness of GUIDs, but it is a
consequence for two reasons:
The objects, which are considered to be kept consistent with the same GUIDs
across object stores, have configuration characteristics, such as document
classes, folders, property templates, entry templates, search templates, and
others.
The predefined population of an object store after you run the object store
creation wizard follows the same pattern.
In Figure 9-7 on page 303, we show two options to deploy a search template that
has a dependency on a folder structure. Although you might argue that there are
better ways to reference folders by referring to a full path, you might discover
similar situations where there are good reasons to depend on a GUID. In the first
option, we followed the practice of using stable GUIDs, which we did not follow in
the second option:
Deploying the folder with the same GUID leads to no additional corrections
deploying the search template above.
Deploying the folder and letting the system generate a new GUID leads to a
situation where the search template must be changed to refer to the deployed
folder.
You can avoid the extra effort of maintaining the dependencies in the target
environment by following the pattern of having stable GUIDs.
Figure 9-7 on page 303 illustrates the deployment from development with stable
GUIDs in the top box on the right. Not following the stable GUID pattern might
require maintaining the dependencies with additional deployment logic.

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Figure 9-7 Example of using stable GUIDs
If you use IBM Forms, you must use stable GUIDs across all stages, especially
for the version series IDs of workflow definitions.
9.6.3 Deployment automation
The more environments that you need to maintain, the more important it is to
automate the deployment to achieve the following goals:
Save time.
Reduce errors.
Reduce risks.
Ensure similarity among environments.
Reproduce problems.
The IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility contains a command-line interface
to perform this automation. Examples are in “Automate FileNet Deployment
Manager operations from the command-line interface” in the IBM FileNet P8
Information Center.
9.7 FileNet Content Manager deployment
The process of deployment by using the IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility
is described in “Deploying IBM FileNet P8 applications” in the IBM FileNet P8
Information Center on the IBM FileNet support site.

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The IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility offers a consistent way of
performing deployments across different stages and environments. It can be
used to deploy data between disconnected FileNet Content Manager systems
even if these systems use different LDAP providers and different security
principals.
It offers a powerful mapping interface with automatic mapping if the symbolic
name of the object store or the short name of a security principal is the same.
We need to know which data can be used for export.
There are three major types of objects to be exported:
Structure (such as document classes and folders)
Configuration documents (such as templates, subscriptions, events, custom
code modules, and workflow definitions)
Business documents (images)
Configuration documents
do not contain business content but contain
configuration information that is used by an application. Configuration documents
might need a transformation step before being deployed to the target
environment, because they might hold information about dependencies. The
majority of configuration documents are automatically converted to match the
target environment by the IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility.
Important: The use of IBM FileNet Enterprise Manager for performing FileNet
Content Manager deployments is deprecated. Use the IBM FileNet
Deployment Manager utility instead.
Tip: The IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility has no customizable query
interface so you need to use FileNet Enterprise Manager to perform a custom
query and put the results into an export manifest. This export manifest, which
is generated by FileNet Enterprise Manager, can be used in IBM FileNet
Deployment Manager to perform the remaining export and import steps,
including conversion.
Note: Workflow definitions will be treated as content elements but not
automatically transferred to the workflow system. You can use the post-save
script interface of IBM FileNet Deployment Manager to transfer them to the
workflow system by using a Java script.

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Business documents
contain business information and are viewed by users.
Business documents typically do not need transformation when they are
deployed, because they have no internal or external dependencies.
9.7.1 FileNet Content Manager export
When preparing an export, you need to consider the granularity of the export. It is
usually a bad approach to include everything in one export run. If you need to fix
a problem, addressing smaller chunks of data rather than one huge XML file
makes troubleshooting easier.
Known successful deployments use the following practices:
Break the deployment apart into a hierarchy of exports.
Example: Document class definition with or without its property definitions
Strictly separate configuration documents from business documents.
Hierarchy of exports
Build a logical hierarchy of exports, which can help you to test the imports
sequentially.
Configuration documents, such as entry templates, are documents that include
content elements and they are stored as an XML file in the repository. Document
class definition is a database object with no content elements. Exporting a
document class definition with its property definitions is a simple transaction,
whereas exporting a configuration document involves exporting the content
elements.
Certain objects, which include all FileNet Content Manager domain-level objects,
cannot be exported.
There are Application Engine-related objects that cannot be exported as well.
See 9.7.5, “Exporting and importing other components” on page 311.
There is a general export and import sequence:
1.Marking sets
2.Choice lists
3.Property templates
4.Security templates
Recommendations: Reduce the complexity of exporting by splitting a large
export into smaller logical chunks. Separate structure and configuration
documents from business documents.

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5.Class definitions (including document, custom object, folder, and so on)
6.Entry templates
7.Stored searches
8.Class subscriptions
9.Event actions
10.Code modules
11.Documents (configuration documents and real documents)
This list is incomplete. We outline the sequence in order to explain the
dependencies. There are other workflow system-related assets, such as
workflow event actions, workflow subscriptions, and workflow definitions, that are
not mentioned here. For more detail, see “Deploying P8 applications” in the IBM
FileNet P8 Information Center.
Exporting content
Usually, content is versioned. For configuration documents, it does not make
sense to export “all versions”. The most recent version is the best choice, so as a
rule, discard earlier versions. If you import them to the target system, keep only
one version.
Exporting user and group information
When deploying between environments that use different directory servers or
different contexts of one directory server, user and group information must be
mapped to the target environment. User and group information is contained in
the access control lists that are present and that control the access to almost
every exported object. User and group information might also be contained in
object-specific fields of certain types of objects (for example, entry templates and
workplace user preferences). The user and group information must be set
correctly before the actual deployment occurs.
Recommendations: Consider the hierarchy of objects and their
dependencies by importing them in an order that dependencies can be
resolved manually. Inspect the “import options” for each asset in IBM FileNet
Deployment Manager utility to find out which dependencies are automatically
resolved. If you repeat an export/import, sometimes it does not make sense to
include the dependencies in the export package again.
Recommendations: If you deploy across different environments, do so in the
same LDAP context. However, for large environments, the testing and
load-performance environments typically do not use the same LDAP as the
production environment for security purposes. In this situation, use separate
replicated LDAP servers for testing.

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It is time-consuming to map changes in users and groups manually, because the
exported assets have different security in the source and in the target. To
overcome this issue, the IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility offers the use
of a “label file” where short names of the security principals from source and
target are mapped in advance. In most cases, the initial security on configuration
objects does not change often and you are using LDAP groups to maintain
security. Another method is to retrieve principals from the target LDAP by using
the half map file of the source system. In this case, you need to have identical
short names for automatic mapping.
The label file approach has two advantages:
1.Mapping security principals from a disconnected development environment to
a testing environment is possible. You have to know which target LDAP
principal is matching each source LDAP principal. With this method, you can
reassign group A to group B even in the same LDAP.
2.No full LDAP query is performed.
If you deploy data within the same LDAP context, you will choose to retrieve from
the half map file to obtain the security principals from the target system. This
procedure also does not need to retrieve the entire LDAP.
Automating the export
The IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility has a command-line interface to
generate deployment packages for the three types of deployment data.
Automating the export is not limited to exporting FileNet Content Manager
objects. There are other tools available for exporting workflow system-related
data. For a list of export and import utilities, see 9.7.4, “IBM FileNet Deployment
Manager” on page 309.
9.7.2 CE-objects transformation
Various exported assets need a different treatment for a successful import into
the target object store. Table 9-2 shows a partial list to give you an idea of how to
distinguish the options.
Table 9-2 FileNet Content Manager assets and transformation
Type of asset Transformation
required
Remarks
Property Templates Not required Import with the same GUID.
Choice Lists Not required Import with the same GUID.

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The transformation handles the following issues:
Map security principals
Map object store references
Map service references, such as URLs
The transformation does not handle the following example:
Custom URLs, for instance, using the FileNet Workplace XT base URL is not
covered by transformation.
Document Classes Not required Import with the same GUID.
Workflow Definitions Required Import with the same GUID. Contains
references to environment-specific
constants, such as Object Store Name
and external references for web
services.
Folders Not required Import with the same GUID.
Search Templates required Import with the same GUID. Contains
reference for searching symbolic name
of object store within the search XML.
Entry Templates required Import with the same GUID. Contains
reference to the display name of the
object store in a document property.
Within the XML, there is only the
symbolic name of the object store
stored.
Events Not required Dependencies to subscriptions.
Code Modules Not required Dependencies to subscriptions.
Subscriptions Not required Can have dependencies, for instance,
to Workflow Definition or for Class
Definition.
Business documents Not required Import with the same GUID.
Note: IBM is not responsible for testing and supporting your exported files and
objects. Always test them in a non-production environment before you deploy
them to a production environment.
Type of asset Transformation
required
Remarks

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9.7.3 Content Platform Engine import best practice
Importing the exported and transformed objects using the IBM FileNet
Deployment Manager utility is straightforward by using the order that is presented
in “Hierarchy of exports” on page 305.
The following common errors might occur at this stage:
User and group information has not been updated to match the target
environment, so users cannot access the objects as expected. The
conversion process fails.
Objects on which other objects depend do not yet exist in the target
environment. Create the objects in the correct sequence.
You have an object store metadata refreshing problem. Ensure that you
refresh the IBM FileNet Deployment Manager after the import. Sometimes,
the best practice is to close the IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility and
open it again.
You have circular dependencies. For more information, see “Deploying P8
applications” in the IBM FileNet P8 Information Center.
The import options have not been set correctly.
An import process was interrupted by a transaction failure. Check the “Always
update” option.
The reuse of GUID has not been checked.
9.7.4 IBM FileNet Deployment Manager
This section provides general information regarding IBM FileNet Deployment
Manager.
Tip: Remember that the IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility uses
multiple transactions during the import process and performs prefetching.
So, if the import process fails for a particular package, some transactions
are complete and others are not.
Recommendations: Do not use a generic administrative account for
importing objects. Do not set the special security that is needed by IBM
FileNet Deployment Manager for the entire object store administrators group.
Always use a dedicated administrative user who has special security enabled
for the object store.

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There are existing documents that you can reference when you use FileNet
Deployment Manager:
Proven Practice: IBM FileNet Deployment Manager 5.1 Data Migrations
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21609929
Migrating IBM Case Manager solutions using FileNet Deployment Manager
and Case Manager Administration Client. (This document is valid also for
FileNet Content Manager only.)
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21612959
Impact of a FileNet Deployment Manager import using the “Update If Newer”
option without the “Use Original Create/Update Timestamps” option
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21455363
FileNet Deployment Manager fails to import the documents of a certain
version series if one of those documents references an object that appears
after the document in the deploy data set (explanation of object hierarchy)
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27020038
MustGather: FileNet Deployment Manager (FDM)
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21502186
Hints
When using the FileNet Deployment Manager, remember this list:
IBM FileNet Deployment Manager is able to transfer objects between
different

FileNet Content Manager domains within a single compressed file containing
all the exported content.
Object store transplantation between different FileNet Content Manager
domains can occur by using the object store reassign function.
Change the total transaction time to be longer for your connection pool to
keep long running import processes active.
Always inspect the FileNet Content Manager log and IBM FileNet Deployment
Manager log after you import. Create pattern matching search strings to
extract the data that you need.
Default export and import utilities
There are several default export and import utilities that you can use:
IBM FileNet Deployment Manager utility and command-line interface
IBM FileNet Enterprise Manager export/import manifest GUI and
ImpExpCmdTool.exe
WFDeploymentTool.exe

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WFAttachmentFinder.exe
Process Configuration Console and peObject_export.bat and
peObject_import.bat
9.7.5 Exporting and importing other components
In this section, we address exporting and importing the database, full text index,
Directory Service Provider, Workflow System, and FileNet Workplace XT.
Database
All changes to rows in the object store database are covered by exporting and
importing objects as previously explained.
In addition, you can consider propagating changes that have been applied at the
database level, such as adding additional indexes, changing server options, and
others. You can typically accomplish this function by extracting the index-related
information from the SQL-based scripts that were written to configure the
database in the source environment. Check whether the scripts depend on
infrastructural information, such as user ID, password, server name, IP
addresses, and database name.
Full-text index
Content-based retrieval (CBR) is covered in 4.12.2, “Content-based search” on
page 141 and Chapter 11, “Upgrade and migration” on page 371.
Directory Service Provider
You can move parts of a directory either by exporting, transforming, and
reimporting the parts by using tools, such as ldiff, or by writing scripts that create
users and groups and add the users as members of the groups. The other
method is to use IBM Tivoli Directory Integrator.
In any case, you must map the users, groups, and memberships to the target
environment, which depends on the security settings in your company. If
possible, use the same scripts and transform them based on a naming
convention. This step needs to happen prior to the Content Platform Engine
import.
Workflow System
Workflow System export and import are straightforward by using the Process
Configuration Console or the command-line interface, which supports both full
and incremental deployments.

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The underlying workflow system APIs contain all the required methods to move
Queues, Rosters, and EventLogs, and to validate Workflow Definitions.
You can export the Workflow System configuration by a call to the Workflow
System Java API. The import into the Content Platform Engine works in a similar
way.
If you currently use other Workflow System features or services, see “Deploying
P8 applications” in the IBM FileNet P8 Information Center.
FileNet Workplace XT
Whenever FileNet Workplace XT applications have to be moved between
environments, there are business assets and application configuration assets to
be deployed.
FileNet Workplace XT stores various objects in an object store:
Site Preferences
User Preferences
Entry Templates
Stored Searches
Search Templates
Application Roles
We have already discussed the business assets under the export, transform, and
import process. We do not need to provide further explanations from a
methodology point of view.
Table 9-3 provides a short summary about these assets.
Table 9-3 Summary
Asset type Automatic
transformation?
Remarks
Site Preference No Can be put in place by checking out
the Site Preferences manually and
checking in the new transformed
version.
User Preferences No Try to avoid deployment and instead
customize the general MyWorkplace
style for all users; this will save you
significant effort.
Entry Templates Yes Deal with security settings, folders,
document classes, and default
values.

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FileNet Workplace XT is a web application that spans one war file, which
contains the relevant Java APIs to connect to FileNet Content Manager.
9.8 Conclusion
We learned that deployment is divided into two major parts. The first one is the
organizational part where you ensure that deployment is comprehensive by using
a compliant process that is derived from the software development process. You
as owner of the deployer role will be involved in each phase of development but
the majority of work is performing the change and configuration management.
Deployment without having a strategy in place causes inconsistency sooner or
later. The second part of deployment is the procedural part of deployment.
This chapter also contained information about useful techniques and tools for
deployment. We included samples of different ways of deploying based on the
different kinds of data migrated between the environments. The first tool of
choice for FileNet Content Manager data is the IBM FileNet Deployment
Manager utility. This tool requires process-oriented procedures to ensure a
quality-driven deployment in your company.
Chapter 10, “System administration and maintenance” on page 315, provides
information about how to ensure the availability of your FileNet Content Manager
solution from an administrative point of view.
Search Templates Yes Dependent on object name and
GUID. Remember there are two
content elements per object.
Application Roles No export/import
possible
Circular references cannot be
maintained.
Asset type Automatic
transformation?
Remarks

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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
315
Chapter 10.
System administration and
maintenance
In this chapter, we describe some of the tools and methods that are used to
monitor and maintain your IBM FileNet Content Manager system to ensure
optimal performance.
We discuss the following topics:
IBM FileNet Content Manager administrative roles
Online help and existing documentation
Monitoring the environment
Capacity monitoring and growth prediction
Tracing
Auditing
Managing the logs
System administration tools
Reducing storage costs
Using virus scan software
Applying fixes
Updating security
Backup and restore
Task schedule
10

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10.1 IBM FileNet Content Manager administrative roles
The task of managing an IBM FileNet Content Manager environment can be
handled by a single person or the tasks can be divided up among several people.
The size of the deployment and the business rules at a company, including
separation of duty requirements, typically dictate who administers each part of
the environment. To accommodate this flexibility in task ownership, the P8
documentation labels the different administrative roles, but it is up to each client
to make these decisions:
More than one person can be assigned to each role.
The same person can be assigned to multiple roles.
Since the P8 security uses a directory server, a best practice is to assign
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) groups to security roles when
possible. Following this best practice avoids issues when individuals change
roles, join the corporation, or leave the corporation.
The following administrative roles are key for an IBM FileNet Content Manager
environment:
Application server administrators
Have access to the application server console, are responsible for deploying
Java EE applications, are allowed to stop and start Java virtual machines
(JVMs), and can change application server tuning parameters.
Database administrators
Create, delete, back up, and reorganize the databases that are required by
the IBM FileNet Content Manager components. Can also tune databases,
including adding complex indexes and reviewing query plans.
IT administrators:
– Operating system administrators
Install operating system updates, change access rights, and mount
volumes and file storage areas.
– Network administrators
Design and implement system architecture to make environments highly
available, perform network traces as part of performance tuning, open
ports on firewalls, and update access control lists (ACLs) on switches.

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Security administrators
Ensure that the directory server meets the requirements for an IBM FileNet
Content Manager installation, provide the LDAP configuration information
required for an IBM FileNet Content Manager installation, and tune
performance.
Global configuration database (GCD) administrators
Members of specific LDAP groups, who are identified during the Content
Platform Engine installation, and who have rights to create object stores and
other P8 domain-level artifacts.
Object store administrators
Members of specific LDAP groups, who are identified during object store
creation, and who have rights to administer the object store.
Because so many people can be involved in managing a P8 environment, use
the following best practices:
Document the following information:
– Users and LDAP groups assigned to each role
– Local processes that must be followed when making changes
Keep the documentation current. Do not just create it for installation purposes
and then forget about it.
Always have at least two people in your organization who can fill a role.
Use email distribution lists to ensure that everyone is kept informed when
changes are being made to an environment.
10.2 Online help and existing documentation
A rich set of documentation is available for IBM FileNet Content Manager in an
IBM hosted information center.
A new, IBM hosted information center is created for each IBM FileNet Content
Manager release. Typically, only one part of the URL changes for each release,
which is the release number:
URL links to Version 5.1 of the IBM FileNet P8 Information Center:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r1m0/index.jsp
URL links to Version 5.2 of the IBM FileNet P8 Information Center:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp

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During the installation of any IBM FileNet Content Manager component, you are
prompted for the location of the information center. If suitable access is available
from your site, use the URL of the IBM hosted information center for these
reasons:
The content is updated regularly.
There is no maintenance overhead.
An installable version of the information center is also provided with the product
software. If access to the Internet is limited at your site, install the shipped
version of the information center on a local application server and give the URL
for this local installation when configuring the IBM FileNet Content Manager
components.
When using any of the applications or administrative tools supplied with IBM
FileNet Content Manager, clicking Help displays the appropriate topic from the
information center. You can also navigate to the same information by accessing
the information center directly.
The following figures show the main menu for the IBM Content Navigator help.
Figure 10-1 on page 319 shows the display after clicking Help from within the
IBM Content Navigator application. Figure 10-2 on page 319 displays the same
information but it was accessed by navigating to the help from the information
center posted on the IBM website.

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Figure 10-1 IBM Content Navigator help when accessed from within the application
Figure 10-2 IBM Content Navigator help when accessed from the Information Center

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10.2.1 Tips for working with the information center
When looking for information, use Scope on the menu bar
to limit the focus when
searching for information or when navigating through topics.
The Scope options limit searches to specific branches of the information center,
and can also restrict the information displayed based on database, product, or
application server, as shown in Figure 10-3.
Figure 10-3 Scope selections
Bookmark useful information
by using the following procedure because clicking
a topic does not change the URL in the browser address bar:
1.Right-click the topic link in the left pane.
2.Select Open the topic in a new tab or window from the context menu.
3.Go to the new tab or window to create the bookmark.
4.Use the Print option to create a printer-friendly version of a topic and all its
subtopics.
Using a combination of the scope and print options is a great way to create an
installation or maintenance guide tailored to your environment.

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10.2.2 Other useful documentation
Consider creating bookmarks for the following two documents because you will
reference them frequently:
P8 Hardware and Software Guide
This guide provides detailed information about the supported underlying
components that are required by the P8 suite of products, including the
databases, operating systems, application servers, file storage systems, and
so on. The guide is updated regularly and a new version is released with each
IBM FileNet Content Manager release.
You can access the guide either from the home page of the Information
Center by using the “IBM FileNet P8 supported hardware and software” link
under “Get started”, or from the following URL:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27013654
This page provides links to the versions of the guide, which is especially
helpful when planning an upgrade. It is easy to compare and contrast the
infrastructure requirements for the software you currently use and the
infrastructure requirements of the release to which you plan to upgrade.
FileNet P8 Fix Pack Compatibility Matrices
Microsoft Excel spreadsheets identify all the generally available fix packs and
interim fixes for each of the FileNet P8 components. There is one matrix for
each IBM FileNet Content Manager release. The matrices identify which
components are compatible and the software build number for each fix. This
information is needed in these situations:
– Planning an upgrade to ensure that you are at a supported minimum level
– Working with IBM Software Support on an issue
The matrices can be downloaded from the following URL:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=3278&uid=swg27014734
10.3 Monitoring the environment
In this section, we discuss monitoring the IBM FileNet Content Manager
environment for these areas:
Performance
Functional issues
Capacity planning
Security

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Part of monitoring your environment is setting expectations. For your
environment, decide what thresholds need to be set for the following items and
what action needs to be taken when the thresholds are reached:
CPU usage
Memory usage
Disk usage
Response times
Number of objects in the object store
There also might be legal requirements that need to be monitored; for example,
knowing who accessed content, or when content was deleted.
Three useful web pages are available for getting a quick check on the status of
the Content Platform Engine:
The Ping Page (Content Engine Startup Context):
http://<Content Platform Engine server>:<port>/FileNet/Engine
Use this URL to check that your Content Platform Engine environment is
running and to gather other useful information about the environment, such
as the build number. Figure 10-4 on page 323 shows the information that is
provided by the ping page.
Tip: If Content Platform Engine is deployed to a cluster, replacing <Content
Platform Engine server> with the name of the management node will show
whether at least one Content Platform Engine node in the cluster is
running. To ensure that a specific Content Platform Engine server is
running, use the name of the server in the ping page URL.

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Figure 10-4 Content Platform Engine ping page

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
The health page:
http://<Content Platform Engine server>:<port>/P8CE/Health
This page shows the health of various P8 domain artifacts, including object
stores and storage areas. A sample health page is shown in Figure 10-5.
Click an item on the page to get more information.
Figure 10-5 Content Platform Engine health page

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The workflow ping page:
http://<Content Platform Engine server>:<port>/peengine/IOR/ping
Unlike the other pages, a user name and password is required to access this
page. Much of the information provided on the page is similar to what is on
the Content Platform Engine ping page, but it also provides information about
the workflow threads. Figure 10-6 illustrates the workflow system ping page.
Figure 10-6 Workflow system ping page

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Monitoring for performance, functional issues, and capacity planning can be
accomplished using the following tools:
IBM System Dashboard for ECM ships with IBM FileNet Content Manager
and provides a centralized performance monitoring mechanism.
This tool is especially useful when performing stress and load testing.
IBM ECM System Monitor is an optional add-on used to both monitor and
manage the IBM FileNet Content Manager environment and the servers on
which the software is installed. The tool can be extended with a customized
knowledge base of corrective actions. You can use this tool to automate
routine system administration and obtain historical analysis and reporting.
10.4 Capacity monitoring and growth prediction
When planning for an IBM FileNet Content Manager system, you need to
estimate the average amount of content added per day, average size of the
content, how many users have access to it, and other basic information about
your planned application. Answers to these questions are run through a modeling
tool, IBM Content Capacity Planner, by your IBM representative. The modeling
tool provides details about the necessary servers, database space, and overall
disk space for storage. The modeling tool also estimates the CPU utilization of
the necessary servers. For more information, see Chapter 8, “Capacity planning
with IBM Content Capacity Planner” on page 253.
As you deploy and begin using your application, monitor and record these server
statistics:
Disk usage
CPU and memory utilization
Database usage
Your database administrators can provide database details. The most important
information is the overall database size, but it is also good to know whether
specific tables or data fields are growing rapidly.
IBM FileNet Content Manager systems tend to grow over time. Object store
content is added daily, additional applications are developed, and users are
added. By monitoring and recording these statistics, you can measure how your
system is performing against the initial model. More importantly, you can track
how quickly you are using resources and determine the impact to the system
when an increase in system usage is planned.
We advise monitoring for capacity weekly, including monitoring database,
network, and disk usage. You want your capacity planning model to be as close

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as possible to the needs of the live production system, so that the output from the
Content Capacity Planning tool provides an accurate assessment of future
needs. Proper capacity monitoring provides you with advanced notice that
additional server resources need to be allocated to the system. The initial model
is an estimate of what is needed by using the numbers that you provide. If your
estimated content count or size was too small, you need to plan additional space.
10.4.1 IBM System Dashboard for ECM
IBM FileNet Content Manager ships with a centralized performance monitoring
mechanism called
IBM System Dashboard for ECM
(also known as the
System
Manager
). System Dashboard is composed of two parts: a
listener
that runs on
each server collecting information and a
manager
that displays the information.
The Dashboard is the supplied application for configuring, displaying, and saving
the collected information. Use this tool when tuning the environment for optimal
performance and to routinely monitor system performance.
IBM System Dashboard for Enterprise Content Management V5.1,
SC19-3084-03, provides detailed instructions on configuring and using the
listeners and manager components. To access the guide, use the following URL:
http://www.ibm.com/e-business/linkweb/publications/servlet/pbi.wss?CTY=
US&FNC=SRX&PBL=SC19-3084-03
When IBM FileNet Content Manager components are installed, a default System
Dashboard listener is automatically installed and activated. The listener
component collects details about the software version as well as performance
data.
If needed, you can instrument your Java or Microsoft Windows 32-bit C++
applications to use the provided listeners and expose performance data that is
visible in the Dashboard. This way, you can monitor your applications as well as
the IBM FileNet Content Manager components. The Java and C++ APIs are
documented in the information center as part of the P8 Developer Help section.
By default, each listener buffers approximately 24 hours worth of collected data
details.
There are four configuration parameters: port_number, secondary_port,
output_count, and output_interval. The parameters identify the ports that the
listeners use, the interval over which information needs to be aggregated, and
the amount of data that can be written to a summary log file before you create a
file.

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The listeners are activated automatically; however, there are several operating
system-specific requirements. For more information, see the following page:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.
ibm.p8.sysmgr.admin.doc%2Foverview_activate.htm
10.4.2 Dashboard
The Dashboard generates detailed reports about performance. It displays the
details and can also save the information in various formats.
The Dashboard is a Java utility that can be installed and run on Windows or
UNIX/Linux clients. It is installed separately from the server installation. It can
also be installed and run on the IBM FileNet Content Manager servers. On
Windows machines, run the Dashboard utility. On UNIX, you must have an
XWindows display exported and run the P8Manager shell script. The Dashboard
installs a local copy of its online help that can be accessed from the Help menu
option.
When the Dashboard is first run, you need to define clusters of IBM FileNet
Content Manager components to monitor. (The
cluster
is a logical construct used
by the Dashboard; it has no relation to an application or operating system
cluster.) These clusters are not used for high availability but are simply a
user-defined logical collection or cluster of servers to monitor. The cluster
contains servers and monitoring frequency. Select the Clusters tab and click
New. Enter a name for the cluster, which is typically the application system name
or location, and click OK. See Figure 10-7.
Figure 10-7 Dashboard: New cluster

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Follow these steps to add a server and timing details:
1.Click Edit.
2.Enter the name of the host that is running the listener. Unless the port was
reconfigured, the default port is 32775.
3.Enter the interval. The Interval sets the frequency that the Dashboard polls
the server listeners to get details in seconds.
For a 15-minute interval, enter 900 seconds. The number of data points sets
the maximum number of interval details that the Dashboard keeps in the
display.
4.Click OK.
Figure 10-8 shows an added server and interval information.
Figure 10-8 Cluster add server
The Dashboard tool queries the System Dashboard listeners on the servers and
populates details in the Dashboard tool’s various windows. It finds all listeners
running on each server; individual servers need to be defined only once. You can
save the cluster details for future use or open existing details from the file menu.
The cluster file is an XML-formatted file that is saved on the local computer. You
can copy the cluster.xml file to other computers where the Dashboard is
installed for use on other workstations.

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The Dashboard Summary tab shows a graph of the cluster’s performance.
The Details tab contains counter details for all listeners. You can expand the IBM
FileNet Content Manager applications on each server and view the following
items:
CPU, Network, and Disk utilization
Environmental details, such as OS level, IBM FileNet Content Manager
version, and Java virtual machine (JVM) settings
Remote Procedure Call (RPC) activity shows how the IBM FileNet Content
Manager subsystems are performing. It details the count and average time
consumed (duration) by the calls during the interval
Figure 10-9 shows RPC count details and the number of items processed per
interval.
Figure 10-9 RPC count details window

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The Dashboard is a Java application that holds the details in memory. If it
crashes or seems unresponsive, try these actions:
Check the network speed to ensure that it can transfer the generated data fast
enough. The amount of the data being transferred depends on the number of
servers being monitored and the transaction rate in the IBM FileNet Content
Manager environment.
Ensure that you have the latest Dashboard and check its documentation for
any additional memory configuration details. The Dashboard is independent
of the listener version; the latest Dashboard functions with older listeners.
Increase the Java memory for the Dashboard. The Dashboard can run on
machines with less than 2 GB memory. If you use a machine with less than
2 GB of memory and monitor many listeners, increase the machine’s memory
to 2 GB or take the following actions:
– Reduce the number of listeners being monitored.
– Increase the collection interval.
– Reduce the number of data points specified.
– Add memory.
The Dashboard has a report mechanism that allows you to save reports in
comma-separated value (CSV) format, which is useful for generating
spreadsheet reports. There is also an export option that enables you to generate
data that can be used as input to IBM Content Capacity Planner. In addition, you
can save the report template for future use. For more information, see the
Dashboard’s online help for reports.
Figure 10-10 on page 332 shows a sample report output.
Note: The Dashboard uses the name Scout to refer to the IBM Content
Capacity Planner.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 10-10 Sample CSV Dashboard report
System Dashboard performance archiver
System Dashboard provides a Java archiver.jar application that can be used
to collect data automatically. The JAR file can be run on any server or
workstation with Java and connectivity to the IBM FileNet Content Manager
listeners.
Running the archiver.jar application can be automated through host scripts.
The archiver.jar application writes to files with one file per listener in a log
directory. The archived files are binary files that can be opened via the
Dashboard’s File  Open Archive menu. The same view and report options
apply that are available in a live system monitoring session.
Table 10-1 on page 333 lists the archiver.jar parameter options.

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Table 10-1 archiver.jar parameter options
This is an example of a command to run the archiver.jar application:
java -jar archiver.jar -h -d Logs -t 12:00 -n 04:00 -i 15 cluster.xml
In this example, the archiver collects performance details in 15-second intervals,
creates new archive logs every four hours, and automatically stops after
12 hours. If you stop the archiver process early, part of the buffered performance
data might not appear in the last archive file. If the archiver loses connectivity
with a listener, by default, it attempts to reconnect five times at intervals that are
5 seconds apart before it stops attempting to connect to the failed listener. The -h
option specifies that the available listener’s history must be included in the
generated archive file.
If you restart your system while the archiver.jar application is running, you
must restart the archiver.
System Dashboard client API
System Dashboard includes a Java API set for clients, who want to add
Dashboard monitoring into their applications. The following technote explains
how to download the API and associated documentation:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21502836
Option Description
-t hh:mm Total amount of time in hours and minutes that the archiver process
must run
-n hh:mm The interval at which the current archived files must be closed and new
ones opened
-i integer The interval, which is specified in seconds, at which to poll for data
from the specified machines
-d file path The path to the location at which to place the archive log files
FileName.xml The complete path to the saved cluster file that specifies which
machines to poll
Recommendations: Start the archiver.jar application immediately before
your system activity picks up during the peak times (for example, in the
morning) and run it until activity slows down (for example, in the evening).

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Usage Reporter
The Usage Reporter is provided with the System Dashboard and is used to
monitor the number of users accessing the Content Platform Engine. The tool
looks for individual user names. If access to the engine is via an application that
uses a service or guest account, the tool might not reflect the number of people
actually using the system.
For more details, see the following document:
http://publibfp.dhe.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/c1930850.pdf
10.4.3 IBM ECM System Monitor
IBM ECM System Monitor is an optional component. System Monitor provides
automated, proactive system monitoring that can notify your support personnel
directly or through system management consoles, such as IBM Tivoli Enterprise
Console®. Use System Monitor to monitor all aspects of your IBM FileNet
Content Manager servers. It provides early fault detection and prevention to aid
support personnel in reducing system downtime. It monitors performance, disk
utilization, event logs, and literally hundreds of IBM FileNet Content Manager
application and system parameters. System Monitor contains a default set of
monitors for IBM FileNet Content Manager components and allows you to create
your own monitors for application-specific monitoring.
System Monitor features a web interface that authorized personnel use to
monitor and manage your system. It features a knowledge base of faults and
possible corrective actions. You can customize this knowledge base to offer
application-specific corrective actions. When a fault is encountered, support
personnel can quickly identify and correct the failing component. Figure 10-11 on
page 335 shows a sample report generated with System Monitor. The right side
of the report displays a graph showing CPU utilization. The left side of the report
shows all the events in which the CPU thresholds were breached.

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Figure 10-11 ECM System Monitor sample report
The rapid fault isolation and corrective action database make System Monitor a
must-have for mission critical systems. System Monitor reduces manual efforts in
the daily administration of IBM FileNet Content Manager and helps to increase
system availability. System Monitor can help reduce your operational costs and
help you meet your service-level agreements (SLAs) more efficiently.
For more information about IBM ECM System Monitor, go to the following links:
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/us/en/ecmsystemmonitor
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27010374

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10.5 Tracing
Tracing
is primarily used for debugging. Tracing can be enabled for many
components. By default, tracing is disabled. Tracing can be enabled and disabled
without recycling the application server.
Tracing is controlled via the IBM Administration Console for Content Platform
Engine (ACCE). Tracing can be enabled at the P8 domain level and at the site
level. Any setting at the site level takes precedence over the setting at the object
store level, including the location of the trace logs. If you use different settings at
the P8 domain and site levels, ensure that you track the various settings.
Figure 10-12 shows the trace control settings at the P8 domain level.
Figure 10-12 Setting tracing in ACCE
Note: Tracing all components can create enormous trace log files with little
system activity. Performance might also be affected. Enable the minimum
necessary tracing to collect the required information in relation to the problem
that you are investigating.

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Process-related tracing is controlled by the command-line utility, vwtool. For
more information about vwtool, see the following page in the information center:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.
ibm.p8.pe.vw.doc%2Fbpfvl049.htm
10.6 Auditing
Auditing
is the recording of events that occur on objects. For each recorded
event, a row is added to the event table in the object store’s database. From the
event object, you can get information about the audited event, including the
creation date, originating user, result status, and source object of the event.
All out-of-the-box events, such as create and check-in, can be audited, and the
auditing capability can be extended to custom events. The IBM Enterprise
Records (IER) product, for example, takes advantage of this extensibility to
provide audit events that are specific to a records management environment.
However, auditing can affect both performance and the database space usage,
so it is important to configure auditing judiciously.
For more information about auditing concepts, see the following topic in the
information center:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.
ibm.p8.ce.dev.ce.doc%2Faudit_concepts.htm
In addition to storing information about the type of change made to the object and
who made the change, you can also choose to store copies of the object before
and after the audited event. The ObjectStateRecordingLevels property defines
whether to keep copies of the object in the audit record from before and after the
audited event. The ObjectStateRecordingLevels property takes the following
values:
ORIGINAL_AND_MODIFIED_OBJECTS
Records a copy of both the original, pre-event object and the modified,
post-event object
MODIFIED_OBJECT
Records a copy of the modified, post-event object
NONE
Does not store a copy of the object being audited

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Another way to limit the information stored by an audited event is to use the
AuditAs meta-property on PropertyTemplates. This meta-property enables you to
audit specific properties on specific events directly without having to record the
object’s entire state. Limiting the properties that are audited reduces the required
space for the audit information and makes it easier to generate meaningful audit
reports.
The following link provides a procedure for configuring property auditing:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.
ibm.p8.ce.admin.tasks.doc%2Fp8pcc012.htm
10.7 Managing the logs
In this section, we discuss system message logs, tracing, and log maintenance.
Chapter 12, “Troubleshooting” on page 387 provides information about how to
interpret the information in the logs.
10.7.1 Log location
IBM FileNet Content Manager is written in Java. Java applications do not log
error messages; they log exceptions. Java normal messages and exceptions are
written to message log files.
If you are running IBM FileNet Content Manager in a multi-JVM environment, a
separate set of logs exists for each JVM.
Content Platform Engine has two message logs for content-related information:
p8_server_error.log
p8_server_trace.log
The process-related content is written to the following logs:
pesvr_system.log
pesvr_trace.log
Recommendations: Set ObjectStateRecordingLevels property to NONE
because persisting audited source objects in a database can result in
substantial consumption of large object (LOB) storage. If you have a
regulatory requirement for keeping copies of the object in the audit entry, set it
to the appropriate auditing level.

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Use the Ping page to find the log file location. On the Ping page, search for “Log
File Directory”:
http://<Content Platform Engine server>:<port>/FileNet/Engine
These files are at the following default locations:
WebSphere Application Server
install_root/profiles/profile_name/FileNet/server_Instance_name
WebLogic Server
bea/user_projects/domains/my_domain/FileNet/AdminServer
JBoss
jboss_install/jboss-as/bin/FileNet/server_instance_name
In addition, you might need to review the application server message logs. These
files are at the following default locations:
For IBM WebSphere:
– WAS_install_path/AppServer/profiles/profile_name/logs/server_name/S
ystemOut.log
– WAS_install_path/AppServer/profiles/profile_name/logs/server_name/S
ystemErr.log
For Oracle WebLogic
WLS_install_path/user_projects/domains/domain_name/servers/server_na
me/logs/server_name.log
For JBoss
JBOSS_DIST/server/server_name/log/server_name.log
10.7.2 Log file size
Typically, you only refer to the logs when you troubleshoot errors, so keep the
logs to a reasonable size to make it easier to find the information of interest.
If an issue can be reproduced, either roll to a new set of logs or prune the logs
before you reproduce the issue.
Recommendations: Rename system logs to a date format name to keep
them for a brief period, and then delete them. The log maintenance timing
depends on how busy your system is and how large the logs grow over time.

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10.7.3 Trace logs
Tracing all components can create enormous trace log files with little system
activity. Performance might be affected. Enable the minimum trace logs to collect
the required information in relation to the problem that you are investigating.
10.7.4 Audit logs
Content Platform Engine provides object store audit logging capabilities. When
auditing is enabled, the audit log entries are stored in the object store database.
10.8 System administration tools
In this section, we discuss the tools you can use to monitor and manage an IBM
FileNet Content Manager environment.
10.8.1 Configuration Manager
Content Platform Engine runs as a Java EE application within an application
server. Use the Configuration Manager that is installed with the Content Platform
Engine software to configure the software. The tool has a user interface, or you
can complete the tasks using a series of command-line scripts.
You can complete the following tasks by using the Configuration Manager:
Identifying the directory server to be used with the IBM FileNet Content
Manager installation
Creating data sources for the GCD, object stores, and workflow systems
Identifying the bootstrap user
Building and deploying the Content Platform Engine WAR file
The information that is supplied via the Configuration Manager is saved in a
profile file. You can use this profile file later to add more resources, such as Java
Database Connectivity (JDBC) data sources, to the environment, as well as
when you upgrade the Content Platform Engine software to a new release.

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10.8.2 IBM Administration Console for Content Platform Engine
ACCE is a web-based administrative tool for managing a P8 domain, including
the GCD, object stores, workflow systems, and sites. This tool is a replacement
for the Windows Microsoft Management Console snap-in tool, IBM FileNet
Enterprise Manager (FEM).
Both tools are provided with IBM FileNet Content Manager. ACCE is deployed as
part of the Content Platform Engine WAR file. FEM is one of the tools that can be
installed when the Content Platform Engine server is installed on a Microsoft
Windows platform.
If a task cannot be completed in ACCE, use FEM instead.
A single installation of FEM can be used to manage multiple P8 domains. An
ACCE deployment is for a specific P8 installation because it is deployed as part
of the Content Platform Engine WAR file.
See the P8 Information Center for detailed information about completing tasks
using ACCE and FEM. In this Redbooks publication, the focus is primarily on
using ACCE to complete Content Platform Engine administrative tasks.
System administrators need access to ACCE. It is used to configure object stores
and workflow systems, define content properties, assign content security, and
administer your IBM FileNet Content Manager system.
In development and test environments, it can be useful to expand the usage of
ACCE to additional resources so that they can easily build required artifacts and
validate behavior seen elsewhere in the IBM FileNet Content Manager
environment. However, it is important to establish protocols for using these tools
and for building artifacts.
Tip: You can perform all the required configuration tasks, such as configuring
the directory server and creating JDBC data sources, manually by using the
administrative tools provided by the Java EE application server. However,
completing the tasks this way is error prone and likely to result in an
installation that is configured incorrectly. Instead, use the Configuration
Manager.

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Tips when using ACCE
There are four main artifacts that are managed by ACCE:
Domain
Case analyzer stores
Case analyzer stores are used with the IBM Case Foundation and IBM Case
Manager products, and they are not covered in this publication.
Global configuration
Object stores
A typical tree view enables you to browse through and act on all the artifacts in
the domain. Consider these tips:
Tip 1: The information is often displayed as a series of tabs.
There can be many tabs; sometimes, there are too many tabs to display all of
them at the same time in the browser window, so scroll buttons are provided.
Tip 2: If you cancel a wizard, you are prompted to confirm the cancellation
request. Click OK to confirm the cancellation request. Clicking Cancel takes
you back to the wizard.
Tip 3: Right-click items in the tree view to see the context menu.
Tip 4: Tabs do not close unless you specifically click the “x” to close them.
Although this feature can result in a crowded window, it also makes navigating
between items quicker, because the information is already loaded in the
browser cache.
Tip 5: A tab can have subtabs. Ensure that you know in what context you are
working.
Figure 10-13 on page 343 illustrates some of the features that are mentioned in
the list of tips.

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Figure 10-13 ACCE layout
Domain-level settings
The following tabs are available at the domain level. Many settings can be
altered. However, unless you want to enable a capability that is by default
disabled, or you are trying to resolve a particular issue, we highly advise that you
leave the settings unchanged
, especially because many of the settings can be
overwritten at the object-store level. The following settings are domain-level
settings:
General
Use to set the URL to the P8 Information Center to make it easier to get
information when you use ACCE.
Properties
Provides a concise listing of the domain-level artifacts, such as the number of
external repositories, object stores, and content cache areas.
Security
Lists the default security settings for the P8 domain. Whenever a new object is
created in the domain, these settings will be applied by default. However, they
can be manually overwritten if needed.
Top level of tabs: one for the domain and one for e ach object store to which you navi gate
Main r ow of tabs for curr ently open t op-level tab,
In this figure, t he domain tab is open
Control s for
scrolli ng to
additi onal tabs
If needed, an
additi onal
horizontal
scroll bar
displays
here
Tabs wi thin a tab

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Directory configuration
Provides the details of the currently configured LDAP environment. The initial
set of values is defined when the Content Platform Engine software is
configured by using the Content Manager configuration tool. After the initial
installation and configuration are verified, use the Directory configuration tab
to add information about additional LDAP environments or to modify the
existing configuration.
Server cache subsystem
Use to define the refresh time for and maximum size of the different types of
cache, including the user cache, and also to set the default and maximum
number of objects that can be returned by a search.
Audit subsystem
Use to configure the pruning of the audit log.
Content subsystem
Use to maximize the throughput of content to clients and to configure
thumbnail generation.
Content cache subsystem
Use to define the size and location of the content cache.
Text search subsystem
Use to enable the text search capability that is provided by Content Search
Services (CSS) and to optimize the settings for the text extract, indexing, and
searching capabilities.
Trace subsystem
Use to configure trace log options. The trace logs are usually required when
more information is needed on an error that has been logged in the content
error log or when determining the cause of slow performance. But, be
selective about the components to trace and the amount of time that tracing is
enabled because the tracing will affect system performance and generate a
large amount of log information.
Tip: Enabling the text search capability does not cause text to be indexed.
It just makes the feature available. You must also navigate to the specific
object stores and document classes that have the content to be indexed
and enable text searching at those levels as appropriate.

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Sweep subsystem
Use to configure how often to run the sweep processes and what resources to
allocate to the sweep processes. The actions of the sweep runs are defined at
the object store level and enable you to ensure that old content is removed
from the system in a timely fashion, and perform bulk operations that are
related to setting retention times and thumbnail generation.
Replication subsystem
Used with FileNet Content Federation Services for Image Services to define
the available resources for replicating information from Image Services to
Content Platform Engine, and from Content Platform Engine to Image
Services.
Use the replication subsystem options to stop the Content Platform Engine
from processing any federation requests. This capability can be useful when
you need to perform maintenance work on the Content Platform Engine or
Image Services server.
Publishing subsystem
Use to configure the rendition processing that is available with Rendition
Engine, an optional add-on to the IBM FileNet Content Manager suite.
Asynchronous processing
Use to enable and disable event processing, and to optimize the event
processing by the wait time, timeout setting, number of workers, and how
often failed events need to be tried again.
FileNet Content Federation Services import agent subsystem
Use to enable and disable the processing of FileNet Content Federation
Services for Image Services and FileNet Content Federation
Services-Content Manager OnDemand federation requests.
Workflow subsystem
Use to configure the available resources for workflow and case analyzer
processing.
Recommendations: Ensure that dispatchers that are not being used are
disabled. For example, disable the asynchronous processing if events are
not being processed. Each dispatcher issues regular queries to look for
work, so if there is no work to look for, you can save system resources by
disabling the dispatcher.

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Site-level settings
Every P8 domain has at least one site. In a geographically distributed
environment in which you have configured multiple sites, it might be appropriate
to overwrite P8 domain-level configuration settings with site-specific settings.
Some site-level settings can also be further refined at the object store level.
To access the site-level information, in ACCE, navigate to Global
Configuration  Administration  Sites.
The following tabs are available at the site level:
General
Besides providing general information about the site, such as its name, use
this tab to specify whether requests can be forwarded to or from this site. This
option is not available at the domain level.
Properties
Server cache subsystem
Use to configure the cache for various objects, including user tokens, marking
sets, and the GCD.
Audit subsystem
Use to configure pruning of the audit logs.
Content subsystem
Along with the content cache subsystem, use this tab to optimize the upload
and download of content by clients.
Content cache subsystem
Use to define the location of the content cache areas and the number of
elements that can be stored in the cache.
Text search subsystem
Use to optimize the indexing of and the searching for content.
Trace subsystem
Use to configure trace logging. Trace logging is often needed when you are
troubleshooting issues with the environment and with custom applications.
Sweep subsystem
Use to enable the sweep capability and to build sweep schedules. The sweep
processes are defined at the object store level and can be used to perform
bulk updates, move content, and manage queues.

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Replication subsystem
Use with FileNet Content Federation Services for Image Services to manage
the frequency with which updates to the Image Services repository are
replicated to the object stores, and vice versa.
Publishing subsystem
Use with Rendition Engine to manage publishing processes.
Asynchronous processing subsystem
Use to enable and disable asynchronous event processing and to optimize
the processing of the events. When events are generated, a row is entered
into the queueitem table. After an event is successfully processed, the row is
removed from the table. By default, if an event fails to process successfully, it
will be tried again up to seven times. Two columns, retry count and next retry
date, in the queueitem table track the number of retry attempts and the next
time an attempt will be made to retry processing an event that previously
failed.
FileNet Content Federation Services import agent subsystem
Use with FileNet Content Federation Services for Image Services to manage
the initial federation of documents from Image Services to object stores.
Workflow subsystem
Use to manage the processing throughput of workflows and Case Analyzer.
GCD level artifacts
The following artifacts are defined at the GCD level so that they can be used with
any of the object stores in a P8 domain:
Affinity groups, which are groups of index servers and index areas for use with
CSS.
Content cache areas, which can improve the speed at which content is
delivered to clients.
Typically,
content cache areas
are storage areas that are more local to the
clients than the object store storage areas. Content can be loaded into a
cache storage area when it is first added to the object store, or when it is first
accessed by a client. You also define settings, such as how large the cache
can grow, the number of elements that can be in the cache, and the rules for
pruning the cache.
Tip: Avoid large backlogs in the queueitem table. Set up regular queries
against the queueitem table to track the backlog, event processing
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Database connections
A Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) XA and non-XA data source
pair defines a JDBC connection to a database available to the IBM FileNet
Content Manager software. You define the data source pairs by using the
Configuration Manager.
In ACCE, you define database connections as “
labels
” to a data source pair.
And then, as you define object stores and workflow systems, you identify
which database connection (and therefore database) to use.
Object stores and workflow systems can share databases, which can simplify
the maintenance of the P8 environment. Ensure that if you combine
databases that it does not adversely affect any of these areas:
– Application requirements
– Backup and restore schedules
– Data independence requirements
External repositories
These repositories exist outside of the current P8 domain whose content can
be made available by using FileNet Content Federation Services.
For more information about FileNet Content Federation Services, see
Federated Content Management: Accessing Content from Disparate
Repositories with IBM Content Federation Services and IBM Content
Integrator, SG24-7742.
Fixed content devices
These storage devices, such as IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, EMC Centera,
and Network Appliance SnapLock, can be used to store object store content.
A full list of the supported devices is provided in the IBM FileNet P8 Hardware
and Software Requirements guide, which can be downloaded from the
following page:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=3278&uid=swg27013654
Rendition Engine connections
Used to configure Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) and P8
Rendition Engine connections.
Replication groups
A
replication group
is used to connect an external repository with an object
store.

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Sites
A
site
is a logical grouping of P8 domain resources. This feature is used
primarily with geographically dispersed clients and multiple data centers. You
can use this feature to allocate local resources to clients and limit the amount
of WAN traffic.
Text search servers
These servers are for use with CSS. Each server can be used to perform text
indexing, text searching, or both.
Add-ons
Add-ons
are modules that can be added to any object store to support
specific functionality. Several add-ons are supplied with the IBM FileNet
Content Manager product to support functionality provided by Content
Platform Engine and FileNet Workplace XT. Other products in the P8 Suite,
such as IBM Enterprise Records, as well as custom applications, can also
provide (and require) additional add-ons.
Marking sets
Marking sets
are special properties that help control access to objects.
Object store management
ACCE is also used to define and manage object stores. In this section, we focus
on the administration and maintenance of object stores. For object store design
guidance, see Chapter 4, “Repository design” on page 81. Object store
management includes these functions:
Searching
Search capabilities are provided in IBM Content Navigator, FileNet Workplace
XT, and ACCE. The facilities in IBM Content Navigator and FileNet Workplace
XT allow you to search for documents in the object stores. The search
capability in ACCE enables you to locate other objects in addition to
documents. For example, you can use the search capability to determine how
many events are waiting to be processed or how many events are waiting to
be tried again because a previous attempt at processing the event failed.
When objects have been found via search, you can then select one or more of
the objects and update them if needed.
Tip: When creating object stores, use only the add-ons that you are sure
will be needed. Additional add-ons can be added later, but after they are
added to an object store, they cannot be removed.

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Making bulk updates
You can use these types of bulk updates:
– Updating metadata or security settings on a set of documents
Sometimes, you need to make a similar update to a number of objects. For
example, if 100 documents were filed into the wrong folder, instead of
refiling the documents individually, you can search for the objects and then
use a bulk update to refile them all at once.
– Moving content to a different type of storage or a different storage location
This type of move can be necessary for a number of reasons, including
wanting to replace a storage device or to move older, less frequently
accessed content to cheaper storage.
Moving content is accomplished via the bulk sweep process. You define
what the sweep will do at the object store level, and set a default schedule
at the domain level.
Configuring and disabling dispatchers
Dispatchers are used to manage work that is initiated via processes, such as
federation and asynchronous event processing. The dispatchers poll the
appropriate queues for work and then pass the work along to the threads or
workers who then perform the required task.
By default, the dispatchers are enabled. If system performance is an issue
and the dispatchers are not needed, consider disabling them by using the
check boxes on the following pages. Also, use these pages to optimize the
number of dispatchers and worker threads for each type of process:
– Text search
– Replication for federation
– Asynchronous processing
Configuring and optimizing asynchronous processing is handled at the
domain level.
Using recovery bins
By default, when a user or application deletes an object, the object cannot be
recovered. However, Content Platform Engine also provides a “soft delete”
method. With a soft delete, the object is placed into a recovery bin. The
security settings on the recovery bin determine who can restore documents
from the recovery bin and who can empty it.

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If recovery bins and soft deletes are used in applications, work with the
designers of the applications to answer the following questions:
– How many recovery bins are needed?
– Who can restore content from recovery bins?
– Who can empty recovery bins?
– When is it appropriate for the object store administrator to empty and
remove recovery bins?
Defining sweep processes
Sweep processes can be defined for bulk updates, retention management,
and queue management. Build the default schedules for these processes at
the domain level. But, build the sweep definitions, which the individual sweep
process will accomplish, at the object store level.
Configuring connection points
Connection points
provide a link to a workflow system region. Applications
that employ workflow functionality use a connection point to identify the
workflow system region that will be used to process the workflow.
10.8.3 Consistency checker
Consistency checker
is one of the tools that can be installed when the Content
Platform Engine server is installed on a Microsoft Windows platform. Use the tool
to perform the following tasks:
Detect inconsistencies between the content in file storage areas and the
metadata in the associated object store database.
Update the storage area statistics after an upgrade.
10.8.4 Database tools
The tools that are provided by your database vendor play an important part in
managing the IBM FileNet Content Manager environment.
Backups
Ensure that regular database backups are taken. As object store content is likely
stored in file storage or on fixed content devices, the database backups need to
be coordinated with backups of the data on the storage devices and also cover
any temporary storage areas. In addition, if content search indexes and workflow
systems are part of your environment, the backup strategy must include the
content that they generate, too. If data has to be restored, everything must be
restored to the same point in time.

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You can use both hot (or online) and offline backups with IBM FileNet Content
Manager environments as long as you ensure that the backups of all the
components are synchronized and can be restored to the same point in time.
You must test restoring from backups
regularly
, both as part of general
environment maintenance and for disaster recovery.
For more information about backing up and restoring IBM FileNet Content
Manager environments, see 10.13, “Backup and restore” on page 364.
Tuning
When you first deploy a new P8 solution, ensuring that the databases are tuned
appropriately is a key element of applications that have good response times.
Look for these items:
Adequate number of available database connections
Appropriate indexes to improve search performance
Create indexes on individual object store properties via FEM. Follow these
steps to identify a property as an index item:
a.Navigate to the class that uses the property.
b.Display the properties of the class.
c.Click the Property Definitions tab.
d.Select the property from the list, and then click Edit.
e.On the General tab, use the set/remove index option.
Complex indexes must be created by using the database vendor tools.
Cache “read ahead”
Maintenance
Monitor the database for these conditions:
Available space for items, such as tables, indexes, logs, and journal files
Structures that need reorganizing or that have space that needs reclaiming
If many objects, for example, documents or events, are regularly being added
and deleted, regularly reorganizing the appropriate tables or rebuilding
indexes can have a positive effect on performance and throughput.

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Counting database objects
Normally, all access to an object store database needs to be via the Content
Platform Engine APIs, but there are circumstances when querying the database
tables can be appropriate. For example, because there is no count mechanism in
the Content Platform Engine APIs, you might need to track the following
information:
Total number of objects in the object store as a part of a plan for rolling to a
new object store
Number of rows in the queueitem table to ensure that event processing is
occurring as expected
Number of rows in the DocVersion table to ensure that content is being added
to the object store in the expected volumes
10.8.5 Application server administration tools
Although you perform the initial setup of the Content Platform Engine by using
the Configuration Manager, you need to use the application server administration
tools for performance tuning. Update these items by using the application server
administration tools:
JVM memory settings
Garbage collection
Thread allocation
Connection pools for the database and LDAP
10.8.6 Workflow system tools
Various tools for designing workflows, configuring process regions, and
monitoring running workflows are provided as Java applets in FileNet Workplace
XT. In addition, a series of administrative command-line tools, such as vwtool,
are installed as part of Content Platform Engine. For more information about
these tools, see the information center and Introducing IBM FileNet Business
Process Manager, SG24-7509.
10.8.7 IBM Content Navigator tools
Tools are provided with Content Navigator for performing tasks such as
configuring desktops. For more information about Content Navigator, see
Customizing and Extending IBM Content Navigator, SG24-8055.

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10.9 Reducing storage costs
It used to be that storage costs were a small component of an IT budget, but with
the increase in the use of electronic information and the plethora of documents
that must be stored for legal and compliance reasons, storage costs are an issue.
Before you can reduce storage costs, you need to know the following information:
What you are storing
Why you are storing it
Where you are storing it
How long do you need to store it
What access is needed
With this information, you can design a storage plan that enables you to set up
the following rules:
Set retention rules when content is added to a repository
Update retention rules when requirements change
Develop sweep rules and schedules that enable you to perform these tasks:
– Delete content that is no longer needed
– Move content to lower-cost storage when it is accessed less frequently
10.9.1 Retention rules
Retention rules
identify the minimum length of time that an object, such as a
document, annotation, folder, or custom object, must be kept. After the retention
date has passed, from an IBM FileNet Content Manager perspective, the object
is eligible for deletion. However, other applications, such as IBM Enterprise
Records, might have placed holds that will continue to prevent the objects from
being deleted.
Fixed content devices
For documents that are stored on a fixed content device, IBM FileNet Content
Manager supports both static and dynamic retention models. The date at which
the document is eligible for deletion is set at ingestion time. Then, at some future
point, the retention can be altered.

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When using this retention model, the deletion happens in two stages:
1.A delete request must be initiated from the IBM FileNet Content Manager.
This request “removes” the document from the object store, and the
document is no longer visible to IBM FileNet Content Manager applications.
2.In the background, IBM FileNet Content Manager calls the fixed content
device to delete the content. Since IBM FileNet Content Manager previously
determined that the content is eligible for deletion, deleting the content from
the fixed storage device is allowed and successful.
File and database storage
Documents and annotations stored on file and database storage areas can take
advantage of the IBM FileNet Content Manager retention capabilities that
support setting and updating retention rules throughout the document lifecycle.
This retention capability enables documents to be ingested with an “
I know I
want to keep this, but I do not know how long I want to keep it
” rule, as well as
more specific rules. The content stored on a file or database storage area is not
under device retention. This content is controlled by IBM FileNet Content
Manager retention only.
As with documents that are stored on fixed content devices, documents are not
automatically deleted when they reach their “expiration date”. Instead, you must
run regular sweep processes to look for documents that are ready to be deleted.
Folders and custom objects
Retention rules can also be set on folders and custom objects. These objects are
stored in the object store database. And, as with documents, you must run
regular sweep processes to delete the objects that have met their expiration date.
10.9.2 Using the sweep framework
IBM FileNet Content Manager provides a sweep framework that is an efficient
way of acting on all the rows or a subset of rows in a single table.
Use the sweep process to perform any of the following tasks:
Dispose of objects that have met their retention requirements
Update how long an object must be kept
Move content to different storage
Best Practice: Allow IBM FileNet Content Manager to control the retention on
fixed content devices. Do not define default retention periods directly on the
fixed content device.

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The sweep framework also supports thumbnail generation and batch printing.
There are three forms of sweep:
Single sweep
Use this form of sweep to complete a one-time batch task, such as moving
documents that have been incorrectly filed.
Policy-controlled
Use this form of sweep to automate regular maintenance tasks, such as
deleting documents that have passed their required retention dates and
moving documents to lower-cost storage.
Queue sweep
A special form of sweep that is used by IBM FileNet Content Manager for
queue operations, such as thumbnail generation.
10.9.3 Monitoring storage and cache usage
Statistics on storage and cache usage are available within ACCE. Monitoring this
information enables you to determine whether these conditions exist:
Under-utilized storage
A need to add additional storage
This information can also help when you need to bill organizations for their
storage usage.
Storage statistics
The following information is available for file storage areas. Monitor this
information to ensure that the file storage is configured appropriately for your
environment:
Number of files currently stored
Number of bytes of information currently stored in the file storage area
Date on which the file storage was last modified
Number of files added to the storage area
Number of files removed from the storage area
Maximum number of files that can be added to the storage area
Maximum size to which the storage area can grow
Restriction: ACCE does not provide similar information for fixed content
devices. Instead, use the tools provided by the fixed content device provider.

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Figure 10-14 on page 357 illustrates the storage statistics information provided in
ACCE.
Figure 10-14 File storage statistics
Cache subsystems
There are multiple cache subsystems that can be tuned. You can configure the
subsystems at the P8 domain level and at the site level.
Consider these best practices for cache subsystems:
Use the default settings and only make changes if specific use cases require
them.
Only make changes at the site level if there are specific characteristics of that
site that require different settings.

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Track the changes you make, especially if you are making them at the site
level.
Figure 10-15 displays the ACCE page for modifying the site-level cache
subsystems. In addition to the subsystems shown, there are also subject and
metadata merged scope subsystems.
Figure 10-15 Server cache subsystems

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Content cache statistics
Content caches are configured at the object store level and determine when
content is added to the cache, how long the content stays in the cache, and how
large the cache can grow.
Using a content cache effectively improves the speed at which clients gain
access to content. By default, content is added to the cache when a client
accesses a document, so that subsequent accesses will be quicker. You can also
add new content to the cache automatically.
The content cache information needs to be used as a guideline of activity. The
following information is provided:
Number of files in the cache
Current size of the cache
Number of files added to the cache since the cache was last cleared
Number of files removed from the cache since the cache was last cleared
10.10 Using virus scan software
If the servers that host IBM FileNet Content Manager run virus scan software, be
aware that the following situations might occur:
Slow installation
Consider disabling the virus scan software when you install or upgrade IBM
FileNet Content Manager components.
Slow data uploads
If uploading large files or many files, consider disabling the real-time scanning
feature of the virus scan software during the upload.
File size corruption
Do not use virus scan software on the IBM FileNet Content Manager file
storage areas. Virus scan software can alter the physical size of a file. When
a client attempts to download a file, IBM FileNet Content Manager checks the
physical size of the file against the size of the file that was uploaded. If the two
file sizes are different, the download fails.
Access-denied errors
Some virus scan software locks files while they are being scanned, which can
cause operations that require access to these files to fail.

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10.11 Applying fixes
IBM FileNet Content Manager environments are never, and must never be, static.
IBM regularly releases fix packs and new releases, so it is important to have a
plan for picking up the latest versions of the IBM FileNet Content Manager
software regularly. Keeping the software current makes troubleshooting issues,
as well as obtaining fixes for issues that are specific to your environment, easier.
It also ensures that you are running software that is still supported by IBM as part
of a regular support contract.
The maintenance plan must cover updating the following software:
Custom applications
Infrastructure updates, including application server, database server, and
directory server updates
IBM FileNet Content Manager component updates
The plan needs to cover the procedures for when and how to make these
updates, as well as the regression testing that is required to ensure that the
changes work as expected.
The more frequently updates are applied to the environment, the easier it is to
apply the updates:
Avoid having to change multiple components at the same time
Reduce the risk of a regression
Keep your team up-to-date on the upgrade procedures
10.11.1 Tracking fixes
Track the level of software that is installed in all your IBM FileNet Content
Manager environments (development, test, production, and so on).
Recommendations: Check with your database and cluster software
vendors to determine whether these components can be adversely
affected by any virus scanning software.
Tip: Ensure that there is one environment running the exact same software as
production, so that if an issue occurs in production, you can test the fix prior to
applying it to the production environment.

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You need to track the software levels for these reasons:
Ensure that you use the correct procedures when you update software.
Depending on the software level currently in place, the upgrade procedures
might vary.
If issues arise, you can provide the appropriate details to IBM Support so that
they can help resolve the issue as quickly as possible.
When you plan an upgrade, you can ensure that any fixes that you have
applied to your current environment have been rolled into the release to which
you want to move.
10.11.2 Checking compatibility and build numbers
If you have a build number but you are not sure what release it matches, or if you
need to check that a fix you want to install is compatible with other FileNet P8
components in your environment, see the FileNet P8 Fix Pack Compatibility
Matrices.
The matrices can be downloaded from the following URL:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=3278&uid=swg27014734
There is a separate matrix for each major IBM FileNet Content Manager release.
Column B provides the build numbers.
10.11.3 Reporting issues and downloading fixes
To report an issue, use the IBM Support portal (you must be registered):
https://www.ibm.com/support/entry/myportal/overview
All IBM FileNet Content Manager fixes are made available via the IBM website
called Fix Central:
http://www.ibm.com/support/fixcentral/
Important: Just because a release is made available
after
you install a fix
in your environment, do not assume that your fix is included in the release.
Tip: All FileNet Workplace XT fix packs are full installations of a complete
FileNet Workplace XT package and not merely incremental updates.

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Also, consider signing up to receive automatic alerts for critical updates and
issues:
http://www.ibm.com/support/electronicsupport/preventproblem.html
10.12 Updating security
As your system grows, you might find it necessary to add users and groups to
create or access content. Although content security can be added for specific
users, a best practice is to use security groups. Users can easily be added to the
group to gain the security roles that they need, as well as easily removed from a
group when their role changes and they no longer need access to the content.
Securing content to a specific user requires maintenance to find content and add
security for them as user roles tend to change over time.
To update an object store with new users or groups, use IBM FileNet Enterprise
Manager’s Security Script Wizard to run the OSecurityUpdate.xml script. IBM
FileNet Enterprise runs on Windows operating systems only and is installed by
using the Tools option in the Content Platform Engine installer.
To update an object store with new users or groups, follow these steps:
1.In the IBM FileNet Enterprise Manager, right-click the object store node,
select All Tasks, and run the Security Script Wizard.
2.When prompted to select an XML security script information file, browse to
and select OSecurityUpdate.xml. It is installed in the installation base
directory:
Important: Review the list of fixes included in the package to determine
whether any of them might negatively affect the functionality that is used in
your environment. If so, ensure that any regression testing includes these
changes.
Prior to installing a software update, ensure that you review the readme file
and verify that the fix is compatible with the software in your environment and
that it resolves your specific issues.
Recommendations: Although there are ways to apply security to individual
objects, using the Security Script Wizard is the only way to ensure that
security is set correctly for the entire object store. Failure to use the wizard can
result in users not having the correct permissions to access or create content.

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FileNet\ContentEngine\Scripts\Component Library\
3.When prompted to define security roles, you see two roles under Security
Role: Object Store Administrators and Object Store Users.
Click Add to add security participants for the selected role. The Select Users
and Groups dialog box opens. Click OK when you have added the
participants for that particular role. See Figure 10-16 on page 363, which
shows the Security Script Wizard.
Figure 10-16 Security Script Wizard interface
4.Click Finish when you are done. The wizard generates a prompt informing
you where its log file will be located. The wizard proceeds to apply the
security permissions to the objects in the object store. This process can take
time, depending on the number of objects that need to be updated. The
wizard reports when the process of applying security is complete.
5.If you added groups to only one Security Role, a notice appears (see
Figure 10-17). Click OK to continue. This notice appears because no current
Security Roles will be deleted; only the new roles will be added by the wizard.
Figure 10-17 Security wizard notice

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The Security Script Wizard sets permissions on the root folder in the object store,
but it does not directly modify the security assigned to individual documents and
custom objects. Depending on how inheritance has been configured, the
document and custom object permissions might be inherited from the root folder.
You can read more detailed information by selecting ecm_help  FileNet P8
Administration  Content Platform Engine Administration  Managing
Security Security Script Wizard.
10.13 Backup and restore
In this section, we discuss IBM FileNet Content Manager backup and restore.
Chapter 7, “Business continuity” on page 217, discusses types of events that can
require a system restoration. It focuses on building a highly available
environment with protection against catastrophic system or site loss to ensure
that your system is always available. If you are responsible for system recovery,
familiarize yourself with business continuity methods whether your budget
permits a hot site or not. You might be able to use some business continuity
methods to reduce backup and restore times in your data center. If your budget
permits a hot site, you still need a backup and restore mechanism to recover
from human errors, such as deleted or modified files. A mirrored hot site mirrors
all activity; it lacks a means to differentiate an intentional or accidental change.
The longer your backup media is stored near your primary servers, the greater
the chance that a catastrophic event can destroy both your servers and your
ability to restore your systems to operational condition.
IBM FileNet Content Manager does not provide backup software. You must use
backup utilities that are supplied with your operating system or database or by
third parties.
10.13.1 System components requiring backup
This list shows the system components that require backup:
Databases (all tables or table spaces and schema for your system)
File storage areas if used or configured, including fixed content storage areas
Recommendations: Store your backup media off-site away from your primary
servers. Make sure that the media is moved to the off-site location as soon as
possible after the backup completes.

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Content search files and indexes
Server operating system, Java EE environment, and all IBM FileNet Content
Manager installed software
You can choose to omit the operating system and software backup. In the
event of a failure that requires a restore operation, this choice requires a
reinstallation of all components on a server, which increases the time required
to return the server to normal operations.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) security system
If you are using the user ID’s security identifier (SID) as the unique identifier
for the user, ensure that the SIDs are maintained during a restore. IBM
FileNet Content Manager uses a unique identifier for security, which by
default is the SID. Simply re-creating deleted users or groups does not work
because re-creating deleted users or groups typically creates a new unique
identifier. If your system is configured to use a different type of unique
identifier, for example, email address or employee ID, these attributes can be
re-created when a user account is added back to the LDAP.
Any external systems with which your IBM FileNet Content Manager
application operates
Typical IBM FileNet Content Manager installations operate in concert with
existing applications. Examples are Customer Relations Management
systems, database applications, and mainframe applications. Their data
needs to be backed up at the same time that your IBM FileNet Content
Manager system is backed up to ensure full data consistency.
10.13.2 Offline backup
An offline backup is the preferred method for IBM FileNet Content Manager. An
offline backup ensures that all application data is in a consistent state. When a
restore becomes necessary, all data must be recovered to the same point in time.
A
backup window
is the amount of time that your system can be down for
backup. If your system has users running from 6:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m., you have
a seven hour backup window. A best practice is to allot time before and after
users require the system to accommodate late workers or a backup that runs
longer than usual. We advise allotting 1/2 to one hour before and after users
Tip: If your system uses Fixed File Storage areas for compliance or Image
Manager applications, you need a normal file storage area for temporary
staging of content. If your application performs content reservations or
uses annotations, that metadata is stored in the “temporary” file store. This
file storage area must be included in your backup and recovery strategy.

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expect the system to be operational. In this example, allotting one hour before
and after gives you a five hour total backup window to stop the servers, perform
the backup, and start the servers.
Typical installations store content in a file system, metadata in a database, work
items in a process database, and pointers to the content in external systems. The
amount of time that is necessary to back up the individual system components
can vary by minutes or hours.
The amount of time required for the longest component’s backup must fit within
your backup window. Your content storage area usually consumes the greatest
amount of backup time.
There are a few steps that you can take to decrease backup time to fit your
window:
Use a combination of full and incremental backups.
Incremental backups
simply capture information that has changed since the last backup. This can
greatly reduce time spent backing up data. During a restore, you must restore
from your last full backup and apply the incremental backups before starting
your system, which increases the amount of time necessary to restore your
system. A best practice is to perform full backups weekly when a larger
backup window is available and perform incremental backups during the week
when your backup window is smaller.
If you use tape as your backup media, a faster alternative is to back up your
data to disk files. When the backup to disk completes, transfer the backup
files to tape, which allows your IBM FileNet Content Manager system to run
while the transfer to tape occurs.
The next section describes potential methods to run online backups. Those
techniques can safely be used for offline backups. Simply stop your IBM
FileNet Content Manager servers, run the copy, and restart your system. This
approach provides the fastest possible offline backup.
If your backups cannot be completed within your backup window, you need to
look at the online backup methods discussed next.
10.13.3 Online backup
You need to investigate online backup alternatives if your system must run 24x7,
your backup time exceeds your backup window, or your service-level agreements
(SLAs) require a higher frequency than a nightly backup. Online backups are
also referred to as
hot backups
.

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The issue with online backups is ensuring consistency in your backups. As
mentioned in 10.13.2, “Offline backup” on page 365, backup times can vary
between different components. If your IBM FileNet Content Manager database
backup completes in 30 minutes, but your file store backup runs three hours, it is
highly possible that when a restore is performed, your database might not have
metadata pointers to all the files in your file store. The result is an inconsistent
system. IBM FileNet Content Manager provides a Consistency Checker utility
(see 10.8.3, “Consistency checker” on page 351) that you can use to find
inconsistent objects.
There are options on the market that can help resolve this situation. IBM
FlashCopy, NetApp, disk, volume, or storage area network (SAN) mirroring
techniques are available that permit point-in-time backups or snapshots of your
data. These options typically work similarly to the disk mirroring that has been
used for many years. Where they differ is that they mirror several disks or
volumes in groups and permit adding point-in-time details. Restoring involves
copying the mirror back to the last good point in time. Several techniques offer
offline tape backup of the mirror and point-in-time copies. Ideally, the utilities
provide a means of capturing consistent slices across all disk drives and servers
used by your application.
You can use the IBM Lab Services offering to help you create an online backup
strategy.
Section 7.4.1, “Disaster recovery concepts” on page 235 discusses methods that
use these techniques to copy your data to a remote facility. The same techniques
can provide copies in your primary data center. Most storage vendors offer local
and remote mirroring capabilities for this copying. It might be called a

point-in-time
,
snapshot
, or
flash backup
capability. Most storage vendors also
provide tape backup solutions to move the data off-site.
Check whether your database vendor has any special requirements for using
these techniques for system backups; most vendors have special requirements.
Consider also using an offline database backup for additional safety.
10.13.4 System restore
There is no particular required component order when a system restore becomes
necessary. Your LDAP security and databases need to be operational before you
start IBM FileNet Content Manager after a restore. Typically, you restore
information in this sequence:
LDAP system
Database server
IBM FileNet Content Manager server operating system

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Application servers
Content Platform Engine
File stores if used or configured
Other IBM FileNet Content Manager components
Any external systems with which your IBM FileNet Content Manager
application operates
Your IBM FileNet Content Manager system needs to be down during the restore
process. If you used incremental backups, restore all incremental backups before
you start your IBM FileNet Content Manager system. After all restores are
completed, start your IBM FileNet Content Manager system normally.
10.13.5 Application consistency check
If your application uses external systems, your application developers must
consider creating tools to allow validating the consistency between your IBM
FileNet Content Manager system and the external systems. There might be an
event where you need to restore your IBM FileNet Content Manager system, and
external systems cannot be restored to the same point in time. In those cases,
you need a means to validate that content references in the external systems are
on the IBM FileNet Content Manager system.
Recommendations: Consistency checks can run for a long time depending
on the amount of content in your system. Limit the amount of time that the
consistency check runs. Set the check to start a few hours before the major
event that requires its use.

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10.14 Task schedule
Table 10-2 lists the recommendations for the frequency of performing IBM
FileNet Content Manager system administration tasks.
Table 10-2 Task schedule recommendations
1
Log maintenance must include all operating system, application server, and IBM
FileNet Content Manager product error and trace log files. Log maintenance must
also include the Content Platform Engine audit log and the Content Platform
Engine log database tables, if used. All log files can grow quite large over time;
on busy systems, you might need to increase the maintenance frequency. Low
use systems might be able to reduce the frequency.
2
“System Dashboard performance archiver” on page 332 describes how to archive
performance logs. You can generate reports from the archived log files. If you use
IBM FileNet System Monitor, you can configure it to keep archived performance
data and generate reports, as well.
3
IBM FileNet fix packs are produced at regular intervals. Fix packs are available on
Fix Central: http://www.ibm.com/support/fixcentral/
Task Frequency Comments
Monitor system Daily Processes, performance, and logs
Back up system Daily Databases, file stores, and LDAP service
Log maintenance Weekly See footnote
1
Check free space Weekly All file systems and databases
Check
performance
Weekly See footnote
2
Check for latest
fix packs
Monthly See footnote
3
Database
maintenance
Periodically Consult your database vendor for periodic
maintenance functions to keep the database
optimized. Ensure that you meet their
recommendations.
Backup software Monthly Operating systems, Java EE server, and
installed software
Apply patches Semi-annually See footnote
3
Test restore Annually A full system restore must be performed at
least once per year on DR hardware.

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10.15 Conclusion
This list summarizes our recommendations in this chapter:
Run the archiver.jar to capture performance data during peak hours of
activity.
Maintain message logs by renaming them and then deleting them after a
period of time.
Manage (clean up) audit and statistics logs weekly when used.
Keep auditing as minimal as possible.
Use security groups to secure content.
Store your backup media off-site.
Allot free time before and after the backup as part of a backup window.
If you use incremental backups, perform full backups weekly.
Run the Consistency Checker utility after you restore a system.
In Chapter 11, “Upgrade and migration” on page 371, we address upgrade and
migration topics. In Chapter 12, “Troubleshooting” on page 387, we discuss
troubleshooting techniques.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
371
Chapter 11.
Upgrade and migration
In this chapter, we discuss the upgrade and migration of FileNet Content
Manager environments. You learn about the best practices for planning,
performing, and documenting upgrades and migrations.
We discuss the following topics:
Terminology
Planning for updates
Upgrading to a new software release
Migration best practices
Special considerations for upgrade
11

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
11.1 Terminology
Specific terminology is used in the P8 Information Center and by the IBM FileNet
Support teams for updating a FileNet Content Manager environment.
Understanding the terminology enables you to make informed decisions about
your update process choices and the effort involved with each type of change.
11.1.1 Packages
There are several package types that you can apply to your FileNet Content
Manager environment:
New software release
Modification (mod) release
Fix pack
Interim release
Test fix
Software release
A new software release introduces new features and functionality, adds and
removes support for infrastructure elements, resolves client-reported issues, and
adds and removes support for components that interact with FileNet Content
Manager.
Although new functionality might be added and existing functionality changed or
removed, the new software release maintains compatibility with an earlier version
for any application programming interfaces (APIs). However, APIs can be marked
as “
deprecated
”. Deprecated APIs eventually are removed.
Mod release
A mod release, or
service pack
, provides a small set of new features, as well as
resolutions to client-reported issues. The mod release provides a roll-up of fixes
that are available in previous update packages, as well as fixes that are released
for the first time.
Fix pack
A
fix pack
provides a roll-up of authorized program analysis report (APAR)
resolutions that were previously provided as interim fixes, test fixes, or in a
previous fix pack, as well as fixes not previously released. Each fix pack contains
fixes from previous releases.

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Interim fix
An interim fix provides the resolution to a few APARs, usually one, that are likely
to be needed by multiple clients.
Test fix
A test fix, or limited availability fix, provides the resolution to a small number of
APARs, usually one, that are required by a specific client. Test fixes are also
known as
limited availability fixes
. If you need this type of fix, IBM provides you
with specific download information and a password for extracting the fix package.
Interim fix and test fix packages are similar. The primary difference is the size of
the target audience for the package.
11.1.2 Package naming conventions
P8 Content Manager software releases use a four-digit identifier:
<major release>.<minor release>.<mod release>.<fix pack>
The major release, minor release, mod release, and fix pack numbers are
incremented based on the software package.
Software release
Software releases can be considered major or minor releases. The designation
of major or minor is arbitrary, but in general, it tries to convey the quantity of
changes introduced by the software release.
Examples:
5.0.0.0 indicates that the package is major release 5 of the software.
4.5.0.0 indicates that the package is minor release 4.5 of the software.
Mod release
Mod releases are identified by the third digit in the four-digit identifier.
Examples:
5.1.1.0 indicates that this package is the first mod release for the 5.1 software
level.
4.0.2.0 indicates that this package is the second mod release for the 4.0
software level.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Fix pack
Fix packs are identified by the fourth digit in the release level and the notation
FPxyz, where xyz identifies the number of the fix pack.
Examples:
5.1.0.2-P8CE-FP002 is the first fix pack that is on top of the Content Engine
5.1 release.
1.1.5.2-WPXT-FP012 is the 12th fix pack on top of the FileNet Workplace XT
1.1.5 release.
Interim fix
Interim fixes are identified by the notation IFxyz at the end of the package name,
where xyz identifies the number of the interim fix.
Examples:
5.1.0.0-P8CE-IF004 is the fourth interim fix on top of the Content Engine 5.1
release.
5.1.1.2-P8CE-IF001 is the first interim fix on top of Content Engine 5.1.1 fix
pack 2.
Test fixes are identified by the notation LAxyz at the end of the package name,
where xyz identifies the number of the test fix.
Examples:
4.0.2.4-P8eF-LA001 is the first test fix on top of fix pack 4 for the eForms
4.0.2 release.
1.1.4.6-WPXT-LA003 is the third test fix on top of fix pack 6 for the FileNet
Workplace XT 1.1.4 release.
11.1.3 Installation rules
The P8 Information Center provides details of the supported upgrade paths:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.
ibm.p8.planprepare.doc%2Fp8ppu097.htm
Always refer to the product release notes, the readme file, and the IBM FileNet
P8 Hardware and Software Requirements guide to determine whether there are
specific prerequisites that must be met before installing the software.

Chapter 11. Upgrade and migration
375
Major, minor, and mod releases contain full installers. Therefore, they can be
installed on a system that has no previous version of the software installed, as
well as on top of an earlier version of the software.
In some cases, such as FileNet Workplace XT, fix packs are also full installations.
In other cases, such as with IBM Content Navigator, the fix packs must be
installed on top of the product release that is indicated in the fix pack name. All fix
packs are
cumulative
, which means that you can skip fix pack levels.
Interim fixes and test fixes are not usually cumulative; instead, they contain files
that must be applied, often manually, to a specific level of software. To verify the
content of the package and to determine any prerequisites, see the readme file
that is supplied with the interim fix or test fix.
Software updates cannot be uninstalled independently or separately from
uninstalling the associated product component. The exception to this rule is the
packages that are installed by manually copying files. These updates can be
“uninstalled” by copying the older versions of the files over the newer versions of
the files, and by reversing any other steps described in the readme file that is
associated with the update package.
11.1.4 Update types
Three terms are used to describe updating a FileNet Content Manager
environment:
Update
Refers to applying a small change, such as a fix pack, interim fix, or test fix to
the environment. And, update is also used as a general term to cover any
changes made to the environment, including upgrade and migration.
Tip: The readme file might also direct you to the appropriate installation and
upgrade sections in the P8 Information Center for some of the procedural
information.
Caution: Before upgrading an environment that is updated with a test fix,
check the readme file of the newer software update package to ensure that the
package contains the fix that was originally provided by the test fix. If the test
fix is not explicitly listed, check with your IBM representative for information
about when the test fix will be made generally available. If necessary, request
that a new version of the test fix is generated that is compatible with the newer
software update package.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Upgrade
Refers to applying a new release to the environment, such as moving from
Content Engine 5.1 to Content Platform Engine 5.2. In an upgrade, there is no
change in the hardware that is used by the components.
Migration
Refers to applying a new release to the environment and redeploying the
software on new hardware or in a new software configuration. Software
configuration changes can include changing application server, moving
components to new operating systems, and moving to a new database
management system.
Updating, upgrading, and migrating FileNet Content Manager are standard
maintenance tasks and need to be scheduled on an on-going basis. These
changes need to be coordinated with other system maintenance tasks, such as
updating application server levels and applying operating system fixes.
Another term that is frequently used when discussing upgrade and migration is
staging
. Staging can be used in two ways:
Breaking the upgrade or migration into multiple steps that will be performed at
different times so that, for example, the upgrade is completed over multiple
maintenance windows.
Using an interim set of servers on which to perform some of the upgrade and
migration steps. The staging servers are frequently used to test portions of an
upgrade or migration by using production data.
Figure 11-1 illustrates the process flow for a migration upgrade.
Figure 11-1 FileNet Content Manager upgrade migration flow
Start
Upgrade/migration required
decision
Assign project team
Gather technical and
organizational prerequisites
Perform installation tasks
Perform upgrade/migration
Testing
Go live
Decommissioning of retired
components
End

Chapter 11. Upgrade and migration
377
11.2 Planning for updates
The goal for any update is to make the change as transparent as possible to your
users.
Updates usually must occur in a predefined maintenance window. The length of
the maintenance window might vary between corporations, by type of change,
and by the environment in which the update is being made. But in all cases, you
want the update to complete in the prescribed maintenance window and with
minimal impact to your customers. Planning and practice are the keys to every
successful update project.
The planning effort includes these steps:
Know your starting point.
Know your desired endpoint.
Understand what might be affected because of the desired endpoint.
Detail the steps in the update, including the answers to these questions:
– Who will perform each step?
– How long will each step take?
– What kinds of issues might occur?
– What are the remedial steps for any potential issues?
– What tests must be performed to validate that the update was successful?
Practicing the steps of the update provides the data for building the detailed plan
and expanding the expertise of the team that is responsible for the update tasks.
When rolling out an update, the learning and the practice happen on
non-production systems. If the update includes moving to new hardware, that is,
performing a migration, the practice can also occur on the new hardware with
copies of production data.

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11.2.1 Getting started
Before you perform any type of update in a FileNet Content Manager
environment, ensure that you are prepared:
Know the current levels of all the software in the environment, including the
operating system, database, application server, and directory server so that
you can validate that these software components are at a level that is
compatible with the FileNet Content Manager software that you are planning
to install. Your review needs to also include all third-party applications and
other IBM components, such as IBM Content Collector, that interact with the
P8 Content Manager environment.
Obtain the latest fix pack readme file and release notes for the FileNet
Content Manager components that are being updated.
Readme files can be downloaded from IBM Fix Central. The release notes
are published in the P8 Information Center under Troubleshooting and
support  Release notes and what’s new.
Review the FileNet P8 Fix Pack Compatibility Matrices to determine whether
the package that you want to install is compatible with the other FileNet P8
components in the environment. Download the matrices from this website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=3278&uid=swg27014734
Review the IBM FileNet P8 Hardware and Software Requirements guide to
determine whether the package you want to install is compatible with the
underlying technologies in use in your environment. The guide can be
downloaded from this website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=3278&uid=swg27013654
If you are planning an upgrade or migration, also review the “Planning and
Preparing” section of the P8 Information Center and take the time to complete
the installation worksheet and to build a customized version of the upgrade
instructions. The worksheet and instructions for building a customized upgrade
guide can be accessed from the following page:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.
ibm.p8toc.doc%2Fplanning.htm
11.2.2 Practicing the update
Most clients have several FileNet Content Manager installations so that
development and testing can occur in non-production environments. Updating
these environments serially reduces the risk of introducing a change that has a
negative impact on your production environment, and it also allows you to
practice the update process.

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The order in which you update the environments can be different depending on
the update being installed. Table 11-1 illustrates the order in which you might
perform an update, assuming you have the following five environments:
Development
User acceptance test
Performance test
Preproduction
Production
Table 11-1 Update order
Because interim fixes and test fixes are often installed to address an issue
encountered in the production environment, it is important to get the change
installed into the production environment as quickly as possible, but also as
safely as possible. We advise that you install the change initially into an
environment running the exact same software as the production environment,
and then promote the change to production.
Practicing the update in this fashion has the following advantages:
Refines the installation process that is needed at your site.
Trains the resource staff who will ultimately perform the update in the
production environment.
Allows the project manager to develop a realistic schedule for the update.
Identifies issues that might occur during the installation and any associated
workarounds.
Provides an opportunity to build an appropriate test suite to ensure that your
applications work correctly after the update.
Type of update Software
release
Mod
release
Fix
pack
Interim
fix
Test fix
Development 1 1 1 3 3
User Acceptance 2 2 2 4 4
Performance 3 3 3 5 5
Preproduction 4 4 4 1 1
Production 5 5 5 2 2
Recommendations: Test suites need to cover functional, stress, and
performance testing.

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11.2.3 Documenting the process
Using the customized upgrade documents generated from the P8 Information
Center or the readme files provided with the software update packages, build an
update document for your site that captures the following information:
The process used
Issues encountered and their workarounds
Timelines
Resources used; that is, the people involved in the update, their roles, and the
time required
Test process followed
The document will form the basis for future update projects.
11.3 Upgrading to a new software release
Upgrading to a new software release is a major project that usually takes several
months because in addition to installing the new software, you must validate the
following information:
Existing applications work as expected; this task includes checking for
deprecated APIs and reworking the code as needed.
Performance and throughput are not adversely affected by the upgrade.
An upgrade is often the time to introduce new functionalities in the FileNet
Content Manager components and custom applications, new hardware, and new
underlying technologies.
Depending on the starting point and endpoint of the upgrade, you can choose
how to install it:
Stage the upgrade; that is, complete the upgrade over more than one
maintenance window.
Perform a “
big-bang
” upgrade; that is, complete the upgrade in a single
maintenance window.
Recommendations: Ensure that at least two people know how to perform
each task.

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Whatever plan you choose to adopt, leave enough time in the plan for these
activities:
Backup and restore activities
At a minimum, take backups before you start the upgrade activity and after
the upgrade completes.
Testing
The test activities include functional, performance, and stress testing.
11.3.1 Staging the upgrade
To determine whether staging an upgrade will work for your environment,
evaluate the following areas:
What is the different mix and match of software components that are
supported?
For example, if you move to the FileNet Content Manager 5.2 release, are the
versions of FileNet Workplace XT, IBM Content Navigator, or IBM Enterprise
Records currently in use in your environment compatible with the FileNet
Content Manager 5.2 release? If they are, you can choose to upgrade to the
new Content Platform Engine, but leave the other applications at their current
levels.
Are you moving to new hardware as part of the upgrade?
If so, you can install the new P8 Content Manager software on the new
hardware and after the installation is validated, initially test the upgrade
process by using copies of the production object stores, workflow systems,
and file storage areas.
After the initial validation is complete, point the environment to the actual
production databases and file storage areas and allow the update to
complete.
Tip: If you have a disaster recovery site, ensure that your plan includes
breaking any synchronization links at appropriate points in the upgrade
process, upgrading the software on the disaster recovery hardware, and
re-establishing the synchronization links.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Are there clear delineations in the resources that are used by your
applications?
If you are replacing all the hardware in your current production environment
and there is a clear delineation in the resources used by your applications,
you can choose to run with two production environments in parallel but on
different release levels. In this model, you copy over the object stores,
workflow systems, and file storage areas that are used by each application in
stages.
For more information about taking this type of approach, see the following
technote:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21428407
11.3.2 Big-bang upgrade
With a big-bang upgrade, the goal is to update the existing environment to the
latest release levels all in a single maintenance window. Often, this upgrade
process is followed because the upgrade is taking place on the existing
hardware.
To be successful with this type of upgrade in addition to practicing the upgrade to
ensure that it can be completed in the required window, you must also have a
roll-back plan. If the upgrade runs into an issue that cannot be resolved in the
maintenance window, you can bring the old environment back online and limit the
impact to your clients.
11.4 Migration best practices
If the upgrade involves moving to new hardware or changing the type of
application server, database server, or LDAP server, the upgrade is called a
migration.
If you are moving to new hardware, the new hardware can be running
the same or a different operating system as the existing hardware.
When you perform a migration, use the following best practices:
Ensure that all servers are referenced by a domain name server (DNS) alias
rather than an IP address.
This enables the change in server to be invisible to the clients. However,
ensure that you consider the amount of time that is required for the change to
replicate across the network.
If moving databases from Oracle or SQL Server to DB2, work with IBM Lab
Services on the data migration.

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If moving to a new LDAP server, ensure that all user and group references are
updated correctly.
Consider testing the change by setting up a new P8 domain (at the same
software level as the existing P8 domain) with the LDAP server and using the
FileNet Deployment Manager to map users and groups. FileNet Deployment
Manager will attempt to map the users and groups automatically, and flags
any users or groups that do not appear to have a match in the destination
environment.
11.5 Special considerations for upgrade
Two specific changes are introduced in the FileNet Content Manager 5.2 release
that require special consideration.
Support for Legacy Content Search Engine is dropped
Content Search Services (CSS) was first introduced in the FileNet Content
Manager 5.0 release as a replacement for the Legacy Content Search Engine.
CSS provides similar functionality to Legacy Content Search Engine but is based
on Lucene technology and uses a different query language.
Content indexes created by using Legacy Content Search Engine cannot be
migrated to CSS indexes, instead the content must be reindexed.
Content Engine 5.1 supports running both Legacy Content Search Engine and
CSS. Therefore, the indexes that are required by CSS can be generated as a
background task. When the reindexing is complete, applications can start using
the new indexes without affecting clients who are performing content-based
retrievals.
Tips:
If moving to a new type of LDAP server, consider engaging IBM Lab
Services to help with the migration because they have expertise and
special tools to help with this type of migration.
If you perform the upgrade on new hardware, copy the Content Manager
configuration file from the existing production system to the new hardware,
and use it when running the upgrade of the Content Engine or Content
Platform Engine.
Note: Applications that use content-based retrieval (CBR) must be updated to
use the query language syntax that is compatible with CSS.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Content Platform Engine 5.2 supports CSS only. If content has not already been
reindexed by using Content Platform Engine 5.2, clients will be unable to perform
content-based retrievals until the reindexing is complete.
If there is a period of time where it is acceptable that content is not indexed,
upgrade directly to Content Platform Engine 5.2. Otherwise, upgrade to Content
Engine 5.1 before you upgrade to Content Platform Engine 5.2.
Content Engine and Process Engine servers are combined
into a single engine called Content Platform Engine
In the FileNet Content Manager 5.2 release, the Content Engine and Process
Engine capabilities are merged into a single engine called Content Platform
Engine.
If you are performing an in-place upgrade, Content Engine and Process Engine
must be upgraded together.
One side benefit of merging the two engines is that the two client installers (one
for Content Engine and one for Process Engine) also are merged. Therefore, the
number of installation programs that need to be run is further reduced.
11.5.1 Reference information
The following documents provide useful information about upgrades and
migrations. Some of the documents reference specific release levels of the P8
Content Manager software, but they can often be generalized to work with all
levels:
White paper: IBM FileNet P8 Platform Installation and Upgrade Best
Practices
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27010422
Simultaneously Upgrading and Migrating Content Engine
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21455046
Best Practices for FileNet P8 3.5.2 to P8 4.5.1.2 Upgrade with Replatforming
(Windows to UNIX)
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21428743
What adjustments can I make to FileNet Content Engine (CE) Automatic
Upgrade?
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21428407

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385
11.6 Conclusion
In this chapter, we discussed the update types and the best practices to follow to
ensure a timely and successful update.

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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
387
Chapter 12.
Troubleshooting
In this chapter, we discuss the methods that are used to troubleshoot IBM FileNet
P8 Content Manager issues. P8 Content Manager implementations range from
small departmental systems running one application using one or two servers to
large enterprise systems running many applications on many servers.
We discuss the following topics:
A typical P8 Content Manager system
Different types of troubleshooting
Creating customized best practice guides
General troubleshooting
Troubleshooting installation or upgrade
Troubleshooting during application development
Troubleshooting functional issues
Troubleshooting production issues
Troubleshooting performance issues
Opening PMRs
12

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
12.1 A typical P8 Content Manager system
Before we focus on problem isolation, let us review what a typical P8 Content
Manager system consists of and how it works. Figure 12-1 shows a basic P8
Content Manager system.
Figure 12-1 Pictorial view of a basic P8 Content Manager system
The basic P8 Content Manager system uses the following components:
Client web browser or a desktop, thick client
Front-end Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) application server
Hosts the front-end application, such as IBM Content Navigator, FileNet
Workplace XT, or a custom application.
Middle-tier Java EE application server
Hosts the Content Platform Engine instances.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directory service for security
Storage system for document content
Database for storing metadata and content
LDAP
Directory Server
Database Server
with 1-n
Object Store/s
Application Server
hosting
IBM FileNet
Content Platform Engine
Human Interaction
Browser
Application Server
hosting
Custom Application Code
and / or
IBM Content Navigator
and / or
IBM WorkplaceXT
File Server
hosting 1-n
File Store/s
Input BackendFrontend Middletier

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In the basic P8 Content Manager environment, the user points their browser or
desktop to the chosen front-end application running on a Java EE application
server:
1.The user receives a logon window and enters their user ID and password.
2.The credentials are validated against the directory server.
3.The Content Platform Engine caches user and group membership
information.
4.The chosen front-end GUI then displays the appropriate artifacts to the user.
At this point, the user can view, change, or create new content. The benefit of this
architecture is that as your user base or transaction activity grows, you can
quickly and easily increase the resources allocated to the environment. You can
scale vertically by adding more CPU and memory to your existing servers, or
horizontally by adding more servers. This approach allows your P8 Content
Manager system to grow to support hundreds of applications with thousands of
concurrent users working on an enormous amount of content. The N-Tier Java
EE architecture (server/client) enables P8 Content Manager to scale from small
systems to large enterprise systems with minimal effort.
You can simplify the logon sequence by looking at it from a client/server
perspective. The components used are essentially several client and several
server components working together:
The user’s web browser is a client to the chosen front-end GUI.
The chosen front-end GUI is a client to both the LDAP and Content Platform
Engine.
The Content Platform Engine is a client to the database and file storage
areas.
The Java EE application server is the server on which the chosen GUI
application and Content Platform Engine run.
This perspective might be oversimplified, but as you approach a problem, think
about it in client/server terms. Finding the failing client/server section enables
you to quickly rule out what is working and focus on the component that is not
working.
In this chapter, we look at common problems and different types of
troubleshooting by breaking them down into a client/server approach.

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12.2 Different types of troubleshooting
During the implementation and administration of a P8 Content Manager solution,
situations arise that require troubleshooting. We list the main categories of
troubleshooting:
Troubleshooting installation and upgrade issues
Initial, basic problems that occur during the installation or upgrade of a P8
Content Manager system.
Troubleshooting during application development or with how the code
interacts with the P8 Content Manager configuration
Problems with the functionality of custom code.
Troubleshooting performance issues
Response times are less than desired, or the system does not scale for the
expected user and workload.
Creating customized best practice guides
Problems that occur in the production environment and must be investigated
and resolved with minimal impact to the clients.
12.3 Creating customized best practice guides
When discussing techniques and tools for troubleshooting and problem
determination, typically most of the discussion is about what to do after a
problem has been discovered. Ideally, however, the prudent system administrator
or troubleshooter starts thinking about the job long before a problem occurs.
Prepare the environment so that troubleshooting can be performed more quickly
and effectively if and when problems occur.
One of the first and most important steps in being prepared to troubleshoot
issues is to create a customized best practice guide that defines conventions for
your environments. The guide preserves thoughts, knowledge, ideas, and
information in one place. Start creating the guide during implementation, and
continue to update it throughout the lifecycle of the environment. Capture
information that you think you will never forget. Despite your best intentions, you
will forget all the nuances around why a decision was made, or you might change
roles and need to share your knowledge with new staff members.
Being consistent within an environment and across different environments
reduces issues and makes troubleshooting easier.

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We summarize many of the recommendations to cover in the customized best
practice guides. But the list is neither definitive nor absolute. Each customer and
every solution have their own special requirements. Use the list to get started
and then continue to expand what you capture based on the specifics of your
environment.
At a minimum, cover the following points in your best practice guide:
A system architecture diagram for each environment, which is updated
regularly. The diagram shows the physical layout and identifies what software
is installed on each component.
List software packages in use and the release level, including the patch level
of each package, including any test fixes. The information covers items, such
as the operating system, database, application server, Content Platform
Engine, and IBM Content Navigator.
Any dependencies in the environment, for example:
– Startup and shutdown of the components.
– Third-party applications that rely on P8 Content Manager or vice versa.
– Data dependencies between the systems. This area is especially
important if there are batch processes running for importing or exporting
data. If a system stops during batch processing, you want to minimize any
data loss.
Guidelines for the following tasks:
– Application development, including conventions, logging, multithreading,
and designing for growth (for example, how to use multiple object stores,
design for farming requirements, and if needed, design considerations for
high availability)
– Software installation, for example, user accounts, installation paths, fix
packs
– Application server configuration, including details about parameters that
are using non-default values, or additional Java virtual machine (JVM)
parameters
– Database creation and configuration, including permissions, naming
conventions, and the use of indexes
– LDAP user and group naming convention creation
– Monitoring configuration, for example, adding counters for use with IBM
System Dashboard for Enterprise Content Management or IBM ECM
System Monitor

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Content Platform Engine configuration:
– Names of the databases used for the global configuration database (GCD)
and object stores
– LDAP server search filters
– Accounts used for GCD and object store administration
– Object store naming conventions for document classes, property
templates and folder structures, storage policy conventions, and security
requirements
– Workflow system information, including security requirements, user
queues, exposed fields, and the location of workflow definitions
Housekeeping tasks:
– Cleanup of log files: When backups need to occur, where old files are kept,
and naming conventions
– Database maintenance jobs, such as performance analysis,
implementation of new indexes, and table space maintenance
Regularly scheduled maintenance so that the environment remains current:
– Plan for the installation of fix packs both for P8 Content Manager
components and third-party software
– Plan for upgrading to newer software releases
– Plan for upgrading to new infrastructure levels, such as new operating
systems, application servers, and database server software
– Plan for upgrading to new hardware
Log of problems and resolutions: Document issues that occurred and how
they were resolved
Add customized worksheets that can be used as reference documents when
performing installations and upgrades
A customized best practice guide is a living document and must be updated all
the time to track changes in the environment. Do not just write it once and then
put it on the shelf. Keep it current, and make your organization aware of it.
A good reference resource is the following IBM developerWorks article that
describes actions that you can take with your production environment now for a
quicker and more effective way of troubleshooting:
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/websphere/techjournal/0708_supauth/07
08_supauth.html

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12.4 General troubleshooting
The IBM FileNet P8 Information Center contains the documentation for the P8
product family. It is updated periodically, so always check for new information
when you are troubleshooting:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.ecm.commo
n.ic.doc/troubleshoot_main.htm
Ideally, you will have automated system monitoring in place. Automated
monitoring helps you quickly identify major component problems:
IBM ECM System Monitor (see 10.4.3, “IBM ECM System Monitor” on
page 334) allows you to quickly identify a major component failure, possibly
before your first user calls. The software includes a knowledge base with
potential problem solutions so corrective action can occur quickly.
Dashboard (see “Dashboard” on page 328) can also help identify problem
areas. You must manually check logs and functionality, because the
Dashboard is meant primarily as a tool for gathering performance data.
Third-party standard monitoring products, such as IBM Tivoli, HP OpenView,
and Microsoft System Center Operations Manager (SCOM). These products
support monitoring items, such as CPU, memory, network, and storage
usage.
Automated monitoring tools can greatly reduce troubleshooting time, because
they alert you to major component failures and problems, such as a disk or file
system that is full.
Verify that each component is working as expected, as well as any infrastructure
components, such as the database, application server, LDAP server, and
network components.
Recommendations: When an error occurs for the first time, always make it a
high priority to analyze the issue, determine the root cause, and take the
appropriate mitigating actions. Following this best practice minimizes the
likelihood of the problem recurring and additional downtime.
Note: There is a dedicated dashboard provided for IBM Content Collector
for Email.

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Applications and tools that ship with P8 Content Manager, such as IBM
Administration Console for Content Platform Engine (ACCE), IBM FileNet
Enterprise Manager, IBM Content Navigator, and FileNet Workplace XT, are also
helpful for problem determination. They can be used to perform similar actions,
such as adding folders, creating documents, and viewing content. If none of the
applications can perform a certain function, the problem you are trying to
troubleshoot is likely caused by an infrastructure component, such as the
network, or the Content Platform Engine server. However, if these applications
function correctly but a custom application does not, the likely culprit is the
custom application.
If an issue arises just after a component in the environment is updated, start the
troubleshooting by ensuring all the component software levels are compatible
with P8 Content Manager and with each other.
For P8 Content Manager compatibility requirements, see the following
documents:
Hardware and software requirements for the P8 suite of products:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27013654
FileNet P8 Fix Pack Compatibility Matrices:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27014734
MustGather: Read first for the Content Platform Engine:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=3278&uid=swg21308231
The “MustGather” documents the information that the IBM Support team
needs to start troubleshooting issues. Use this information as a starting point
for your own troubleshooting efforts. If your individual troubleshooting efforts
are unsuccessful, attach the information identified in the “MustGather”
documents to the problem management record (PMR) or trouble ticket.
12.5 Troubleshooting the installation or upgrade
When implementing a new P8 Content Manager system, a need to troubleshoot
issues can arise, for example:
Underlying components might be configured in an unexpected fashion
Network connectivity
Lack of permissions to required resources
Unexpected interaction with third-party applications or tools, for example, load
balancers

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Often, the issues arise because the guidance provided in the following
documentation was not followed or validated prior to starting the installation:
Planning sections of the P8 Information Center
Third-party software-level requirements documented in the P8 Hardware and
Software Requirements guide
Information in the readme files or release notes
Avoiding common issues
To avoid the most common issues, perform the following tasks:
Check the prerequisites of each software package and ensure that these
requirements are met.
Read the release notes of each software package carefully and ensure that
you follow the notes.
Check that the appropriate fix packs are installed in your environment.
Install each software component one after the other in the following order and
validate that each component is working as expected before moving on to the
next component:
– Ports
Verify that the ports needed by the P8 Content Manager components are
open (firewall) and not in use by other applications. A list of the required
ports is available at this website:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.
planprepare.doc/p8pap058.htm
– Directory service
Typically, this directory service is the Corporate directory service, but you
must ensure that the directory service is configured in a way that is
compatible with the P8 Content Manager environment. Ensure that you
have identified the users and groups to use during the installation process,
as well as the user and group search filters that identify the users who can
access the P8 Content Manager system.
For more information about directory service requirements, see the
following link:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%
2Fcom.ibm.p8.security.doc%2Fp8psd000.htm

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– Operating system
Refer to the P8 Hardware and Software guide to determine the supported
operating systems and operating system prerequisites.
– Database
Although new database servers can be installed specifically for use with
the P8 Content Manager software, you can also use existing database
servers if they meet the documented prerequisites. In addition, you need
to create the databases and tablespaces required by the P8 components
that will be installed. Some components, such as the Content Platform
Engine, have a minimum requirement of one database for the GCD and
one for an object store and a workflow system. However, components
might require more databases depending on your specific use cases.
– Application server
Assuming an application server meets the documented prerequisite
requirements and has adequate capacity, the P8 Content Manager
components can be deployed to existing application servers. When
deciding to use existing application servers or to install new application
servers, consider the expected load on the system and the ability to
accommodate more load than initially expected.
– Content Platform Engine
– FileNet Workplace XT
Required for managing workflow systems.
– IBM Content Navigator
Check each of the following components to ensure that they are functioning
correctly:
– Network components:
• Switches and load balancers are configured and working as expected.
• The appropriate ports are open. For the ports used by P8 components,
see the following link:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topi
c=%2Fcom.ibm.p8.planprepare.doc%2Fp8pap057.htm
– Operating system:
• No error messages in the system logs after booting the system.
• Network performance between components meets expectations.
• Domain name server (DNS) lookup and reverse lookup between the
servers works.

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– Database:
• No error messages when starting the database server or any of the
databases.
• No error messages logged by any databases.
• Databases can be accessed via telnet on the Java database.
Connectivity (JDBC) port from other servers
– Directory service:
• Directory service starts without an issue.
This is only a concern if you are not using the Corporate directory
service.
• No error messages logged by the directory service during any login
attempts.
• Directory server can be reached by telnet or by using an LDAP client
on the defined port.
For information about the ports used for directory service operations,
see the following link:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topi
c=%2Fcom.ibm.p8.planprepare.doc%2Fp8pap058.htm
– Application server:
• Application server starts without an issue, and no errors are reported
by the application server software.
• Application server administrative login works.
Check integration between software components:
– Content Platform Engine:
• The installation and configuration steps completed successfully.
• Ear or war startup is successful.
• No errors are reported in the application server logs or the Content
Platform Engine installation log.
• Ping pages are reachable: Content Platform Engine System Health
page (see Figure 12-2), Content Platform Engine Ping Page (see
Recommendations: Avoid using IP addresses as references to P8
components. Instead, use DNS server names whenever possible to
make it easier to replace or add servers to the environment.

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Figure 12-3), and workflow system-related Ping Page (see
Figure 12-4).
– Access the IBM Administration Console for Content Platform Engine
(ACCE) and check the connections:
• LDAP connection to the directory server
Configuration was done by the Configuration Manager during the
Content Platform Engine configuration. If the application server was
already configured for LDAP because of other hosted applications,
ensure that the settings required by all applications are compatible.
• All JDBC connections (both XA and non-XA) can connect to the
expected databases.
Configuration was done by Configuration Manager during the Content
Platform Engine configuration. This test ensures that the network
routing is working correctly between the application server and any
database server.
– Perform a quick check to validate the proper functionality of Content
Platform Engine
Use ACCE to create an object store, add a folder, and then add a
document.
– FileNet Workplace XT and IBM Content Navigator:
• Deployment was successful and no errors were reported.
• Ear or war startup is successful.
• No errors are reported in the application server logs, the FileNet
Workplace XT installation log, or the IBM Content Navigator installation
log.
• Login page displays.
• Login is successful.
• Manual configuration steps, such as defining security for accessing the
FileNet Workplace XT administration tools, setting the site preferences,
and check whether initiating the Process Configuration Console for
initializing regions is successful.
• Navigate to the folder and document that were created by using ACCE
and open the document.
• Add additional documents and then check that they can be opened by
using ACCE.
If you follow this best practice and issues occur, start Root Cause Analysis (RCA)
immediately. The localization of the root cause is much easier by using this

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incremental approach as opposed to installing a whole system and verifying the
system afterward.
For additional installation and upgrade troubleshooting information, see this
website:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.instal
l.doc/p8pti000.htm
Quick checks via server ping and health pages
Use the server ping and health pages to verify whether the Content Platform
Engine, object stores, and workflow systems are online. The pages indicate
whether a server is online and provide details about the software versions that
are installed. IBM Support asks for this information if you open a problem
management record (PMR).
To check whether the Content Platform Engine server is running, use its ping
page by pointing your browser to this URL:
http://<Content Platform Engine server>:<port>/FileNet/Engine
This URL is an example:
http://hqdemo1:9080/FileNet/Engine
Your browser opens a window similar to Figure 12-2.

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Figure 12-2 Content Platform Engine ping page
After you confirm that the Content Platform Engine is running, use the Content
Platform Engine System Health page to check the content-related items in the
environment:
http://<Content Platform Engine server>:<port>/P8CE/Health
This URL is an example:
http://hqdemo1:9080/P8CE/Health
If your Content Platform Engine is running, you see a window similar to
Figure 12-3.

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Figure 12-3 Content Platform Engine System Health page
To check on the workflow system-related components, use the following ping
page:
http://<Content Platform Engine server>:<port>/peengine/IOR/ping
This URL is an example:
http://hqdemo1:9080/peengine/IOR/ping
The window is similar to Figure 12-4.

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Figure 12-4 Workflow system-related ping page
Note: For farmed environments, verify both ways:
Verify the Content Platform Engine access through the load balancer:
http://ce_load_balancer:<port>/FileNet/Engine
The ce_load_balancer is the name of the load balancer, and port is the
port used to access Content Platform Engine on the load balancer.
Verify the Content Platform Engine access directly to each farmed Content
Platform Engine instance, because the ping pages as well as the health
page only display the status of the accessed instance and not the whole
farm.

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12.6 Troubleshooting during application development
Application development always needs a form of troubleshooting because of
errors in the developed solution or a misuse of the P8 Content Manager APIs.
The best practice is to define a developer style guide. This style guide covers the
following topics:
Which logging framework to use.
How to configure the logs and traces.
The log format.
Identifying the details and information to log, which log file to use, and what
gets logged at the informational, debug, and error levels.
It also identifies bad practices, such as logging passwords or embedding
passwords in the code.
With your custom application log or trace file, you have a starting point for
troubleshooting. Also, look at any errors in the Content Platform Engine server
logs. Make a note of the timestamps associated with the errors. If the error alone
is not sufficient for solving the issue, the time stamp of the error message can
also help you look for additional information in system and database logs. For
this reason, all servers and, if possible, the clients, need to be time synchronized.
Use a central Network Time Protocol (NTP) server and Coordinated Universal
Time (UTC) for the server components for the time synchronization. Content
Platform Engine indicates the time zone that is used in the p8_server_error.log.
See Example 12-1.
Example 12-1 Time zone
P8 Content Platform Engine Version: 5.2.0 Build: dap511.470 on
rbacalzopc2
All times are local; the time zone is Pacific Standard Time(UTC -08:00)
VirtualServer: rbacalzopc2Node01 ServerInstance: server1
Date (UTC -08:00) Thread Sub Category Sev Message
On the client side, the local time zone is used.
If custom client applications are accessing Content Platform Engine, the session
ID of the client needs to also be written into the log and trace files. This
information helps to connect the client and server log information, as well as
make it easier to follow the application logic.

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Additional information about exception and logging concepts is available at these
websites:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.ce.de
v.ce.doc/exception_concepts.htm
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.ce.de
v.ce.doc/logging_concepts.htm
12.7 Troubleshooting functional issues
The P8 Content Manager provides logging capabilities for issue tracking, error
tracking, and troubleshooting, as well as for auditing and process tracking.
Third-party software typically also provides logging capabilities. Next, we
describe who, how, and why these logs are essential for troubleshooting
functional issues.
12.7.1 Review the logs
During troubleshooting, check the relevant log files for errors with an unknown
source.
The best way to troubleshoot an issue is to start at the bottom of the Content
Platform Engine log files to look for error messages. Because there might be
more than one type of error or multiple occurrences of the same message, keep
working up through the file until you find the first error. If you find any error
messages, review the information provided in the P8 Information Center under
Troubleshooting and support  IBM FileNet P8 messages.
If an object Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) is provided in the error message,
use ACCE or FileNet Enterprise Manager to determine which object is
referenced by the GUID because this often provides additional clues about the
problem.
Recommendations: When enabling trace logging for troubleshooting, only
enable the subsystems that are necessary to diagnose the issue.
Unconditionally enabling all levels of all subsystems negative affects the
performance and might rapidly fill up the file system.
Tip: Use your favorite Internet search engine to look for additional information
about any errors.

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If the information provided in the Content Platform Engine logs is not enough to
identify and resolve the issue, the information points you to the next logical step
in your troubleshooting efforts. Look at these files next:
Other application logs
Application server logs
Database logs
Operating system logs
Application logs
Java applications do not log error messages; they log exceptions. Java
messages and exceptions are written to message log files. P8 Content Manager
has two major engine components: IBM Content Navigator or FileNet Workplace
XT as the front end, and the Content Platform Engine as the back end. Content
Platform Engine writes four message logs:
p8_server_error.log
p8_server_trace.log
pesvr_system.log
pesvr_trace.log
For IBM WebSphere, by default, the files are in this directory:
AppServer\profiles\default\FileNet\<serverInstanceName>
For BEA WebLogic, the default location is this directory:
\bea\user_projects\domains\mydomain\FileNet\<serverInstanceName>
If the information in the logs does not provide enough information, it might be
appropriate to enable trace logging for the relevant components of the Content
Platform Engine.
Application server logs
Check the standard Java EE application server message logs for new, unknown
error entries. The Java EE application server message logs for IBM WebSphere
or Oracle WebLogic are in the following default directories:
For IBM WebSphere, the SystemErr.log and SystemOut.log files are in this
directory:
AppServer\profiles\default\logs\<serverInstanceName>
For Oracle WebLogic, the myserver.log file is in this directory:
\bea\user_projects\domains\mydomain\<myserver>
where <myserver> is the web server name

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If there are errors that seem related to the functional issues you are debugging,
resolve the issues, recycle the environment, clear the logs, and then retest the
P8 Content Manager application to see whether the problem is resolved.
Storage device logs
Network-attached storage (NAS) and storage area network (SAN) devices used
for file and fixed storage staging areas typically have their own management
consoles from which you can view system logs. Likewise, all the fixed content
devices supported by Content Platform Engine have their own administration
tools that can be used to diagnose the device and view system logs. Look for any
warnings or errors on the storage device log, such as “out of space”, “maximum
objects exceeded”, or “too many sessions”, that might correlate to the error
received in the Content Platform Engine logs.
If there are errors that seem related to the functional issues you are debugging,
resolve the issues, recycle the environment, clear the logs, and then retest the
P8 Content Manager application to see whether the problem is resolved.
Database logs
If an object store cannot be accessed, response time is slow, or there are poorly
performing queries, the next step is to ensure that the database is running as
expected. Work with the database administrator to ensure that the databases are
running as expected. Common issues that can occur include space allocation
issues for the temp, database, and log files, poor query plans resulting in slow
searches, and an insufficient number of available database sessions. Also, check
for permission errors and that all the database prerequisites documented in the
planning and prepare section of the P8 Information Center were implemented
correctly:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.
ibm.p8.planprepare.doc%2Fp8ppi084.htm
Performance-related issues can often be mitigated by reorganizing tables and
reclaiming free space, adding indexes, or reworking searches so that they use
indexes that exist.
System logs
Check the relevant system logs. If you find errors, ensure that the errors relate to
the problem you are investigating. For example, there might be errors that relate
to outdated virus files or an improperly configured mail server that are not related
to the issue you are trying to debug.
If there are errors that seem related to the functional issues you are debugging,
resolve the issues and then retest the P8 Content Manager application to see
whether the problem is resolved.

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Enable Trace Logging
To enable trace logging in Content Platform Engine, access the ACCE to check
“Enable trace logging” on the Trace Subsystem tab. Then, select and configure
the relevant subsystems.
When the trace control configuration is inherited from another object, the Trace
Flags list box is disabled.
Table 12-1 lists all the subsystems, and the associated abbreviation that appears
in the trace log file along with a short description of what is traced.
Table 12-1 List of traceable subsystems
Property Abbreviation Logs information relative to this area
API API Content Java API operations.
Logging is supported only for the Content Java API,
not the Content .NET API.
Asynchronous
Processing
ASYN The processing portion of an asynchronous event,
including document classification and security
propagation.
Audit
Disposition
AUDT Requests to audit information in the object store.
CBR CBR Content-based retrieval (CBR), including indexing,
searching, and so on.
CFS Daemon CFSD Content Federation Services (CFS) for Image
Services import agent.
CFS Import
Agent
CFSI Content Federation Services for IBM Content
Integrator import agent.
Code Module CMOD Code module functionality. Code modules are a
special subclass of document class that contains
one or more Java components.
Content Cache CCHE Content caching operations that cache document
content in the file system on the local server.
Content
Storage
CSTG Content storage operations.
Database DB Database operations. This option can generate a
large amount of information, so only have it enabled
when specifically reproducing a database-related
issue.

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EJB EJB The Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) transport layer,
which is the component architecture for the
development and deployment of object-oriented,
distributed, enterprise-level applications.
Engine ENG The Content Platform Engine server core.
Error ERR Error handling operations.
Events EVNT General event processing.
Fixed Content
Provider
FCPV Any fixed content providers.
GCD GCD The global configuration database (GCD) and its
operations.
Handler HDLR Custom server handler code.
Metadata MCHE Metadata cache operations.
Publish PUBL Publishing operations.
Replication
Subsystem
REPL Replication subsystem operations.
Search SRCH Search and query operations.
Security SEC The client and server components used to
authenticate (layered over the authentication
provider) and authorize user access to Content
Platform Engine objects.
SSI SSI Integration with the Single-document Storage
Interface (SSI), which is an interface between the
Content Platform Engine and FileNet Image
Services.
Sweep SWP Sweep operations.
Thumbnail
Generation
THMG Thumbnail generation operations.
WSI WSI The Web Services Interface (WSI) transport layer
to Content Platform Engine.
Property Abbreviation Logs information relative to this area

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The following trace levels can be set for each subsystem:
SUMMARY
Enables minimal high level logging by providing summary information for all
operations. This setting does not significantly affect system performance.
MODERATE
Enables more detailed high level logging than the SUMMARY option for all
operations (includes all SUMMARY level information). This setting has some
impact on system performance.
DETAIL
Enables the most detailed logging by providing detailed information for all
operations and is primarily used to aid in debugging issues (includes all
SUMMARY and MODERATE level information). This setting significantly
affects system performance.
TIMER
Provides the duration (in milliseconds) that Content Platform Engine requires
to complete an operation, such as uploading a file. This setting does not
significantly affect system performance.
Depending on the issue reported by the clients, select which subsystems to trace
and an appropriate trace level. There is no need to restart the system to start or
stop gathering trace logs.
12.7.2 Review additional sources for information about issues
If reviewing the logs does not lead you to a problem resolution, perform the
following actions:
Look at the portlets “Featured troubleshooting links”, “Flashes and alerts”,
and “Problem resolutions” on the IBM Support home page:
http://www.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/troubleshooting/software/ent
erprise_content_management/filenet_product_family/filenet_content_ma
nager#
Check the public P8 forums on the Internet.
Use your favorite search engine to look for your issue and a possible solution.
Recommendations: Disable the trace logging as soon as possible, because
it can fill up the file system rapidly because of the amount of generated data.

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Post a question on IBM developerWorks:
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/forums/forum.jspa?forumID=1165&sta
rt=0
12.8 Troubleshooting production issues
When discussing production issues and how to troubleshoot them, remember
that this environment is the production environment and users are affected by all
changes. As long as the production system is running and only some users are
affected by an issue, keep calm.
Try to reproduce the issue and behavior of the production system in a test
environment
1
. Then, analyze and try to fix the problem. If you are unable to fix
the problem on your own, contact the IBM Support team and ask for help. When
you receive a fix (software or a configuration change), install the fix into an
integration or test environment. Perform some general regression tests in
addition to validating that the main issue is fixed before moving the fix into the
production environment. Depending on the severity of the issue, you might also
choose to move the fix into all your other environments before moving it into
production, in much the same way as you handle a new application or an
enhancement to an existing application.
Follow these steps before you put the change into the production environment:
1.Back up any log files.
2.Clear the log files so any new errors are easy to detect.
Recommendations: Restarting the servers and applications that are having
an issue might get the system back to “normal” operating conditions but
usually also camouflages the root cause of the issue. And in a worst case
scenario, losing information about the root cause of the problem can worsen
the overall situation.
Finding an appropriate balance between error analysis and limiting downtime
or slow response times is critical, so perform these steps:
1.Read (and store) log files and error messages.
2.Consider your options before reacting.
3.Execute your remedial steps.
4.Document your activities for future reference.
1
This action presupposes a similar reference system is available with similar physical and software
characteristics as the production environment.

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3.Enhance the log and trace level in the production environment.
Be conservative when changing logging levels in production because more
detailed logging causes an increase in the system load and therefore a
decrease in performance.
4.Note all original and changed values in an administration log file for the
production environment.
This makes it easier both to revert the system back to its initial state and to
update other environments to match the new state of the production
environment.
5.Validate that the fix is working as expected.
6.Reduce the level of logging back to normal levels using the reference
information generated in step 4.
12.9 Troubleshooting performance issues
Performance problems in P8 Content Manager can come from a wide range of
causes. Some issues can be eliminated by performing load and stress tests
before rolling out new applications, new software releases, and incremental
updates to production. Other issues can occur intermittently and might be
caused by unusual situations, such as network bandwidth issues or transferring
large files.
During system load and performance testing, it is likely that the required
throughput will not be achieved without removing one or more bottlenecks.
Performance issues can also occur after applications go live during normal,
production operations of a P8 Content Manager solution. The following examples
show when issues might occur:
New software releases are deployed into production and some function
response times increase, and the existing load and performance tests do not
cover these particular functions.
The user load increases to the point where the current system configuration
can no longer perform as required.
The data load increases to the point where the current system configuration
can no longer perform as required.
Security patches applied to the operating system have a negative impact on
system performance.
New users and groups are created in the directory server, or a change is
made in the directory server configuration in such a way that the change
negatively affects P8 Content Manager performance.

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Storage device configuration changes or hardware and software failures
occur with the storage device.
Troubleshooting performance issues can cross organizational boundaries and
require the cooperation of database administrators, directory server
administrators, application server administrators, IT staff, application developers,
and the P8 Content Manager administrator.
12.9.1 Performance tuning guide
A first entry point for tuning the system for optimal performance is the
performance tuning information provided in the P8 Information Center:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.perfor
mance.doc/p8ppt000.htm
The web page provides several links to topics with detailed information for tuning:
Operating systems
Databases
Application servers
Directory servers
Content Platform Engine
FileNet Workplace XT and IBM Content Navigator
The performance tuning topics in the FileNet P8 information center do not
include suggested parameter settings, because the correct values are dependent
on your environment and application.
12.9.2 Gathering performance data
The measurement of key performance indicator (KPI) values and KPIs of the
system during load and stress tests and during normal working hours is
important. This data generates the boundary and baseline performance
information. The gathered information is used to define monitoring software
thresholds and for discovering and troubleshooting performance issues. KPIs
reflect how fast the system reacts during a defined workload and the high
watermarks that cause the system response times to increase dramatically.
Running load and stress tests requires significant work. In addition to setting up
an environment that mimics production, you need to perform these tasks:
Populate the environment with data that is representative of production data
in terms of type and volume of data.

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Define and build tests that mimic realistic production workloads.
The tests need to mimic both the type of work clients will perform, the number
of clients that will use the system at any one time, and the length of time
clients will access the system. The term “
client
” includes users who access
the system manually as well as any batch processes.
Have a way to refresh the environment so that you can rerun tests to validate
that changes affect system performance in a positive manner.
The following tools can help you collect and analyze performance data:
IBM System Dashboard for ECM
The Dashboard collects the following information from the P8 Content
Manager environment:
– Environmental information
– Central processing unit counters
– Disk counters
– Network inbound/outbound counters
– User counters and response times of operations
IBM Thread and Monitor Dump Analyzer for Java
JVM thread dumps can be used to analyze the detailed behavior of the
application server and the hosted JVMs. The tool is available at this website:
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/mydeveloperworks/groups/service/ht
ml/communityview?communityUuid=2245aa39-fa5c-4475-b891-14c205f7333c
This tool identifies the following information:
– Hangs
– Deadlocks
– Resource contention
– Bottlenecks in Java threads
Windows Reliability and Performance Monitor
The Windows Reliability and Performance Monitor is a Microsoft tool. This
tool provides a quick overview of the processes that use a large amount of
CPU, memory, disk, and network resources.
If you need a longer history of how processes and applications consume
server resources, use the Microsoft Data Collector Sets. Start by using the
preset templates, then modify the templates as needed and save them as
your own templates and presets.
Recommendations: Automate as much of the system setup, performance
testing, and data gathering as possible.

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More details are provided by Microsoft Technet:
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc749154(v=ws.10).aspx
Nmon
This free tool provides a huge amount of information all on one window. Even
though IBM does not support the tool and you must use it at your own risk, it
provides a wealth of performance statistics. The tool is available at this
website:
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/aix/library/au-analyze_aix/
The nmon tool is designed for AIX and Linux performance specialists to use
for monitoring and analyzing the following performance data:
– CPU utilization
– Memory use
– Kernel statistics and run queue information
– Disk I/O rates, transfers, and read/write ratios
– Free space on file systems
– Disk adapters
– Network I/O rates, transfers, and read/write ratios
– Paging space and paging rates
– CPU and AIX specification
– Top processors
– IBM HTTP web cache
– User-defined disk groups
– Machine details and resources
– Asynchronous I/O (AIX only)
– Workload Manager (WLM) (AIX only)
– IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Storage Server® (ESS) disks (AIX only)
– Network File System (NFS)
– Dynamic logical partition (LPAR) (DLPAR) changes (only IBM pSeries® p5
and IBM OpenPower® for either AIX or Linux)
12.9.3 Slow logon
A typical performance issue from all web-based applications is the client user
complaining about how long it takes to log on (slow logon). The steps for
resolving this type of issue vary depending on whether the issue is on a new or
recently upgraded installation, or whether it is occurring on a system that has
been running for a while without issues.

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Issue following installation or upgrade
For a new installation or a recently upgraded installation, check the following
configurations:
The LDAP configuration of the application server:
– Connection timeout setting for LDAP queries.
– Size of the LDAP connection pool is sufficient.
The LDAP configuration in ACCE:
– Validate which directory services are configured.
– Check whether the DNS entry is resolved to a single, dedicated server or
is an alias to a number of directory servers.
Ideally, the Content Platform Engine will always access the directory
server that is closest physically to the Content Platform Engine server. The
greater the distance between the servers, the slower the logon.
– Size of the Maximum User Token Cache Entries
Ensure that the size is adequate compared to the number of active system
users, so that if users frequently log in and out, their information remains
cached and does not have to be reacquired from the directory server every
time.
– Time of User Token Cache Entry TTL
Increasing the value of this parameter can enhance system performance,
but the trade-off is LDAP changes take longer to take effect within the P8
Content Manager environment.
Note: After starting or restarting the application server or redeploying the
Content Platform Engine ear or war file, the first logon will take longer than
subsequent logons because the cache has to be refreshed. You can minimize
this behavior:
Use the precompile options of the application server, although this will
increase the time it takes to restart the application server.
Use a script whenever the application server is restarted to walk through all
commonly used application functions. The script must be run on all
application server nodes.

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Examine the user, group membership, and organizational unit (OU)
configurations in the LDAP server:
– If there are nested group memberships, check the nesting depth.
The more nested groups and the deeper the nesting depth, the longer it
takes the Content Platform Engine to identify all the groups to which a user
belongs.
– Limit the tree that has to be traversed to find users and groups as much as
possible.
Check the network
– Number of network hops and the latency of the network between the
application server and the LDAP server.
Work with the network administrators to implement special routing for
LDAP requests.
– Bandwidth between the application server and the LDAP server.
The performance can be improved by introducing quality of service (QoS)
for the LDAP requests if the bandwidth is limited.
Production issues
In addition to the basic performance issues during the initial implementation of a
solution, there is always the possibility of running into performance issues during
production.
Implement regression test cases to validate your application after upgrading to
new software levels, fixing an issue, or introducing new features. One of the
regression tests needs to be a performance baseline test in which a known user
logs on to the system. If your clients are reporting slow logons, one of the first
troubleshooting steps is to run this baseline test. The results of the test help
identify whether there is an issue common to all users or whether the slow logon
affects only a subset of your clients.
If all users are affected, review the common infrastructure elements to determine
whether a failure occurred.
If the problem is limited to a subset of users, follow these steps:
Ask the user if the logon was quicker in the past. If yes, ask when they first
noticed the slowdown.
Examine the user’s group membership to determine whether anything
changed recently:
– Does this user belong to significantly more groups than other users?
– If there are nested group memberships, determine the nesting depth.

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Determine which DNS server is processing the user’s authentication request,
and whether authenticating via a different server has an impact on the logon.
12.9.4 Slow searches
Content Platform Engine supports customizable searches. Searches can be
constructed with various operators and combinations of search conditions, joins,
subqueries, and ordering, and can include the paging of results.
Because of this powerful and customizable search capability, and because
unnecessary indexes can degrade performance when objects are added or
updated, a single set of database indexes to support high performance searches
for all application designs does not exist.
Therefore, you must analyze the searches run in your environment in order to
create the right and minimal set of database indexes to ensure high performance.
IBM provides a detailed technote to deal with this challenge:
https://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21502886
This list summarizes the best practices when you create searches:
Use a wildcard search only at the end of a string search value and use Starts
With for a LIKE query.
Create Oracle function-based or DB2 generated-column indexes for string
comparisons that are not case sensitive.
Join only one or two tables at a time in a query.
Avoid unnecessary Order By clauses.
Use the Intersects operator for multiple List property OR conditions.
Use continuable searches for queries that are run from a graphical user
interface.
Continuable searches reduce the time database locks are held, and allow
result sets to be displayed more quickly to clients when compared to
non-continuable searches. However, the total time taken for a non-continuable
search is shorter than for continuable search.
In a non-continuable search, all rows are returned and the database can hold
row locks during the query, which can result in timeouts or database
contention.
Verify that searches are using the expected indexes and are using the best
possible query plan.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Ensure DBAs regularly monitor database statistics and reorganize frequently
updated tables.
12.9.5 Storage performance issues
When you run into storage performance issues, use the IBM System Dashboard
for Enterprise Content Management to examine the file and fixed storage
performance counters. There are many counters related to storage performance,
and these counters can indicate a bottleneck reading or writing to a storage
device, or a high failure count related to a storage device.
A good place to start is the Content Upload and Content Download server-based
counters. If the performance issue cannot be resolved and IBM Support is
needed, collect IBM System Dashboard data during the time that the issue is
seen. The interval that the counters are collected needs to be in the 10 - 30
second range. Be sure to supply IBM Support with a system monitor archive file
(Archive history option), since an archive file can be used to examine all the
detailed information collected by the system monitor. In addition to an archive file,
supply IBM Support with information about the system architecture. Include
detailed information about the storage devices and usage patterns, for example,
storage devices shared by applications other than the Content Platform Engine.
12.9.6 Tuning sweep jobs
For the best performance of policy and job sweeps, create a covering index on
the base table that is being swept. In addition, analyze the searches and the
query plans for the sweep jobs and add indexes as necessary.
Use the sweep preview mode to determine the rate at which the sweep will
traverse the objects, without actually performing the sweep actions on the
objects. Follow these steps to run a sweep in preview mode:
1.Define the job or the policies exactly as they will be run in production,
including the proper classes, subclasses, and filter expressions.
2.Set the Sweep Mode to Preview Counters Only mode.
3.Let the sweep run and use the IBM System Dashboard to monitor the
progress.
4.Review the sweep framework summary tracing to see the overall sweep rate
after the sweep finishes.

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12.10 Opening PMRs
If you are having difficulty correcting a problem yourself, open a Problem
Management Record (PMR) with IBM software support. You can open PMRs by
calling IBM Support directly or via the IBM software support portal. To open a
PMR, you will need your IBM Customer Number (ICN).
12.10.1 The IBM software support portal
The IBM software support portal details all facets of IBM software support. It
provides self-help information, as well as instructions for creating PMRs and
escalation procedures. You can obtain the specialized IBM software support
portal for FileNet at the following link:
http://www.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/Overview/Software/Enterprise_Co
ntent_Management/FileNet_Product_Family/FileNet_Content_Manager
12.10.2 Open a PMR by calling IBM
IBM software support has local call-in numbers for most countries. Local
numbers are at this website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/Overview/Software/Enterprise_Co
ntent_Management/FileNet_Product_Family/FileNet_Content_Manager
Select Support & downloads  Service requests and PMRs and find the link.
Then, click Contact support Directory of worldwide contacts.
Or use this hot link:
http://www.ibm.com/planetwide
In the US, call IBM software support at 1-800-IBM-SERV (1-800-426-7378) and
select option 2. Ask the dispatcher to open a PMR on your behalf and to connect
you with an IBM Support specialist.
12.10.3 Open a PMR via the web
You can open a PMR via the web through the Electronic Service Request (ESR)
tool, which is available at this website:
http://www.ibm.com

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Follow these steps to open a PMR:
1.Select Support & downloads  Service requests and PMRs  Go to IBM
Service Request
2.Log in with your IBM ID.
3.SelectOpen a new service request  Enter your keyword(s). For
example, enter Content Platform Engine.
4.Select the product that you are using. Enter the relevant data. Select
Continue.
Or, use this hot link:
http://www.ibm.com/software/support/probsub.html
To submit PMRs via the website, your company’s Site Technical Contact must
authorize you to submit PMRs electronically to IBM.
12.10.4 Necessary items when contacting IBM software support
When calling or submitting a problem to IBM software support, have the following
information ready. The more information you can supply, the quicker the IBM
Support team can start resolving your issue. Provide the following information:
Your IBM customer number
Your company name
Your contact name:
– Preferred means of contact (voice or email)
– Telephone number where you can be reached
Machine type and model number:
– Related product and version information
– Related operating system and database information
Prepare the “MustGather” information manually or by using the IBM Support
Assistant (ISA) Workbench.
Important: If your production system is down, call IBM Support directly and
open a severity 1 PMR.

Chapter 12. Troubleshooting
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Detailed description of the issue.
Being able to articulate the problem and symptoms before contacting
software support expedites the problem solving process. It is extremely
important that you are as specific as possible in explaining a problem or
question to the IBM software specialists. Our IBM Support specialists want to
be sure that they provide you with exactly the right solution; therefore, the
better they understand your specific problem scenario, the better they are
able to resolve it.
Gathering background information
To effectively and efficiently solve a problem, the software specialist needs to
have all of the relevant information about the problem. Being able to answer the
following questions will help in the efforts to resolve your software problem:
Has the problem happened before, or is this a new, isolated problem?
What steps led to the failure?
Can the problem be re-created? If so, what steps are required?
Have any changes been made to the system, such as hardware, network, or
software updates?
Are any messages or other diagnostic information produced when the error
occurs? Attach the information to the PMR and include a screen capture if
appropriate. Identifying the time at which the error occurred is helpful.
It is often helpful to have a printout of the message numbers of any messages
received when you call IBM Support.
Define your technical question in specific terms and provide the version and
release level of the products in question.
Gather relevant diagnostic information, if possible. It is often necessary that
the software support specialists analyze specific diagnostic information, such
as storage dumps and traces, in order to resolve your problem. Gathering this
information is often the most critical step in resolving your problem.
On more difficult problems, you might also need the following items:
Application architecture diagram that details how all application components
are designed to work
Network topology diagram, including servers, routers, firewalls, and network
load balancers
If your problem is performance-related, performance archive files

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Determining the business impact
You need to assign a severity level to the problem when you report it, so you
need to understand the business impact of the problem that you are reporting. A
description of the severity levels is in Table 12-2.
Table 12-2 Problem severity descriptions and examples
When speaking with the software support specialist, also mention the following
items if they apply to your situation:
You are under business deadline pressure.
Your availability, or when you will be able to work with IBM software support.
You can be reached at more than one phone number.
You can designate a knowledgeable alternate contact with whom the IBM
Support representative can speak.
You have other open problems (PMRs) with IBM about this service request.
You are participating in an early adoption program.
You have researched this situation prior to calling IBM and have detailed
information or documentation to provide for the problem.
Severity level Further definitions Examples
Severity 1 Critical situation/system down:
Business critical software
component is inoperable. As a rule,
it applies to the production
environment.
The P8 Content Manager
system is down and affecting
all users.
Severity 2 Severe impact:
A software component is severely
restricted in its use, causing
significant business impact.
The P8 Content Manager
system cannot be accessed
by one department. Other
users are able to access the
system.
Severity 3 Moderate impact:
A non-critical software component
is malfunctioning, causing
moderate business impact.
A client cannot connect to a
server.
Severity 4 Minimal impact:
A non-critical software component
is malfunctioning, causing minimal
impact, or a non-technical request
is being made.
Documentation is incorrect.
Additional documentation
requested.

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12.10.5 IBM Support Assistant (ISA) Workbench
The IBM Support Assistant Workbench provides access to several different
serviceability tools, which can assist you in many areas of problem diagnosis,
such as Java troubleshooting, product configuration analysis, and log analysis.
IBM Support Assistant can be customized for over 350 products and over 20
tools.
If you have permission to use this software tool, install and use it for general
troubleshooting or for gathering all relevant data for opening a PMR.
IBM Support Assistant Workbench is available at this website:
http://www.ibm.com/software/support/isa/#isawb
If the entire tool is too large or you are not allowed to install this type of tool in the
production environment, consider using the IBM Support Assistant Lite Data
Collector version instead. IBM Support Assistant Lite Data Collector is smaller
than the IBM Support Assistant Workbench, because it is a simple utility that
collects the specific data that is needed for opening a PMR.
IBM Support Assistant Lite Data Collector is available at this website:
http://www.ibm.com/software/support/isa/#isadc
You can also install IBM Support Assistant as a team server that you and your
team can access via a browser. An Overview tab provides all the relevant system
data. The Symptom tab displays all problems found and ranks them. A Global
Knowledge Base Matches tab displays potential solutions for the symptoms
identified during the analysis of your case files. In this view, you can quickly
identify technical documents, APARs, and fix packs that address the symptoms
identified during the automated analysis.
12.10.6 Type of fixes that might be provided
There are three types of fixes that might be provided by the IBM Support Team
release:
Fix pack
Interim fix
Test fix
An
Authorized Program Analysis Report
(APAR) is associated with each fix that
is contained in a support package.

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An APAR is generated as a result of the following actions:
1.A customer reports an issue via a PMR.
2.The Level 2 (L2) support team investigates the issue and determines that they
need additional assistance, and open a Change Request Management
(CRM).
3.The Level 3 (L3) support team assists with the investigation of the issue.
If a software fix is required, an APAR is opened so that information about the
issue can be available to other customers.
All fixes are made available via IBM Support Fix Central:
http://www-933.ibm.com/support/fixcentral
Before you install a fix, review the readme file that is provided with the package.
Review the appropriate FileNet P8 fix pack compatibility matrices that can be
downloaded from this website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27014734
Fix pack
A
fix pack
provides a roll-up of APAR resolutions that were previously provided
as interim fixes, test fixes, or in a previous fix pack, as well as fixes not previously
released.
Interim fix
An
interim fix
provides the resolution to a few APARs, usually one, that are likely
to be needed by multiple customers.
Test fix
A
test fix
provides the resolution to a few APARS, usually one, that are required
by a specific customer. Test fixes are password protected.
12.10.7 Rolling up fixes
If you received a test fix or an interim fix from IBM Support, before you install a
new fix pack or a later release of a P8 Content Manager component, ensure that
the fixes you need are included in the software. The fixes and software releases
occur at various times so you cannot assume that your specific issue is resolved
in the “newer” software release package.
If you are in any doubt, contact the IBM Support team to ensure that your fixes
are included in the software release that you want to install.

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12.11 Conclusion
In this chapter, we discussed the basics of troubleshooting P8 Content Manager
and associated third-party software.
In the next chapter, we provide an overview of building software solutions that
use P8 Content Manager.

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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
427
Chapter 13.
IBM FileNet Content
Manager solutions
In this chapter, we describe product feature capabilities and solution components
to aid designers in preparing Enterprise Content Management (ECM) solutions.
The material describes available options for the input, management, storage,
process, and presentation phases of ECM solutions.
We introduce these ECM design aids:
Solution building blocks:
– Foundation components
– Content ingestion tools
– Process management
– Presentation features
Sample use cases of solution building blocks
13

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
13.1 Solution building blocks
At a fundamental level, any ECM solution is composed of five major solution
components:
Foundation components
Content ingestion tools
Process management
Presentation features
All ECM solutions are essentially a construction of information input, storage,
information processing, and presentation and delivery. Figure 13-1 illustrates the
major ECM solution components.
Figure 13-1 Major ECM solution components
These major components form the building blocks of ECM solution design.
Solution building blocks
are the features that ECM solution designers can
specify and combine to build out each of the components of an ECM solution:
content ingestion, content management, process, and presentation. The IBM
FileNet suite of products contains applications and tools that offer designers a
wide range of features and functions for the design of each of the major
components of an ECM implementation.
Figure 13-2 on page 429 shows several of the IBM tools that are available to
ECM designers and the place for these blocks within the four major design
phases of an ECM solution.
Foundation
Components
Process
Management
Content
Ingestion
Tools
Presentation
Features

Chapter 13. IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions
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Figure 13-2 ECM design phases
13.1.1 Foundation components
We describe the foundation components of the P8 Content Manager:
Repositories
Business object management
Classification
Versioning
Security
Auditing
Search
Content Platform Engine application programming interfaces (APIs)
Content storage and content caching
Lifecycle management and retention management
Social ECM capabilities
Foundation Components
ECM
Process Management
Presentation Features
Publishing
Printing
Display
Browsing
Content Ingestion
Tools
Paper scanning
Fax
Email
FTP
Monitored
filesystem
Workflows / EAI
Applications
Repositories
Versioning
Business Objects
Classification
Search
Storage
Management
Auditing
APIs Social ECM
Subscriptions
Workflow
definitions
Document
Lifecycle management

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Repositories
Repositories are the basic components of FileNet P8 Content Manager. Their
main purpose is to store the business objects, for example, documents, images,
folders, and custom objects, with the respective metadata and provide a
centralized information library.
A single FileNet Content Platform Engine can serve several repositories that are
also called
object stores
. An object store can store various business data,
including structured and unstructured content, such as images, XML documents,
Microsoft Office documents, and web pages. It can also be configured to store
the content in a database, a file system, a fixed content device, or any
combination of these options.
Business object management
In addition to managing documents, P8 Content Manager also can manage other
types of data, such as folders, custom objects, and annotations.
Folders
are special objects that are used to relate other type of objects, such as
document and custom objects, and provide a way to browse through other
objects. Folders have the following characteristics:
Have system properties that the system manages automatically, such as Date
Created.
Can have custom properties for storing business-related metadata.
Are secured.
Can be hierarchical (a folder can have subfolders).
Can contain documents and custom objects.
Can generate server events when they are created, modified, or deleted.
These events are then used to customize behavior.
Can be annotated.
Business benefits: The FileNet content repository provides a standard
solution for document creation, versioning, and check-out, or add and
check-in. The FileNet content repository can house all documents in a central
repository with accessibility for all authorized users.
Recommendations: Use repositories to separate business objects based on
functional and logical purposes, enforce object security, and improve the
manageability of objects. For example, you can create a repository for
sensitive Human Resources objects, a second repository for customer-related
objects, and a third repository for vendor-related objects.

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Provide
containment by reference
, which allows any specific object to be filed
in multiple folders at the same time.
Custom objects
contain only metadata without any content and are used to store
business information. Custom objects have the following characteristics:
Have system properties that the system manages automatically, such as Date
Created.
Can have custom properties for storing business-related metadata, such as
Account Number.
Are secured.
Can participate in business processes as workflow attachments.
Can generate server events when they are created, modified, or deleted.
These events are then used to customize behavior.
Document objects
represent the electronically stored information that is managed
by the ECM system. Documents have the following characteristics:
Have system properties that the system manages automatically, such as Date
Created.
Can have custom properties for storing business-related metadata about the
document.
Are secured.
Business benefits: Folders provide an option to organize and structure
documents and custom objects in logical entities. For example, you can create
a loan folder that contains all the relevant business objects of a loan
application.
Recommendations: When you use folders, be aware of the following design
considerations that might affect overall system performance:
The number of folders
The depth of a folder structure
The number of objects in a folder
Folder items with the same name in the same folder because this
duplication violates a uniqueness constraint.
Recommendations: Use custom objects to store data that relates to your
business requirements, for example, a client can be represented as a custom
object.

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Can have content that can be indexed for searching.
Can point to content that is outside of the object store (external content).
Can have no content (metadata only).
Can be versioned to maintain a history of the content over time.
Can be filed in folders.
Can have a lifecycle.
Can participate in business processes as workflow attachments.
Can generate server events when they are created, modified, or deleted.
These events are then used to customize behavior and trigger any custom
events or workflows in other systems
Can be rendered to different formats, such as PDF and HTML, by using the
add-on IBM Rendition Engine.
Can be published to a website.
Can be annotated.
Can be audited.
Annotation objects
represent relevant incidental information about objects that
can be associated with custom objects, folders, or documents. Annotation
objects have the following characteristics:
Annotation security is independent from object security. Default security is
provided by the class and by the annotated object. An annotation can
optionally have a security policy assigned to it.
Can have subclasses.
Can have zero or more associated content elements, and the content does
not need to have the same format as its annotated object.
Are uniquely associated with a single document version and, therefore, are
not versioned when a document version is updated.
Can be modified and deleted independently of the annotated object.
Can be searched for and retrieved using the Content Engine API.
Can subscribe to server-side events that fire when an action (such as creating
an annotation) occurs.
Can participate in a link relationship.
Can be audited.

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Classification
Each
document class
defines the properties and the default security for all the
documents that are added under a specific document class. Document classes
support design based on organization content or function and can encapsulate a
single design aspect. Classification of the documents is performed by selecting
document class and property values for each document. Classification can also
be performed by adding objects into folders that define classification taxonomies.
Classification can be performed in the following ways:
Manually by a user.
By an application that uses the P8 Content Engine API.
Automatically by using the content-based classification capability that is
provided in the P8 Content Platform Engine.
Versioning
Versioning
is a base document management capability that is used to maintain
the history of the changes of the document content. The set of versions for a
single document is called a
version series
. P8 Content Platform Engine supports
a minor and major version scheme; a minor version typically represents a “work
in progress” document and a major version represents a completed document.
The system can be configured to apply security policies that in turn automatically
apply different access rights for major and minor versions, making it easy to
enforce a different viewing audience for in-progress documents.
In addition to version numbers, P8 Content Platform Engine maintains a state
property that indicates the current state of each document version. The states
are listed:
In Process: A work-in-progress version. Only one version of a version series
can be in process.
Reservation: A document currently checked out for modification. Only the
latest version of a version series can be reserved.
Business benefits: Document classes support transparent business
functionality and can automatically file the document in the correct folder and
apply the correct retention schedule.
Recommendations: Define a top-level document class with all the properties
that are common across all objects in the enterprise. All specific application
objects are children of the enterprise document class.

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Released: A document released as a major version. Only one major version
of a version series can be released.
Superseded: A version superseded by another version. Many versions in the
version series can be superseded.
Auditing
Auditing
is the recording of events that occur on business objects. All business
objects and almost all events can be audited.
Audit definitions
describe how to
audit an event. For example, you can configure an audit definition for a document
class so that audit entries are automatically created whenever documents of that
class are checked in.
Audit entries are stored in a table of the object store database. Those entries can
be viewed, exported for reporting reasons, and administered by users with the
correct authorization.
Security
In P8 Content Manager, you secure the business objects by defining a directory
service that controls who logs on to the Content Platform Engine by setting
access rights for those users.
Business benefits: A version series retains all history of the content and
supports the correct information management.
Recommendations: Define security on versions in order to ensure that only
authorized users can access “work in progress” versions or completed
versions.
Business benefits: Auditing helps you monitor content and process
management for the following activities and regulatory compliance:
Object creation
Updates
Deletions
Recommendations: Only enable auditing for selected events and plan for
audit log cleanup. Audit logs are stored in a database table and a large audit
log table can create performance issues.

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P8 Content Manager has a defined security context. Only those users, groups,
and machine accounts that are explicitly given access to the object store can
access the resources (business objects).
There are many ways to define the security of a business object:
Default instance security: The security of the object is defined in the object
class and inherited to all instances of that document class.
Version state: The security of the object is defined by the version level of the
document. For example, some users might have access to minor versions of
the document, and other users have access only to major versions of the
same document.
Document state: The security of the document is controlled by the document
state.
Marking sets: The security of the document is controlled by a property value
and by the code you implement that interprets the meaning of the property.
Directly applied security: The security of the object is assigned directly to the
object by a user or an application.
Inherited security: Security is placed on the object by a security parent or by
setting up a relationship with an object-valued property whose Security Proxy
Type is set to Inherited.
Business benefits: Using the model where document privileges are assigned
from Directory Services functional groups, not individual users, helps reduce
the cost of managing the security of the system by reducing security access
complexity and by handling the separation of duty requirements.
Marking sets allow access to a document to be controlled based on specific
property values to ensure that sensitive information is protected, for example,
Secret/Confidential. With marking sets, you ensure document security and
privacy control, limit access to sensitive data, and control access to
documents.

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Search
P8 Content Manager supports property and content-based searches.
With property searches, a user or an application can search multiple object
stores for business objects that have a specific value in a property. Therefore,
users can search for documents, custom objects, or folders in different object
stores based on a property value.
Searches are defined in P8 Content Manager as SQL queries and support many
of the standard SQL operators, such as OR, AND, LIKE, UNION, and INTERSECTION.
Search definitions can be created and then stored in an object store, allowing
users easy access to common queries.
Content-based retrieval (CBR) supports searching within the content of a
document or the metadata. CBR provides capabilities to search for misspelled
words, typographical errors, word stems, synonym expansion, and wildcards.
CBR search results can be ranked by relevancy and can display a document
summary format.
Bulk operations can be performed on search results. Operations can be scripted
or selected from a set of predefined operations, such as delete, cancel checkout,
file, unfile, and change security.
Recommendations: Always assign security to LDAP groups and not to
specific LDAP users. Assigning rights to groups gives you more flexibility over
object access. (You can easily add or remove users to the specific group,
therefore giving or removing access to objects that are already stored.)
Try to avoid the Deny security option on objects, which is an implicit way to
remove access from users or groups.
Marking sets are stored in the global configuration database (GCD). If you add
too many of them, it might affect the performance of the system.
Business benefits: Content Platform Engine search capabilities provide an
effective means of locating information, improving the ability to share
information across the organization, and enhancing record requests, thus
improving organizational efficiency.

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APIs
Content Platform Engine has a collection of available development and
integration tools.
Depending on your enterprise strategy and architecture, you can use any of the
following APIs for application development:
Content Engine Java API: Provides access to the full content capabilities of
Content Platform Engine
Content Engine .NET API: Is the functional equivalent of Content Engine Java
API for .NET application development
Content Management Interoperability Services API: Is an open source OASIS
standard that enables applications to work with one or more content
management systems by defining a standard domain model and a standard
set of services
Process Java API: Provides classes for all workflow and business process
management features
Process Engine REST Service: Is used from custom applications to perform
fundamental business process management operations
Web Services: Provides a service that provides access to most of the same
functionality as the Content Engine and Process Java APIs
Content storage management
P8 Content Manager supports storing content in a file system, a fixed content
storage system, and the object store database. Depending on the requirements
of your solution, choose one or more of these options for content storage.
Recommendations: Always specify maximum limit for returned results.
Searches are translated as queries against object store databases. Long
running, non-optimized queries negatively affect the overall system
performance.
Do not use wildcard searches because they can create problems, such as
database table locks, and performance issues.
Search is not a reporting tool and you must not use it that way.
Business benefits: The P8 Content Manager APIs provide a way to integrate
with other line of business applications, improve the user experience by
offering functionality, and access multiple systems transparently.

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Database storage is useful when you only need to store a few, small documents.
There are performance advantages to storing smaller documents (less than 10
MB) in a database storage area when compared to other storage area types.
Avoid storing any document that is over 100 MB in a database storage area. The
main benefit of database storage is that backups are much simpler because your
document content is backed up along with your normal object store database
backup.
File and fixed storage areas are the preferred medium when storing large
numbers of files with high ingestion rates.
File storage areas use a directory structure on the file system to store a
document’s content. Documents are stored among the directories at the leaf level
by using a hashing algorithm to evenly distribute files among these leaf
directories.
Fixed storage areas are used to store documents in external repositories, such
as IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, EMC Centera, and Network Appliance
SnapLock. There are two scenarios for the integration of P8 Content Manager
with those external repositories. In the first scenario, the document content is
managed by Content Manager and the external device is used only as a storage
device. In the second scenario, fixed storage areas are used with federation
when content is stored in an external repository. In this scenario, the document
and its associated metadata can be accessed as native P8 documents, in
addition to their accessibility via the source repository.
P8 Content Manager also provides the following features for storage
management:
Bulk content move: With the bulk content move sweep job, you can move
content from one storage area to another. There is also a Move Content API
method, which can be used from other applications to move content from one
storage area to another. Content can be moved from any storage area type
(database, file system, or fixed content) as long as content is not under
device-level retention.
Content caching: Database file store area content and fixed storage area
content can be cached on a cache server. For frequently accessed content,
content caching provides a faster response time in content retrieval. Content
caching also benefits geographically distributed systems and systems with
hierarchical storage devices by storing copies of content local to where they
are accessed most often.
Content de-duplication: P8 Content Manager supports de-duplication of the
content that is ingested from various sources. This feature saves storage
costs for duplicate content that is saved in the repository.

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Content compression: Content Manager supports the compression of the
content that is stored in a storage area. The compression is transparent to the
client that is storing or retrieving the content. This feature saves storage costs
but it has performance implications because the compression and
decompression of the content occurs when the content is stored or retrieved.
Content encryption: This feature helps protect the documents in the storage
areas from unauthorized access directly to the storage area. The encryption
and decryption of the content is performed automatically by the Content
Platform Engine. The entire process is transparent to the users, but it imposes
performance penalties when the content is stored for the encryption and
when the content is retrieved for the content decryption.
Retention management
Retention management
is an event-based retention infrastructure that can define
object-level retention policies. It is supported for documents, annotations, folders,
and custom objects.
A retention management automatic deletion and disposal policy defines the rules
for when objects are automatically deleted.
The policy has these characteristics:
Can apply to any searchable repository object.
Business benefits: Content Manager storage management provides many
options to satisfy every functional and technical requirement.
Recommendations: Encrypt all the sensitive content of your organization to
ensure privacy. Encryption is defined on the storage area level. Enabling the
encryption on a storage area does not encrypt the content that is already
stored in that storage area.
If your organization is geographically dispersed, use content caching and
minimize the network traffic for content retrieval.
If you are using hierarchical storage devices with tape support, such as IBM
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, consider using the content caching capability for
slow content retrieval from tapes. Using content caching, the retrieval might
time out but the content cache continues to retrieve the content so that the
content is available in cache for the next user request.
If you are using records management, be careful with the content
deduplication feature of Content Manager.

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Allows documents, folders, and custom root classes that have a retention date
in the past to be deleted.
Allows custom root classes that have a closure date in the past to be deleted.
Can delete queue items that have reached the maximum failure count more
than one month in the past.
Is based on values assigned to the CmRetentionDate system property.
Can also be based on system-defined or user-defined properties.
Social ECM
P8 Content Manager can be used for the enablement of social collaboration,
social content management, and integration with IBM Connections.
P8 Content Manager supports the following social ECM features:
Ability for users to recommend a business object.
Ability for users to comment on managed objects. Comments can only be
created by authorized users.
Ability for users to “follow” updates to business objects.
Social tagging of managed objects.
Activity stream generation for business objects.
Activity streams
provide a
syndicated view of updates to the content, including notifications and
recommendations.
Tracking the number of downloads of a document.
Large content streaming.
Thumbnail generation and storing.
User-centric recycle bin for deletion and recovery of documents.
Business benefits: Implementing a retention management scheme helps
organizations meet organizational, business, regulatory, and legislative
requirements.
Recommendations: Always define a retention period for the content that is
considered critical for your organization. Retention periods that are defined on
Content Manager need to match the retention period of your records
management requirements. Also, by defining a retention period, you can
decrease the volume of information on your Content Manager repository and
provide only relevant information to the business users of your ECM system.

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Foundational components provide the strong build blocks for ECM enterprise
solution for organizations across multiple industries.
13.1.2 Content ingestion tools
IBM FileNet offers several content ingestion (capture) applications, each of which
is designed for capturing a different type of media. The capture applications listed
in this section can handle the following media types:
Paper documents
Faxes
Office (electronic) documents, presentations, or spreadsheets
PDF, web, .txt files, or multimedia files
Email messages
Documents stored on network drives or desktops
Documents stored in remote repositories, such as IBM FileNet Image
Services, IBM Domino®, OpenText, Microsoft SharePoint, or EMC
Documentum
IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture
IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture is used as a capture portal for all the
documents that are managed by an organization. IBM Datacap Taskmaster
Capture offers these features:
Scans and verifies all paper-based documents
Supports multiple recognition engines that are configurable with rules for data
extraction from scanned documents
Supports bar code recognition for automatic classification and indexing
Supports web-based remote scanning and verification by using a browser
Supports the import of documents from file systems
Bulk Import tool
Bulk Import is a tool that is designed to help organizations move document
images in Content Manager even when those images are created by third-party
tools or external processes. With this tool, you can store document images from
files at a rate of more than a million documents per day. It also can assemble
documents from more than one image, create batches of documents, and assign
metadata and indexing properties to documents.

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Microsoft Office Integration facility
IBM Content Navigator and FileNet Workplace XT integrate with Microsoft Office
applications to help the casual business users manage documents, emails, and
attachments. By using the Microsoft Office Integration facility, business users can
add new documents to an object store and retrieve and update existing content.
This integration provides access to most ECM features, such as hierarchical
folder navigation, version control, metadata management, security, and even
approval workflows.
IBM Content Collector for Email
IBM Content Collector for Email supports organizations to gain control of email in
order to meet record management obligations, connect email to business
processes, and manage storage space.
With Content Collector for Email, you can monitor the incoming and outgoing
emails of an organization and, based on rules, archive the messages in Content
Manager. It also supports the extraction of message attachments and storage,
based on user-defined rules, such as keywords and email addresses, to Content
Manager.
It also helps organizations to reduce the storage requirements for their email
management system by leveraging the storage management features of Content
Manager.
IBM Content Collector for SAP
IBM Content Collector for SAP provides outbound archiving and retrieval of SAP
generated business documents, SAP reports, and database data It provides
inbound archiving and retrieval for external documents, such as invoices.
Content Collector for SAP reduces operational costs by managing the growth of
SAP application data through archiving. It increases the efficiency of SAP users
and business processes by linking relevant content to SAP transactions.
IBM Content Collector for SAP provides two options for integration with the SAP
system. One option is the P8 client that can link documents and folders selected
by a user to an SAP transaction. The second option is called
Utility Client.
Utility
Client can link an archived document on Content Manager by processing bar
codes or by creating work items in the SAP workflow.
Recommendations: For casual users who use only Microsoft Office content,
consider this feature of Content Manager as your primary option.

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IBM Content Collector for Files
IBM Content Collector for Files helps organizations manage documents on
network file shares and provides tools to help users comply with corporate and
regulatory policies.
IBM Content Collector for Files automatically captures documents that are
placed on a monitored location of a file share and uses the Content Manager
archiving and deduplication capabilities to help reduce infrastructure costs that
are associated with the management of file systems. It permits advanced file
handling based on rules. It can be configured to leave documents in place or
move them and replace them with shortcuts.
IBM Content Collector for SharePoint
IBM Content Collector for SharePoint provides collection and archiving. It also
provides extended enterprise content management and business process
management capabilities for the SharePoint content.
IBM Content Collector for SharePoint collects and archives content from
SharePoint document libraries, wikis, and blogs and automatically classifies it.
Collected documents are replaced by a shortcut in SharePoint. It can also be
configured to declare collected content as a record by using IBM Enterprise
Records.
Content Federation Services
Content Federation Services (CFS) unifies content from different repositories into
one or more object stores so that the content and associated metadata can be
accessed by using the P8 Content Manager suite of products.
With CFS, you can put metadata from heterogeneous repositories into object
stores so that the metadata is available to all users. You can also manage the full
lifecycle of the digital content, enforce records management policies, and provide
an enterprise-wide content search mechanism regardless of the repository in
which the content is stored.
Business benefits: Content Ingestion tools help make the collection of data
easy and quick. They simplify information search and can automatically
extract data from documents during the ingestion process. Using the content
ingestion tools indexing process can be standardized, simplified, and
independent of the organizational changes.

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13.1.3 Process management
IBM FileNet offers various solution building blocks for process management.
Events and subscriptions
Events
provide a mechanism to initiate actions that are executed when objects
are created, modified, and deleted from an object store. A
subscription
is the
association of a particular event trigger with an event action. Many subscriptions
can be associated with an event trigger.
Subscriptions can be associated with a class so that they apply to the class itself
or to all instances of all objects of that class type, or they can be associated with
a specific object. Event subscriptions can be executed synchronously or
asynchronously. When set to run synchronously, the object action (for example,
create or update) and the operations of the event actions are completed as a
single transaction; failure in either results in the rollback of both operations.
When set to run asynchronously, the object action and the event action operation
run as separate transactions; in this case, the object operation can succeed
independently of the event action operation.
Change preprocessors
Change preprocessors
are action handlers that change new or updated objects
before they are saved to the Content Manager.
Change preprocessor handlers

are associated with a class definition. When an object of that class is saved, the
action handler is triggered.
Change preprocessors allow object modifications that are difficult or impossible
to accomplish by using event action handlers. For example, a change
preprocessor can alter a modifiable-only-on-create property because those
properties cannot be altered after the object is saved.
Business benefits: Subscriptions can streamline the business process and
make all integration transparent to the business user.
Recommendations: Subscriptions provide a powerful way to activate your
content. You can define a subscription so that a workflow is launched when a
document is created or modified. For example, when a loan application
document is created, a loan approval workflow is initiated, a loan folder is
created, the client information is retrieved from core systems, and a custom
object is created with the information.

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Content lifecycle management
The
content lifecycle
is a series of sequential states that a document goes
through during its life.
A content lifecycle definition consists of two objects:
Lifecycle policy: Identifies the allowed document states. The policy also
identifies the lifecycle action that executes in response to state changes.
Lifecycle action: Custom action that the system performs when a document
moves from one state to another. A lifecycle action is typically coded by a
developer, but managed by an administrator. The custom actions handle the
following state changes:
– Promote: Moves the document forward to its next lifecycle state.
– Demote: Returns the document to its previous lifecycle state.
– Reset: Returns the document to its first lifecycle state with each new
version.
– Set in exception mode: Prevents the document from changing lifecycle
state.
– Clear from exception mode: Enables the document to change lifecycle
state.
The content lifecycle defines simple processes related to managing a
document’s lifecycle. For more complex document lifecycle actions, use IBM
Case Foundation.
Business process management
IBM Case Foundation is a package that includes P8 Content Manager. Case
Foundation can create, execute, manage, analyze, and simulate business
processes (also referred as
workflows
) that are performed by users or
applications.
Business benefit: Ability for a group of people to work on the same document
with proper version control and avoid duplication, providing real-time
collaboration and information sharing to improve and streamline business
processes.
Recommendations: For simple serial workflows, use content lifecycle
management.

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By creating a workflow definition, you define the activities and resources that are
needed to complete a business process. A
workflow definition
is a series of
steps connected by a series of routes that defines the sequence that the steps
are executed. Workflow definitions can contain several maps and submaps that
can group related steps.
Steps
in the workflow represent a business task or a system activity. Steps can be
executed by a user, a group of users, or by an automated application. Workflow
steps can run in parallel to facilitate efficient processes.
Routing
defines the order in which the steps are executed. Routing can be based
on a specific rule or events. Except for the last step, every step has one or more
routes that lead to it. Routes can be defined so that they are always taken or
followed only if a condition is met.
You can use deadlines and timers to ensure that work is processed in a timely
manner. A
deadline
provides a time-based scheduling constraint, which requires
that a step or workflow is completed within a certain amount of time. The
deadline can be relative to the time that the step was routed to the participant or
to the time that the workflow was launched. A participant with a deadline can
receive a reminder of the pending deadline through an email message. When the
deadline is passed, a visual reminder displays in the participant’s inbox, and an
email can be sent to a configurable list, such as one or more supervisors. The
distribution list can be specific to each work item. This automatic process
escalation has the additional benefit of operatively ensuring that certain functions
or processes are completed on time and without tying up resources to
continuously monitor system activities.
A
timer
indicates a time during which you want a specified series of steps to
process. If the timer expires before this processing completes, processing
proceeds to another workflow map that provides alternate processing of the
work.
Recommendations: For complex content-centric processes, use the process
management capabilities of Content Manager. Examples of content-centric
processes are loan origination processes and insurance claim processes.
Using Content Manager process management, you can activate the
organizational content and take control over processes that involve
documents.

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13.1.4 Presentation features
Several P8 Content Manager features are available to present content to your
users. IBM FileNet P8 presentation features include options for converting active
content to the following formats:
Native content format
PDF
HTML
Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) documents
Annotations
Native content format
FileNet Content Manager stores the content in the native content format (format
in which the content is created). When the content is retrieved from Content
Manager, the content stream is passed to the client and managed by the
associated client application. Content also can be displayed on the requesting
client by using the embedded Content Manager Viewer.
PDF and HTML presentation
The
Rendition Engine
is a P8 Content Manager add-on that facilitates document
publishing. Publishing a document enables converting a document into PDF or
HTML format, or generating a replica of the document in either PDF or HTML
format. The replica, which is known as the
publication document
, can have its
own security and property settings. Publishing can be triggered by event actions
or by changes in a document’s lifecycle state. When a document reaches the
“released” lifecycle state, for example, a PDF version can be automatically
created with public-view security rights.
Published documents have these characteristics:
Can continue to exist after the source document is deleted based on the
assigned retention schedule and business rules
Can be automatically deleted when the source document is deleted
Are not changed when their source documents are changed
Can exist in a different folder than the source documents
Recommendations: Try to use the embedded Content Manager Viewer as
much as possible. It provides multiple views of the content according to user
preference and IT permission sets and it ensures security. It makes the ECM
experience positive and transparent to the users by solving issues such as
where and how to store documents.

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Can have a different file format than the source documents, for example, the
source document can be a word document, and the publication document can
be an HTML document. Publishing options are defined by individual
templates
Can originate as Microsoft Office (for example, Word, Excel, and PowerPoint)
documents and be rendered to PDF or HTML
DITA documents
DITA is an XML-based open standard for developing, managing, structuring, and
publishing content. IBM originally developed DITA for more efficient reuse of
content in product documentation. IBM donated DITA work to the Organization
for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) for further
development and public release.
The content can be composed based on the DITA model that allows content to
be linked to multiple topics. After the content is reviewed and approved, it is
published to allow business users to perform searches and to navigate around
the content.
The two central units of authoring in DITA are the topic and the map. The
map

combines multiple topics into a structure that has a unique map. The
topic
might
appear in different manuals, and in multiple sections of the final document. Maps
are XML documents that consist of links to topics and metadata. Maps do not
have content themselves. DITA content (topics and maps) is rendered into PDF
and HTML.
Storing each piece of content in a separate file allows users to check out, revise,
check back in as a new version, and reuse the single source material in multiple
locations.
Next, we review the sample use cases from Chapter 2, “Solution examples and
design methodology” on page 17. We use the available components of Content
Manager and explain how those components are used to address business
requirements.
13.2 Sample use cases using solution building blocks
We explore various IBM FileNet Content Manager sample solutions through use
case descriptions. These use cases correspond to the use cases that we
introduced in Chapter 2, “Solution examples and design methodology” on
page 17.

Chapter 13. IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions
449
13.2.1 Policy document creation use case
The use case concerns policy or procedures and safety documentation. The
departments that are in charge of the policy need to go through a simple lifecycle
process to develop and publish a new policy on the web or to update an existing
policy. This process includes transforming an idea into policy, implementing the
policy actions, and then evaluating and measuring policy performance. This
example, which is illustrated in Figure 13-3 on page 450, is a typical first project
when introducing P8 Content Manager into a company.
The use case has the following requirements:
Documents can be authored, reviewed, approved, or released.
There are four roles (author, reviewer, approver, and user).
Each role has certain permissions.
Users can only see approved documents and always the latest version.
Changes to documents need to be audited.
Documents must be filed in folders according to their classification.
Policy documents exist in a shared folder on the network.
Users must be able to search documents based on their properties or words
inside the content.
A PDF version of the policy is published to the intranet/Internet.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 13-3 Policy document review and approval use case
Based on the requirements, this use case uses these components:
Foundation components:
– Document classes for classification of documents
– Folders for document classification
– Minor and major versions
– Security based on version state
– Auditing for document changes
– Property-based search and content-based retrieval for locating documents
Content ingestion tools:
– Microsoft Office integration for storing documents directly from Microsoft
Office applications
– IBM Datacap Task Master for scanning paper-based documents and
importing already created policy documents from a shared folder
Process management
Content lifecycle management for the different states of the policy approval
process
Repository
0.1
0.1
0.2
1.0
1.
Author creates
document for
revision.
2.
Authors and Reviewers
collaborate by checking
document versions in as
minor versions.
3.
After final approval,
document is checked
back in as new major
version.
1.0
4.
New version
supersedes the older;
all versions are retained
in the repository.
0.2

Chapter 13. IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions
451
Presentation features:
– Native content format
– Rendition Engine for PDF output
Solution details
As described in the requirements, authorized users must be able to check out
policy documents from the repository, change the content, and put it back in the
repository as a new version. For this requirement, we use P8 Content Manager
checkout, checkin, and versioning capabilities and Microsoft Office integration.
By adding a version to the repository, we use the content lifecycle management
capabilities of P8 Content Manager, and we assign the lifecycle state Pending
approval on the document. Approvers can check out the document, review the
content, and change it, creating a version of the document. They can return the
policy document to the previous state with comments for the author by adding a
new minor version, or they can approve the document and put it in the approved
state by adding a new major version.
In the requirements, there is the need for the user community to easily locate the
policy documents that are stored in an object store. For that purpose, we use the
object store foldering capabilities. We are creating logical folders for the policy
documents where users can put them according to their classification (for
example, Human Resources policies or procurement policies). We are also
providing to users the ability to search for policy documents based on their
properties. The P8 Content Manager search capabilities allow you to search for
documents by using any combination of document properties (for example,
Human Resources policies that were published two years ago).
According to the requirements, general users must have access only to approved
documents. Authors and reviewers must also have access to draft documents.
We use object store security to present the draft documents to the special users
that create, review, and approve the policy documents.
Also, there is a requirement that an approved policy document must be published
to the company’s intranet site as a PDF document. For this requirement, we use
IBM Rendition Engine for PDF generation and publishing.
Finally, there is the need to import all already created policy documents to
Content Manager. For this step, we use the file import capabilities of IBM
Datacap task master.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
13.2.2 Insurance claim processing use case
This use case concerns the handling of an insurance claim. The claims
processing department needs to handle the documents that are associated with
a claim. The compliance department needs to declare records after the claim is
closed and define the records retention period. Paper-based documents that are
sent to the claims department need to be scanned. A tight integration with the
core insurance claim application is needed. This example, which is illustrated in
Figure 13-4 on page 453, presents a typical scenario of a use case with
significant integration with external systems and other content repositories.
This use case has the following requirements:
Integration of core insurance application with Content Manager.
Folders for document organization.
Document scanning and optical character recognition (OCR) of scanned
documents.
Email capture of claim-related documents.
Events for document indexing from the Claim Management System and
exception process notification.
Records management for claim document declaration as enterprise records
and to set retention.
Documents must be available for viewing by authorized users during the
claims handling process.
Insurance policy documents from other repositories are displayed.

Chapter 13. IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions
453
Figure 13-4 Insurance claim processing use case
Based on the requirements, this use case uses these components:
Foundation components:
– Records folders for records filing
– Records management for insurance claim documents
– Annotation for marking and highlighting specific parts of the documents
– Content Manager APIs for integration with the Claim Management
application for folder creation and properties update
– Events for task initiation on the Claim Management System
– Security for display documents of each claim in authorized user groups
Content ingestion tools:
– IBM Datacap Task Master for document capture and OCR
– Email archiving
– Content federation services for content that is stored in other repositories
Document Scanning,
Faxing, Email and Uploading
from external sources
Insurance
Claim
Claims Processing Line Of Business Application
Users access claim file
and documents
p
Structured data
Document notification
will trigger a new task
in Claim processing
Gather Supporting
Documentation
Notification to create
a Records Folder
Notification to Close
the Claim Folder
Send notification
that Claim is
ready for disposition
FPOS
ROS
Documents
Records
Enterprise Content Manager
Repository
Policy
Data
CFS

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Process management
Events for notification of content addition on the Content Manager repository
Presentation feature
Content display in native format in claim processing department
Solution details
This complex solution uses many features of P8 Content Manager.
As described in the requirements, after claim notification, a new claim must be
opened in the core Claim Management System. New claim registration on the
core system triggers the creation of a new folder in IBM Enterprise Records. In
that folder, all records objects will be created for the claim-related documents that
are stored in the Content Platform Engine repository. For that requirement, we
use Content Manager APIs for integration with the Claim Management System.
When the paper document arrives, we use IBM Datacap Task Master to scan that
document. By using OCR/intelligent document recognition (ICR) capabilities, we
retrieve the claim number from the paper documents. Using that claim number,
along with other indexing information, such as the document type, the document
is stored in the Content Manager repository and filed under the claim folder. A
notification is sent to the Claim Management System. For the notification of the
Claim Management System, we use Content Platform Engine events to execute
certain code when a document is added in the ECM system.
During the claim lifecycle, the Claim Management System updates documents
and folders on the ECM system by using the Content Manager APIs with the
current claim status.
Due to sensitive personal information in the document, only authorized users
must have access to claim documents based on the claim status. For that
requirement, we use object store security and marking sets that control the
access to the document based on a property value (claim status).
According to the requirements, the Claim Management System users must have
access to insurance policy documents that are stored in a different Content
Manager repository. For that requirement, we use Content Federation Services
to integrate the claim repository with the insurance policy repository.
Users must be able to provide casual information around the documents, such as
comments, or highlight a specific portion of a document that contains critical
information. For that capability, we use Content Manager annotations over the
documents.

Chapter 13. IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions
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When the claim is closed in the Claim Management System, a notification needs
to be sent to trigger a retention for the claim documents. For that requirement, we
use the IBM Enterprise Records features and APIs.
13.2.3 SAP invoice archiving use case
This use case covers the paper invoice data extraction and archiving. The
accounts payable department needs to process many paper invoices, update the
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system and control the invoice processing.
Paper invoices that are sent to the accounts payable department need to be
scanned, the information needs to be extracted, and an update must be made to
the SAP system with the information on the paper invoice. Furthermore, the
scanned image needs to be associated with the corresponding SAP transaction
for auditing reasons. The example is illustrated in Figure 13-5 on page 456.
This use case has the following requirements:
Scanning paper documents.
Data extraction from scanned documents.
Extracted data must be validated against the SAP system.
Data must be confirmed by authorized employees of the accounts payable
department.
A record of the invoice must be created on the SAP system and the scanned
document must be associated with the SAP record.
The scanned image must be available though the SAP system.
Authorized users must be able to search for the invoice document without
having access to the SAP system.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 13-5 SAP invoice archiving use case
Based on the requirements, this use case uses these components:
Foundation components:
– Repositories to store invoice images
– Content Manager security
– Property search
Content ingestion tools:
– Datacap Taskmaster Capture
– IBM Content Collector for SAP
Presentation features
Native content format with Image Viewer Pro, which supports the scanned
image display
Scanner workstations
Imaging Client
Invoice Line Of Business
Application
Scanners
Recognition/
verification
OCR/ICR/OMR –
Indexing
Release to FileNet
Repository
Verify workstations
Create Invoice
IBM Content
Navigator
Manage
Documents
Native Format
Viewer
View and
mark up the
document
More supporting documents
added later and reconciled using
the same property value (example
invoice number)
Fax, File Shares
Document is processed:
∙ Classified
∙ Data extracted
∙ Data looked up
∙ Data verified
∙ Invoice created
∙ Document is released
to repository
∙ Record is created
Search and
retrieve the
documents
Enterprise Content Manager
Repository

Chapter 13. IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions
457
Solution details
Based on requirements, all incoming invoices must be scanned on arrival and
data must be exported from the scanned images. For that requirement, we use
Datacap Task Master scanning and OCR/ICR capabilities.
Exported data must be validated by authorized users and the data accuracy must
be verified. For that requirement, we use Datacap Task Master validation
features.
The scanned images of the invoices must be stored in the Content Manager and
become available to authorized SAP users to link those documents to SAP
transactions. For that requirement, we use IBM Content Collector for SAP, which
provides the functionality for linking Content Manager images to SAP
transactions.
SAP users must be able to view the scanned image of the invoice on the related
SAP transaction. For that requirement, we use IBM Content Collector for SAP
and the native content format viewing presentation feature of Content Manager.
Authorized users must have access to scanned images outside of the SAP
system and must be able to search for those images based on their properties.
For that requirement, we use Content Manager security and search features.
13.2.4 Email capture for compliance use case
This use case covers the email archiving and records management needs of an
organization. Laws in several countries require the preservation, archival, and
eDiscovery of emails that are addressed to an organization. Furthermore, email
archiving helps reduce the storage requirements for the email management
system. This example is illustrated in Figure 13-6 on page 458.

458
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 13-6 Email capture for compliance use case
This use case has the following requirements:
Email to various accounts must be monitored and, based on enterprise rules,
must be stored in an object store.
Based on enterprise rules, a record must be declared, and a retention period
must be defined.
Employees must have access to their archived mail through the mail client.
Authorized employees from other departments, such as the Legal
department, must have access to the archived emails.
Content-based retrievals must be available for locating emails with specific
words in the mail body or on the subject line.
Based on the requirements, this use case uses these components:
Foundation components:
– Object stores
– Storage management
– Content-based searches
– Records management
Email Manager Server
e-mail Server
Collection Rules
Records File Plan
Content Manager
with Records
Manager
2.
Email Manager monitors e-mail journals.
e-mails that match a set of collection rules are
captured. Messages (and any duplicates) are
removed from the e-mail server and replaced by a
link in users’ inboxes. Clicking on the link retrieves
the message from the repository.
Inbox
1.
Effective e-mail
management involves
declaring e-mail content as
business records.
3.
e-mails are declared as
records and placed in the
records file plan where they are
managed by record retention
rules.

Chapter 13. IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions
459
Content ingestion
IBM Content Collector for Email
Solution details
According to the requirements, mail to specific accounts or mail that meets a rule
(for example, contains the word “proposal”) needs to be stored in an object store.
For that requirement, we use IBM Content Collector for Email. It monitors
mailboxes, retrieves email based on business rules, and stores it in an object
store.
Some of the emails that are considered special based on business rules are
declared as records by using IBM Enterprise Records. Emails are associated
with a retention period based on legislative requirements.
Users must be able to see the emails and their attachments in their mail clients,
but the content must be stored in an object store. For that requirement, we use
the stubbing capabilities of IBM Content Collector for Email. With that capability,
the original content of the email is removed from the email server and is replaced
by a stub that points to the object store where the content is stored.
For the emails that are not declared as records, content deduplication and
content compression are needed, specifically when an email with a large
attachment is sent to multiple recipients within the organization. For that
requirement, we use the content deduplication and content compression feature
of P8 Content Manager.
Authorized users must have access to those emails and attachments that are
declared as records outside the mail clients of the user. In order to locate specific
emails and attachments, searches within the content are required. The searches
must be implemented by using the CBR capabilities of P8 Content Manager.
13.2.5 Knowledge management through collaboration use case
This use case covers the collaboration between authors and experts for the
development of an organization’s training material and the collaboration between
trainees for content recommendation, tagging, and recommendations. Training
material has to be prepared by an author and published to a social community of
subject matter experts (SMEs). Using the social features of P8 Content Manager,
the SME and content authors collaborate and share ideas and comments for the
finalization of the training material. When the training material is finalized, it
becomes available to the communities in which the trainees participate. In those
user communities, trainees can add and view comments and download counts
and recommendations from other members of that community. This example is
illustrated in Figure 13-7 on page 460.

460
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Figure 13-7 Knowledge management through collaboration use case
This use case has the following requirements:
Support is needed for multiple versions of the content.
Content must be published on the IBM Connections communities.
Users must be able to put comments, recommendations, and tags on the
content and download it.
Users must be able to follow the content and get updated versions or
comments over the content.
Activity feeds over the content must be available to users.
The recommendation counts and download counts must be available to the
community users.
Based on the requirements, this use case uses these components:
Foundation components:
– Content repositories
– Versioning
– Social ECM features
Solution details
Based on the requirements, users must be able to create different types of
training material from Microsoft Word and PDF to video and audio files and store
them in Content Manager. For that requirement, we use the versions and folders
capabilities.
Repository
0.2
1.0
1. Author creates
content and
publishes it to the
repository
2. Document is published
on IBM Connections
Community for SME review.
3. Comments and
suggestions are on IBM
Connections Community
and final version of
content is created.
4. New version of the
content is published to
the repository.
5. Document is published
on IBM Connections
Community for trainees.
6. Community members
are collaborating over
the training material.
Communities
Files
IBM Connections
Communities
Files
IBM Connections

Chapter 13. IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions
461
After storing the content, it must be published in an IBM Connections community
with SMEs for review and collaboration. The SMEs can create new versions of
the content, write comments on it, and follow the content activity. By using the
collaboration capabilities of Content Manager, a final version of the content is
produced.
When the final version of the training material is available, that material must be
published on an IBM Connections community where users that are members of
that community can view and download the content. For that requirement, we
use the Content Manager large content streaming capabilities.
Members of the community must be able to tag content and provide comments
and recommendations. Also, they need to be able to “follow” the content when it
is updated, view activity feeds on that content, and view download counts and
recommendation counts. For that requirement, we use the Content Manager
Social ECM capabilities.
13.3 Conclusion
In this chapter, we described the main solution building blocks of an ECM
system. We described features and characteristics of Content Manager and
add-ons that can be used for the implementation of a huge range of applications
from small departmental applications to large Enterprise Content Management
applications that cross the boundaries of many departments. As a reference, we
used these solution building blocks for the implementation of the five use cases
that we introduced in Chapter 2, “Solution examples and design methodology” on
page 17.

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008, 2013. All rights reserved.
463
Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a
more detailed discussion of the topics covered in this book.
IBM Redbooks
The following IBM Redbooks publications provide additional information about
the topic in this document. Note that some publications referenced in this list
might be available in softcopy only.
IBM FileNet P8 Platform and Architecture, SG24-7667
Introducing IBM FileNet Business Process Manager, SG24-7509 (the product
is currently known as IBM Case Foundation)
Advanced Case Management with IBM Case Manager, SG24-7929
IBM Content Analytics Version 2.2: Discovering Actionable Insight from Your
Content, SG24-7877
Disaster Recovery and Backup Solutions for IBM FileNet P8 Version 4.5.1
Systems, SG24-7744
Federated Content Management: Accessing Content from Disparate
Repositories with IBM Content Federation Services and IBM Content
Integrator, SG24-7742
IBM High Availability Solution for IBM FileNet P8 Systems, SG24-7700
Understanding IBM FileNet Records Manager, SG24-7623
You can search for, view, download or order these documents and other
Redbooks, Redpapers, Web Docs, draft and additional materials, at the following
website:
ibm.com/redbooks

464
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
Online resources
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
IBM FileNet Content Manager support website:
http://www.ibm.com/software/data/content-management/filenet-content-
manager/support.html
IBM FileNet P8 Version 5.2 Information Center:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp
URL links to Version 5.1 of the IBM FileNet P8 Information Center:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/
v5r1m0
/index.jsp?topic=/co
m.ibm.p8toc.doc/ic-homepage.html
URL links to Version 5.2 of the IBM FileNet P8 Information Center:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/
v5r2m0
/index.jsp?topic=/co
m.ibm.p8toc.doc/ic-homepage.html
Product documentation for IBM FileNet P8 Platform:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=86&uid=swg27036917
IBM FileNet Hardware and Software Requirements guide:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=3278&uid=swg27013654
FileNet P8 Fix Pack Compatibility Matrices:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=3278&uid=swg27014734
IBM FileNet Content Manager Fix Central - Provides available fixes:
http://www.ibm.com/support/fixcentral
Information Center - Installation:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.ins
tall.doc/p8pti000.htm
Information Center - Supported upgrade paths:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fc
om.ibm.p8.planprepare.doc%2Fp8ppu097.htm
Information Center - Database administration installation tasks:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fc
om.ibm.p8.planprepare.doc%2Fp8ppi084.htm
Information Center - Planning and preparation for upgrade and migration:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fc
om.ibm.p8toc.doc%2Fplanning.htm

Related publications
465
White Paper - IBM FileNet P8 Platform Installation and Upgrade Best
Practices:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27010422
White Paper - Simultaneously Upgrading and Migrating Content Engine:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21455046
White Paper - Best Practices for FileNet P8 3.5.2 to P8 4.5.1.2 Upgrade with
Replatforming (Windows to UNIX):
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21428743
White Paper - What adjustments can I make to FileNet Content Engine (CE)
Automatic Upgrade:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21428407
Information Center - General troubleshooting:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.ecm.co
mmon.ic.doc/troubleshoot_main.htm
IBM developerWorks article, “Things you can do now for quicker and more
effective way of troubleshooting”:
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/websphere/techjournal/0708_supauth
/0708_supauth.html
Information Center - Ports information:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.pla
nprepare.doc/p8pap058.htm
Information Center - Directory service requirements information:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fc
om.ibm.p8.security.doc%2Fp8psd000.htm
Information Center - Exception and logging concepts:
– http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.ce
.dev.ce.doc/exception_concepts.htm
– http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.ce
.dev.ce.doc/logging_concepts.htm
You can obtain technical notices from the previous product documentation
website (in the Technical Notices section):
– IBM FileNet P8 Performance Tuning Guide
– IBM FileNet P8 High Availability Technical Notice
– IBM FileNet Content Engine Query Performance Optimization Guidelines
Technical Notice

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
– IBM FileNet Application Engine Files and Registry Keys Technical Notice
– IBM FileNet P8 Asynchronous Rules Technical Notice
– IBM FileNet Content Engine Component Security Technical Notice
– IBM FileNet P8 Directory Service Migration Guide
– IBM FileNet P8 Disaster Recovery Technical Notice
– IBM FileNet P8 Extensible Authentication Guide
– IBM FileNet P8 Process Task Manager Advanced Usage Technical Notice
– IBM FileNet P8 Recommendations for Handling Large Numbers of Folders
and Objects Technical Notice
– IBM FileNet P8 DB2 Large Object (LOB) Data Type Conversion Procedure
Technical Notice
Although several technical notices were written for the 3.5 version, much of
the content provided is useful for Version 4.0 as well.
Administering Content Platform Engine – “Sharing Data Sources” and
“Creating a Database Connection” topics:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fc
om.ibm.p8.ce.admin.tasks.doc%2Fp8pcb027.htm
Content storage management and storage farming IBM developerWorks
article:
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/data/library/techarticle/dm-1003fi
lenetstoragemanagement/index.html
Inheritance proxies and various ways of getting this done:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21425080
IBM FileNet P8 Performance Tuning Guide - Provides information about
tuning parameters that can help improve the performance of your IBM FileNet
P8 system:
ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/software/data/cm/filenet/docs/p8doc/50x/p
850_performance_tuning.pdf
IBM FileNet P8 Performance Tuning - There are several pages that provide
additional information for improving the performance of IBM FileNet P8
components:
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/p8docs/v5r2m0/topic/com.ibm.p8.per
formance.doc/p8ppt000.htm
Proven Practice: IBM FileNet Deployment Manager 5.1 Data Migrations:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21609929

Related publications
467
Migrating IBM Case Manager solutions using FileNet Deployment Manager
and Case Manager Administration Client (is valid also for FileNet Content
Manager only):
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21612959
Impact of a FileNet Deployment Manager import using the “Update If Newer”
option without the “Use Original Create/Update Timestamps” option:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21455363
FileNet Deployment Manager fails to import the documents of a given version
series if one of those documents references an object that appears after the
document in the deploy dataset (explanation of object hierarchy):
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27020038
MustGather: FileNet Deployment Manager (FDM):
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21502186
IBM System Dashboard guide:
http://www.ibm.com/e-business/linkweb/publications/servlet/pbi.wss?C
TY=US&FNC=SRX&PBL=SC19-3084-03
IBM System Dashboard client API information:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21502836
IBM System Dashboard Usage Reporter:
http://publibfp.dhe.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/c1930850.pdf
IBM ECM System Monitor information:
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/us/en/ecmsystemmonitor
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27010374
IBM Case Manager product information:
http://www.ibm.com/software/advanced-case-management/case-manager
IBM Rational product line information:
http://www.ibm.com/software/rational
IBM Connections for social media information:
http://www.ibm.com/software/lotus/products/connections
IBM InfoSphere Optim Data Lifecycle Management Solutions information:
http://www.ibm.com/software/data/optim

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IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best Practices and Recommendations
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(1.0” spine)
0.875”<->1.498”
460 <-> 788 pages
IBM FileNet Content Manager Implementation Best
Practices and Recommendations



®
SG24-7547-01 ISBN 073843812X
INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL
SUPPORT
ORGANIZATION
BUILDING TECHNICAL
INFORMATION BASED ON
PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE

IBM Redbooks are developed by
the IBM International Technical
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from IBM, Customers and
Partners from around the world
create timely technical
information based on realistic
scenarios. Specific
recommendations are provided
to help you implement IT
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®
IBM FileNet Content Manager
Implementation Best Practices
and Recommendations
System architecture,
business continuity,
and capacity
planning
Repository, security,
application design,
and solution building
Deployment, system
administration, and
maintenance
IBM FileNet Content Manager Version 5.2 provides full content lifecycle and
extensive document management capabilities for digital content. IBM FileNet
Content Manager is tightly integrated with the family of IBM FileNet products
based on the IBM FileNet P8 technical platform. IBM FileNet Content Manager
serves as the core content management, security management, and storage
management engine for the products.
This IBM Redbooks publication covers the implementation best practices and
recommendations for solutions that use IBM FileNet Content Manager. It
introduces the functions and features of IBM FileNet Content Manager,
common use cases of the product, and a design methodology that provides
implementation guidance from requirements analysis through production use
of the solution. We address administrative topics of an IBM FileNet Content
Manager solution, including deployment, system administration and
maintenance, and troubleshooting.
Implementation topics include system architecture design with various
options for scaling an IBM FileNet Content Manager system, capacity
planning, and design of repository design logical structure, security practices,
and application design. An important implementation topic is business
continuity. We define business continuity, high availability, and disaster
recovery concepts and describe options for those when implementing IBM
FileNet Content Manager solutions.
Many solutions are essentially a combination of information input (ingestion),
storage, information processing, and presentation and delivery. We discuss
some solution building blocks that designers can combine to build an IBM
FileNet Content Manager solution.
This book is intended to be used in conjunction with product manuals and
online help to provide guidance to architects and designers about
implementing IBM FileNet Content Manager solutions. Many of the features
and practices described in the book also apply to previous versions of IBM
FileNet Content Manager.

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